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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346588/genome-sequencing-of-museum-specimens-reveals-rapid-changes-in-the-genetic-composition-of-honey-bees-in-california
#1
Julie M Cridland, Santiago R Ramirez, Cheryl A Dean, Amber Sciligo, Neil D Tsutsui
The western honey bee, Apis mellifera, is an enormously influential pollinator in both natural and managed ecosystems. In North America, this species has been introduced numerous times from a variety of different source populations in Europe and Africa. Since then, feral populations have expanded into many different environments across their broad introduced range. Here, we used whole genome sequencing of historical museum specimens and newly collected modern populations from California (USA) to analyze the impact of demography and selection on introduced populations during the past 105 years...
January 15, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345117/candida-auris-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-current-updates-on-an-emerging-multidrug-resistant-pathogen
#2
John Osei Sekyere
From 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a multidrug-resistant ascomycete yeast pathogen with the capacity for easy transmission between patients and hospitals, as well as persistence on environmental surfaces. Its association with high mortalities, breakthrough and persistent candidaemia, inconsistencies in susceptibility testing results, misidentification by available commercial identification systems and treatment failure, complicates its management and detection. Within the last nine years, C. auris has been increasingly reported from far-Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, South and North America with substantial fatalities and misidentification...
January 18, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339468/molecular-epidemiology-reveals-the-role-of-war-in-the-spread-of-hiv-in-ukraine
#3
Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Mariia Liulchuk, Samuel R Friedman, Iana Sazonova, Nuno R Faria, Aris Katzourakis, Nataliia Babii, Alla Scherbinska, Julien Thézé, Oliver G Pybus, Pavlo Smyrnov, Jean L Mbisa, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Angelos Hatzakis, Gkikas Magiorkinis
Ukraine has one of the largest HIV epidemics in Europe, historically driven by people who inject drugs (PWID). The epidemic showed signs of stabilization in 2012, but the recent war in eastern Ukraine may be reigniting virus spread. We investigated the movement of HIV-infected people within Ukraine before and during the conflict. We analyzed HIV-1 subtype-A pol nucleotide sequences sampled during 2012-2015 from 427 patients of 24 regional AIDS centers and used phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct virus movement among different locations in Ukraine...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335330/stroke-incidence-and-outcomes-in-northeastern-greece-the-evros-stroke-registry
#4
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Athanasia Patousi, Maria Pikilidou, Theodosis Birbilis, Aristeidis H Katsanos, Michalis Mantatzis, Aristeidis Asimis, Nikolaos Papanas, Panagiotis Skendros, Aikaterini Terzoudi, Aikaterini Karamanli, Ioannis Kouroumichakis, Pantelis Zebekakis, Efstratios Maltezos, Charitomeni Piperidou, Konstantinos Vadikolias, Ioannis Heliopoulos
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data are scarce on both stroke incidence rates and outcomes in Greece and in rural areas in particular. We performed a prospective population-based study evaluating the incidence of first-ever stroke in the Evros prefecture, a region of a total 147 947 residents located in North Eastern Greece. METHODS: Adult patients with first-ever stroke were registered during a 24-month period (2010-2012) and followed up for 12 months. To compare our stroke incidence with that observed in other studies, we standardized our incidence rate data according to the European Standard Population, World Health Organization, and Segi population...
January 15, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331892/dynamic-probabilistic-material-flow-analysis-of-nano-sio2-nano-iron-oxides-nano-ceo2-nano-al2o3-and-quantum-dots-in-seven-european-regions
#5
Yan Wang, Bernd Nowack
Static environmental exposure assessment models based on material flow analysis (MFA) have previously been used to estimate flows of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to the environment. However, such models do not account for changes in the system behavior over time. Dynamic MFA used in this study includes the time-dependent development of the modelling system by considering accumulation of ENMs in stocks and the environment, and the dynamic release of ENMs from nano-products. In addition, this study also included regional variations in population, waste management systems, and environmental compartments, which subsequently influence the environmental release and concentrations of ENMs...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325943/neurosurgical-care-availability-and-access-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#6
Maria Punchak, Swagoto Mukhopadhyay, Sonal Sachdev, Ya-Ching Hung, Sophie Peeters, Abbas Rattani, Michael Dewan, Walter D Johnson, Kee B Park
BACKGROUND: An estimated 5 billion people worldwide lack access to basic surgical care. In particular, the vast majority of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) currently struggle to provide adequate neurosurgical services. Significant barriers exist, including limited access to trained medical, nursing and allied health staff, lack of equipment, and availability of services at reasonable distance and at reasonable cost to patients. An accurate assessment of current neurosurgical capacity in LIMCs is an essential first step in tackling this deficit...
