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eastern Europe

Benjamin B Massenburg, Hillary E Jenny, Saurabh Saluja, John G Meara, Mark G Shrime, Nivaldo Alonso
BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) is estimated to occur in 1 out of every 700 births, but for many people residing in low- and middle-income countries this deformity may be repaired late in life or not at all. This study aims to analyze worldwide provider-perceived barriers to the surgical repair of CLP in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: From 2011 to 2014, Smile Train distributed a multiple-choice, voluntary survey to healthcare providers to identify areas of need in CLP care worldwide...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Yoshiaki Tsuda, Vladimir Semerikov, Federico Sebastiani, Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin, Martin Lascoux
Boreal and cool temperate forests are the major land cover of northern Eurasia and information about continental-scale genetic structure and past demographic history of forest species is important from an evolutionary perspective and has conservation implications. However, although many population genetics studies of forest tree species have been conducted in Europe or Eastern Asia, continental-scale genetic structure and past demographic history remain poorly known. Here, we focus on the birch genus Betula, which is commonly distributed in boreal and cool temperate forests, and examine 129 populations of 2 tetraploid and 4 diploid species collected from Iceland to Japan...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Sheena Mary McCormack, Veronica Noseda, Jean-Michel Molina
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to the global trend showing a decline in new HIV infections, the number reported in the World Health Organization (WHO) region of Europe is increasing. Health systems are disparate, but even countries with free access to screening and treatment observe continuing high rates of new infections in key populations, notably men who have sex with men (MSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is only available in France. This commentary describes the European epidemics and healthcare settings where PrEP could be delivered, how need might be estimated for MSM and the residual barriers to access...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Heather Bailey, Anna Turkova, Claire Thorne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) has experienced large-scale epidemics of syphilis, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV over the past few decades. Here, we review recent evidence on the epidemiology of and the response to these intersecting epidemics. RECENT FINDINGS: The HIV epidemic in EECA continues to expand, with new infections increasing by more than 50% between 2010 and 2015. HCV is now in the top 10 causes of death in EECA, with Russia accounting for more than half of the global burden of HCV infections, but access to direct-acting antivirals remains a major obstacle for control of the epidemic...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Hiroshi Itoh
Many hypertension guidelines have been published mainly from Western countries to standardize the management of hypertension all over the world, however, the significance of hypertension, along with other cardio-metabolic risks, such as obesity, diabetes or dyslipidemia should differ among different races. This paper compares the relevance of hypertension, one of the most important cardio-metabolic risk factors, in Asian and Western societies.1) Low target level of blood pressure control for diabetic hypertensives in JapanIn the Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the management of Hypertension (JSH2014), the target of blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive patients with diabetes was set as < 130/80 mmHg...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Peter Nilsson
During more than 50 years the high cardiovascular risk in Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union, now Russia, has been described as very high. This is based on epidemiological findings from countries and regions, for example within the MONICA study as organized by the WHO. One common explanation is that this is influenced by an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile including high prevalence rates of hypertension in many subjects, in combination with unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, diet) and stressful social conditions, including health care gaps...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Arnolfo Petruzziello, Samantha Marigliano, Giovanna Loquercio, Carmela Cacciapuoti
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health burden in Europe, causing an increasing level of liver-related morbidity and mortality, characterized by several regional variations in the genotypes distribution. A comprehensive review of the literature from 2000 to 2015 was used to gather country-specific data on prevalence and genotype distribution of HCV infection in 33 European countries (about 80 % of the European population), grouped in three geographical areas (Western, Eastern and Central Europe), as defined by the Global Burden of Diseases project (GBD)...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Zhen Wang, Rong-Hui Xia, Dong-Xia Ye, Jiang Li
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, p53 expression, and TP53 mutations in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and determine their utility as prognostic predictors in a primarily eastern Chinese population. METHODS: The HPV infection status was tested via p16INK4A immunohistochemistry and validated using PCR, reverse blot hybridization and in situ hybridization (ISH) in 188 OPSCC samples...