January 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325554/an-analysis-of-the-global-pharmacy-workforce-capacity-trends-from-2006-to-2012
#7
Ian Bates, Christopher John, Priyanka Seegobin, Andreia Bruno
BACKGROUND: Human resources for health are at a critical low. The World Health Organization estimates that the current shortage of health workers, including pharmacists, is in excess of 7.2 million worldwide and that, by 2035, the shortage will reach 12.9 million. Pharmacists, in particular, are lacking in the workforce in many countries. The International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) and academic partners have conducted periodic global pharmacy workforce surveys in 2006, 2009 and 2012 which have monitored and reported on the status of the pharmacy workforce at the country and territory levels...
January 11, 2018: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324975/strong-population-bottleneck-and-repeated-demographic-expansions-of-populus-adenopoda-salicaceae-in-subtropical-china
#8
Liqiang Fan, Honglei Zheng, Richard I Milne, Lei Zhang, Kangshan Mao
Background and Aims: Glacial refugia and inter-/postglacial recolonization routes during the Quaternary of tree species in Europe and North America are well understood, but far less is known about those of tree species in subtropical eastern Asia. Thus, we have examined the phylogeographic history of Populus adenopoda (Salicaceae), one of the few poplars that naturally occur in this subtropical area. Methods: Genetic variations across the range of the species in subtropical China were surveyed using ten nuclear microsatellite loci and four chloroplast fragments (matK, trnG-psbK, psbK-psbI and ndhC-trnV)...
January 6, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324738/population-structure-analysis-of-the-neglected-parasite-thelazia-callipaeda-revealed-high-genetic-diversity-in-eastern-asia-isolates
#9
Xi Zhang, Ya Li Shi, Lu Lu Han, Chen Xiong, Shi Qi Yi, Peng Jiang, Zeng Xian Wang, Ji Long Shen, Jing Cui, Zhong Quan Wang
BACKGROUND: Thelazia callipaeda is the causative agent of thelaziasis in canids, felids and humans. However, the population genetic structure regarding this parasite remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we first explored the genetic variation of 32 T. callipaeda clinical isolates using the following multi-molecular markers: cox1, cytb, 12S rDNA, ITS1 and 18S rDNA. The isolates were collected from 13 patients from 11 geographical locations in China...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321628/realizing-mitigation-efficiency-of-european-commercial-forests-by-climate-smart-forestry
#10
Rasoul Yousefpour, Andrey Lessa Derci Augustynczik, Christopher P O Reyer, Petra Lasch-Born, Felicitas Suckow, Marc Hanewinkel
European temperate and boreal forests sequester up to 12% of Europe's annual carbon emissions. Forest carbon density can be manipulated through management to maximize its climate mitigation potential, and fast-growing tree species may contribute the most to Climate Smart Forestry (CSF) compared to slow-growing hardwoods. This type of CSF takes into account not only forest resource potentials in sequestering carbon, but also the economic impact of regional forest products and discounts both variables over time...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317811/geographical-distribution-of-copd-prevalence-in-europe-estimated-by-an-inverse-distance-weighting-interpolation-technique
#11
Ignacio Blanco, Isidro Diego, Patricia Bueno, Eloy Fernández, Francisco Casas-Maldonado, Cristina Esquinas, Joan B Soriano, Marc Miravitlles
Existing data on COPD prevalence are limited or totally lacking in many regions of Europe. The geographic information system inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique has proved to be an effective tool in spatial distribution estimation of epidemiological variables, when real data are few and widely separated. Therefore, in order to represent cartographically the prevalence of COPD in Europe, an IDW interpolation mapping was performed. The point prevalence data provided by 62 studies from 19 countries (21 from 5 Northern European countries, 11 from 3 Western European countries, 14 from 5 Central European countries, and 16 from 6 Southern European countries) were identified using validated spirometric criteria...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317016/important-changes-in-the-timing-of-influenza-epidemics-in-the-who-european-region-over-the-past-20-years-virological-surveillance-1996-to-2016
#12
Saverio Caini, François Schellevis, Clotilde El-Guerche Séblain, John Paget
IntroductionThe global epidemiology of many infectious diseases is changing, but little attention has been paid to whether the timing of seasonal influenza epidemics changed in recent years. This study investigated whether the timing of the peak of influenza epidemics has changed in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region between 1996 and 2016. 
Methods: Surveillance data were obtained from the WHO FluNet database. For each country and season (July to June of the next year), the peak was defined as the week with the highest 3-week moving average for reported cases...
January 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313244/meningoencephaloradiculitis-following-infection-with-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Stephanie Du Four, Rembert Mertens, Wietse Wiels, Jacques De Keyser, Veronique Bissay, Anja Flamez
Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infectious zoonotic disease caused by an RNA virus that is endemic to Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and large parts of Asia. The tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is transmitted through the saliva of infected ticks and infected goat milk. In the vast majority of cases, an infection with TBEV has a subclinical course. However, in some cases, it leads to neurological symptoms due to meningitis, meningoencephalitis, meningoencephalomyelitis, or meningoencephaloradiculitis...
January 8, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306786/differences-in-risk-behaviours-and-hiv-status-between-primary-amphetamines-and-opioid-injectors-in-estonia-and-russia
#14
Isabel Tavitian-Exley, Mathieu Maheu-Giroux, Lucy Platt, Robert Heimer, Anneli Uusküla, Olga Levina, Peter Vickerman, Marie-Claude Boily
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: People who inject drugs (PWID) account for over half of new HIV infections in Eastern Europe and central Asia, where opioids continue to be the dominant illicit drugs injected. Stimulants including amphetamines (ATS) have been associated with HIV infection risk in several settings. We sought to examine whether primary ATS injection was associated with greater HIV risk, compared to opioid injection in two European locales with significant HIV epidemics. METHODS: PWID in Kohtla-Järve and St...
January 4, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306479/site-enrollment-rate-outcomes-and-study-drug-effects-in-a-multicenter-trial-results-from-relax-ahf
#15
Marco Metra, Beth A Davison, Claudio Gimpelewicz, Valentina Carubelli, G Michael Felker, Gerasimos Filippatos, Barry H Greenberg, Tsushung A Hua, Zoe Liu, Peter S Pang, Piotr Ponikowski, Thomas M Severin, Adriaan A Voors, Yi Wang, Gad Cotter, John R Teerlink
BACKGROUND: Site selection is critical in acute heart failure trials. We assessed whether the enrollment rate per site affects patients' characteristics, outcomes and treatment response. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1161 patients enrolled at 96 sites in the RELAX-AHF trial (serelaxin vs placebo) were included. Annualized enrollment rate was calculated as the total number of patients enrolled at each site divided by time that the site was open (patients per year)...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303483/uptake-of-tenofovir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-hbv-coinfected-patients-in-the-eurosida-study
#16
Lars Peters, Amanda Mocroft, Daniel Grint, Santiago Moreno, Alexandra Calmy, Djordje Jevtovic, Helen Sambatakou, Karine Lacombe, Stephane De Wit, Jürgen Rockstroh, Jelena Smidt, Igor Karpov, Anna Grzeszczuk, Vesnadarjan Haziosmanovic, Magnus Gottfredsson, Roxana Radoi, Elena Kuzovatova, Chloe Orkin, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Jose Zapirain, Jens Lundgren
BACKGROUND: According to guidelines all HIV/HBV co-infected patients should receive tenofovir-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We aimed to investigate uptake and outcomes of tenofovir-based cART among HIV/HBV patients in the EuroSIDA study. METHODS: All HBsAg+ patients followed up after 1 March 2002 were included. Changes in the proportion taking tenofovir-based cART over time were described. Poisson regression was used to investigate the relationship between tenofovir use and clinical events...