2016: PloS One
Kathy A Møen, Bernadette Kumar, Samera Qureshi, Esperanza Diaz
The prevalence of cervical cancer is high among some groups of immigrants. Although there is evidence of low participation in cervical cancer screening programs among immigrants, studies have been subject to selection bias and accounted for few immigrant groups. The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of several groups of immigrants versus nonimmigrants attending the cervical cancer-screening program in Norway. In addition, we aimed to study predictors for attendance to the screening program. Register-based study using merged data from four national registries...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Michael R Bristow, Jorge Silva Enciso, Bernard J Gersh, Christine Grady, Madeline Murguia Rice, Steven Singh, George Sopko, Robin Boineau, Yves Rosenberg, Barry H Greenberg
TOPCAT was a multinational clinical trial of 3,445 heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) patients that enrolled in 233 sites in six countries in North America, Eastern Europe and South America. Patients with a heart failure hospitalization in the last 12 months or an elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were randomized to the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone vs. placebo. Sites in Russia and the Republic of Georgia provided the majority of early enrollment, primarily based on the hospitalization criterion since BNP levels were initially unavailable there...
April 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
János Jakucs, Eszter Bánffy, Krisztián Oross, Vanda Voicsek, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Elaine Dunbar, Bernd Kromer, Alex Bayliss, Daniela Hofmann, Peter Marshall, Alasdair Whittle
Perhaps nowhere in European prehistory does the idea of clearly-defined cultural boundaries remain more current than in the initial Neolithic, where the southeast-northwest trend of the spread of farming crosses what is perceived as a sharp divide between the Balkans and central Europe. This corresponds to a distinction between the Vinča culture package, named for a classic site in Serbia, with its characteristic pottery assemblage and absence of longhouses, and the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), with equally diagnostic but different pottery, and its apparently culturally-diagnostic longhouses, extending in a more northerly belt through central Europe westward to the Dutch coast...
2016: Journal of World Prehistory
Hannes Schuler, Peter Kern, Wolfgang Arthofer, Heidrun Vogt, Maximilian Fischer, Christian Stauffer, Markus Riegler
The eastern cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest of cherries in North America. In 1983 it was first reported in Europe where it shares its ecological niche with the native European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi L. (Diptera: Tephritidae). Their coexistence in Europe led to the recent horizontal transmission of the Wolbachia strain wCer1 from R. cerasi to R. cingulata Horizontal Wolbachia transmission is mediated by either sharing of ecological niches or by interacting species such as parasitoids...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Marios K Georgakis, Maria A Karalexi, Eleni I Kalogirou, Anton Ryzhov, Anna Zborovskaya, Nadya Dimitrova, Sultan Eser, Luis Antunes, Mario Sekerija, Tina Zagar, Joana Bastos, Domenic Agius, Margareta Florea, Daniela Coza, Evdoxia Bouka, Charis Bourgioti, Helen Dana, Emmanuel Hatzipantelis, Maria Moschovi, Savvas Papadopoulos, Georgios Sfakianos, Evgenia Papakonstantinou, Sophia Polychronopoulou, Spyros Sgouros, Kalliopi Stefanaki, Eftichia Stiakaki, Katerina Strantzia, Basilios Zountsas, Apostolos Pourtsidis, Eustratios Patsouris, Eleni Th Petridou
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) comprise the most common childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumor. Exploiting registry-based data from Southern and Eastern Europe (SEE) and SEER, US, we opted to examine incidence, time trends, survival and tentative outcome disparities of childhood PA by sociodemographic and clinical features. Childhood PA were retrieved from 12 SEE registries (N = 552; 1983-2014) and SEER (N = 2723; 1973-2012). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were estimated and survival was examined via Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Víctor Daniel Rosenthal, Hail M Al-Abdely, Amani Ali El-Kholy, Safa A Aziz AlKhawaja, Hakan Leblebicioglu, Yatin Mehta, Vineya Rai, Nguyen Viet Hung, Souha Sami Kanj, Mona Foda Salama, Estuardo Salgado-Yepez, Naheed Elahi, Rayo Morfin Otero, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Braulio Matias De Carvalho, Bat Erdene Ider, Dale Fisher, Maria Carmen S G Buenaflor, Michael M Petrov, Ana Marcela Quesada-Mora, Farid Zand, Vaidotas Gurskis, Tanja Anguseva, Aamer Ikram, Daisy Aguilar de Moros, Wieslawa Duszynska, Nepomuceno Mejia, Florin George Horhat, Vladislav Belskiy, Vesna Mioljevic, Gabriela Di Silvestre, Katarina Furova, Gloria Y Ramos-Ortiz, May Osman Gamar Elanbya, Hindra Irawan Satari, Umesh Gupta, Tarek Dendane, Lul Raka, Humberto Guanche-Garcell, Bijie Hu, Denis Padgett, Kushlani Jayatilleke, Najla Ben Jaballah, Eleni Apostolopoulou, Walter Enrique Prudencio Leon, Alejandra Sepulveda-Chavez, Hector Miguel Telechea, Andrew Trotter, Carlos Alvarez-Moreno, Luis Kushner-Davalos
BACKGROUND: We report the results of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from January 2010-December 2015 in 703 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific. METHODS: During the 6-year study period, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection (DA-HAI), we collected prospective data from 861,284 patients hospitalized in INICC hospital ICUs for an aggregate of 3,506,562 days...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Nicole Lukovsky-Akhsanov, M Kelly Keating, Pamela Spivey, George W Lathrop, Nathaniel Powell, Michael L Levin
Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen...
2016: PloS One
Rosa Zampino, Caterina Sagnelli, Adriana Boemio, Evangelista Sagnelli, Nicola Coppola
 Due to virological, host and socio-economic factors, the clinical presentation and treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) differs between developing and developed countries and may differ between one low-income country and another. National healthcare prevention and treatment policies, environmental factors, social habits and personal life-styles all influence HBV transmission and the clinical management and therapy of CHB. These factors can have a strong impact on the natural history of the disease and on Access to treatment and may eventually determine substantial changes in disease progression and the development of serious complications and hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Jenny Knapp, Benoît Combes, Gérald Umhang, Soufiane Aknouche, Laurence Millon
Echinococcus multilocularis, a cestode parasite responsible for alveolar echinococcosis in humans, is often reported in Europe. It involves red foxes, domestic dogs, and domestic and wild cats as definitive hosts. The parasite infects small mammals and accidentally humans as intermediate hosts and develops in a similar way to a tumor, usually in the liver. Domestic animals are suspected of playing a role in parasite transmission, but this is rarely proven. Moreover, the role of domestic cats is thought to be small, because of experimental studies showing incomplete development of the parasite observed in their intestines...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Radu Mircea Neagoe, Mircea Mureșan, Șerban Bancu, Ionuț Balmos, Vasile Băișan, Septimiu Voidăzan, Daniela Sala
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has gained ground in Eastern Europe in the decade but fewer reports of large series with medium-term follow-up exist. We describe a single-surgeon experience in LSG (the first 101 consecutive cases) in a Balkan emerging bariatric center. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database of the initial 101 consecutive patients submitted to LSG in our clinic between October 2010 and February 2016 was reviewed. RESULTS: The percentages of mean excess weight loss (%EWL) in the 101 patients (mean age of 42 ± 10...
October 13, 2016: Obesity Surgery
(no author information available yet)
VOLUNTARY Service Overseas (VSO) is the largest independent volunteer-sending charity in the world. It was started in 1958 and has sent more than 27,000 volunteers to Asia, Africa, the Pacific and eastern Europe in response to requests from VSO's partners, mainly overseas employers.
April 5, 2000: Nursing Standard
Emily Stone, Anil Vachani
The lung cancer epidemic of the twentieth century grew out of increasing tobacco consumption in the first half of that century. Tobacco control policies have been instituted in many high-income countries since the mid-1960s. Since then smoking rates have declined in these countries, particularly in men where lung cancer rates have stabilized. Tobacco control measures are not strong enough in many countries around the world, particularly low and middle income countries in Eastern Europe and Asia. In these countries, smoking rates and lung cancer rates remain high...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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