January 5, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298317/the-first-record-of-albanerpetontid-amphibians-amphibia-albanerpetontidae-from-east-asia
#17
Ryoko Matsumoto, Susan E Evans
Albanerpetontids are an enigmatic fossil amphibian group known from deposits of Middle Jurassic to Pliocene age. The oldest and youngest records are from Europe, but the group appeared in North America in the late Early Cretaceous and radiated there during the Late Cretaceous. Until now, the Asian record has been limited to fragmentary specimens from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan. This led to speculation that albanerpetontids migrated into eastern Asia from North America in the Albian to Cenomanian interval via the Beringian land bridge...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297395/between-lake-baikal-and-the-baltic-sea-genomic-history-of-the-gateway-to-europe
#18
Petr Triska, Nikolay Chekanov, Vadim Stepanov, Elza K Khusnutdinova, Ganesh Prasad Arun Kumar, Vita Akhmetova, Konstantin Babalyan, Eugenia Boulygina, Vladimir Kharkov, Marina Gubina, Irina Khidiyatova, Irina Khitrinskaya, Ekaterina E Khrameeva, Rita Khusainova, Natalia Konovalova, Sergey Litvinov, Andrey Marusin, Alexandr M Mazur, Valery Puzyrev, Dinara Ivanoshchuk, Maria Spiridonova, Anton Teslyuk, Svetlana Tsygankova, Martin Triska, Natalya Trofimova, Edward Vajda, Oleg Balanovsky, Ancha Baranova, Konstantin Skryabin, Tatiana V Tatarinova, Egor Prokhortchouk
BACKGROUND: The history of human populations occupying the plains and mountain ridges separating Europe from Asia has been eventful, as these natural obstacles were crossed westward by multiple waves of Turkic and Uralic-speaking migrants as well as eastward by Europeans. Unfortunately, the material records of history of this region are not dense enough to reconstruct details of population history. These considerations stimulate growing interest to obtain a genetic picture of the demographic history of migrations and admixture in Northern Eurasia...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297093/gis-based-environmental-analysis-of-fox-and-canine-lungworm-distribution-an-epidemiological-study-of-angiostrongylus-vasorum-and-crenosoma-vulpis-in-red-foxes-from-slovakia
#19
Viktória Čabanová, Martina Miterpáková, Michal Druga, Zuzana Hurníková, Daniela Valentová
Over a period of intervening years, the distribution of two canine cardiopulmonary metastrongylid nematodes, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, has been recognised in Central Europe. Here, we report the first epidemiological research conducted in red foxes from Slovakia and the potential influence of selected environmental variables on the parasites' occurrence, quantified by logistic regression. The environmental models revealed that distribution of C. vulpis is not significantly influenced by any environmental variables, and the parasite is present in the whole area under study...
January 3, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290300/monitoring-for-the-possible-introduction-of-crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever-virus-in-italy-based-on-tick-sampling-on-migratory-birds-and-serological-survey-of-sheep-flocks
#20
Claudio De Liberato, Raffaele Frontoso, Adele Magliano, Alessandro Montemaggiori, Gian Luca Autorino, Marcello Sala, Andrew Bosworth, Maria Teresa Scicluna
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, is caused by a tibovirus (CCHFV) transmitted in particular by the Hyalomma genus of the Ixodidae family that can remain attached to the host for up to 26days, which in case of migratory birds allows long distance carriage. Although CCHF in domestic ruminants is usually subclinical, they may become reservoirs and act as sentinels for the introduction and/or circulation of CCHFV. In this study, possible CCHFV introduction and circulation in Italy were monitored by tick sampling on migratory birds and by a serosurvey conducted on sheep...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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