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intrahospital infections

Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Dora Inés Ríos-Chaparro, Paula Gómez, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Juan David Ramírez
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) leads to the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and a wide range of gastrointestinal pathologies. Currently, CDI is one of the most important opportunistic infections at the intrahospital level and an exponential increase in community-acquired infections has been reported. Herein, we evaluated the relationships (at phylogenetic and genetic population structure levels), as well as the molecular toxigenic and antibiotic resistance profiles of a set of isolates established from a case of community acquired-CDI...
2017: Gut Pathogens
Mohammad Asadzadeh, Suhail Ahmad, Noura Al-Sweih, Ziauddin Khan
Candida albicans, a constituent of normal microbial flora of human mucosal surfaces, is a major cause of candidemia in immunocompromised individuals and hospitalized patients with other debilitating diseases. Molecular fingerprinting studies have suggested nosocomial transmission of C. albicans based on the presence of clusters or endemic genotypes in some hospitals. However, intrahospital strain transmission or a common source of infection has not been firmly established. We performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on 102 C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
I I Berisavac, V V Padjen, M D Ercegovac, Lj G Beslać-Bumbaširević, P Dj Stanarčević, M S Stefanović-Budimkić, M M Radović, D R Jovanović
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) represents a diffuse and/or multifactorial cerebral dysfunction during response to systemic infection. Study aim was to compare clinical and electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics and intrahospital survival rate among SAE patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study, during 42 months' period, included 39 SAE patients assigned in two groups according the outcome (survival: 19, and death: 20 patients). All the patients' features were registered: demography, neurological status, infection type, seizure appearance, brain computerized tomography (CT), EEG, EEG reactivity, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) Score...
September 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Snezana Brkic, Rinaldo Pellicano, Vesna Turkulov, Marija Radovanovic, Ludovico Abenavoli
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) diarrhea is a common, iatrogenic, nosocomial disease with a worldwide diffusion. Recent studies reported that the incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) is rising, due to aging of the population and to greater prevalence of hypervirulent strains. We investigated whether the application of a prevention program lead to a decline in the incidence of intrahospital CDI. METHODS: The study was designed as observational, to compare the efficacy of Schülke preventive program with the standard protocols, in a period of 4 months...
June 2016: Minerva Medica
M A Kornienko, V N Kopyltsov, N V Shevlyagina, L V Didenko, L A Lyubasovskaya, T V Priputnevich, E N Ilina
The urgency of the staphylococcus research is due to its ability to cause severe infections: softtissue infections, endocarditis, sepsis, toxic shock syndrome, and food poisoning. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus is the main infection agent of intrahospital infections. This agent has many factors of pathogenicity, which are well known. Among the coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS) strains, S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis are clinically important, because they cause infections in patients with weak immune system...
2016: Molekuliarnaia Genetika, Mikrobiologiia i Virusologiia
Thomas J Sandora, Monica Fung, Patrice Melvin, Dionne A Graham, Shawn J Rangel
IMPORTANCE: Appropriate use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) reduces surgical site infection rates, but prior data suggest variability in use patterns. OBJECTIVE: To assess national variability and appropriateness of AP in pediatric surgical patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study of 31 freestanding children's hospitals in the United States using administrative data from 2010-2013. The study included 603 734 children younger than 18 years who underwent one of the 45 most commonly performed operations...
June 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Christiane Cuny, Lothar H Wieler, Wolfgang Witte
During the past 25 years an increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) was recorded worldwide. Additionally, MRSA infections may occur outside and independent of hospitals, caused by community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). In Germany, we found that at least 10% of these sporadic infections are due to livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA), which is initially associated with livestock. The majority of these MRSA cases are attributed to clonal complex CC398. LA-MRSA CC398 colonizes the animals asymptomatically in about half of conventional pig farms...
2015: Antibiotics
A M Palshina, I F Bannaev, G A Palshin, S Kh Shamaeva, V N Yadrikhinskaya, A N Komissarov, A G Krivoshapkina
In the structure of intrahospital infections the infections of urinary tract make up from 20 to 40%. This problem represents special medical-social significance for trauma departments as patients with trauma are being in forced situation for along time. 380 patients older than 60 years (average age 73.6 ± 9.2 years) with a fracture of proximal femur against background of the systemic osteoporosis having in-patient treatment in the trauma department of the Republic Hospital No2 were being examined and treated from 2011 to 2013...
2015: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Hansel Gómez-Arámbula, Antonio Hidalgo-Hurtado, Rosaura Rodríguez-Flores, Ana-María González-Amaro, Arturo Garrocho-Rangel, Amaury Pozos-Guillén
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the days of hospitalization length between patients treated with Moxifloxacin with that of patients treated with a Clindamycin/Ceftriaxone combination and additionally, to isolate and identify the oral pathogens involved in orofacial odontogenic infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A pilot-controlled-clinical-trial was carried out on hospitalized patients with cervicofacial odontogenic abscesses or cellulitis, who were randomly asigned to two study groups: 1) patients who received Moxifloxacin, and 2) patients receiving Clindamycin/Ceftriaxone combination...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Ulises Garza-Ramos, Stephania Moreno-Dominguez, Rigoberto Hernández-Castro, Jesús Silva-Sanchez, Humberto Barrios, Fernando Reyna-Flores, Alejandro Sanchez-Perez, Erika M Carrillo-Casas, María Carmen Sanchez-León, David Moncada-Barron
Klebsiella variicola, a bacterium closely genetically related to Klebsiella pneumoniae, is commonly misidentified as K. pneumoniae by biochemical tests. To distinguish between the two bacteria, phylogenetic analysis of the rpoB gene and the identification of unique genes in both bacterial species by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provide the means to reliably identify and genotype K. variicola. In recent years, K. variicola has been described both as the cause of an intrahospital outbreak in a pediatric hospital, which resulted in sepsis in inpatients, and as a frequent cause of bloodstream infections...
April 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Aimee J Sarti, Stephanie Sutherland, Nicholas Robillard, John Kim, Kirsten Dupuis, Mary Thornton, Marlene Mansour, Pierre Cardinal
BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of Ebola has been declared a public health emergency of international concern. We performed a rigorous and rapid needs assessment to identify the desired results, the gaps in current practice, and the barriers and facilitators to the development of solutions in the provision of critical care to patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study with an emergent design at a tertiary hospital in Ontario, Canada, recently designated as an Ebola centre, from Oct...
April 2015: CMAJ Open
Jesús Rojas-Jaimes, Raul Castillo Cordova, Delza Tárraga Gonzales
Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease which can compromise the central nervous system (CNS).We present a case of an immunocompetent 45 year old man from Satipo, Peru who developed paracoccidioidomycosis in the CNS without any apparent point of entry or infection. The patient was diagnosed by imaging with a cerebellar granuloma, followed by a craniotomy where tissue and secretion of the granuloma abscess was obtained. Histological and microbiological diagnoses were performed on the tissue and secretion, respectively...
January 2015: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Roberto Cangemi, Camilla Calvieri, Marco Falcone, Tommaso Bucci, Giuliano Bertazzoni, Maria G Scarpellini, Francesco Barillà, Gloria Taliani, Francesco Violi
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is complicated by cardiac events in the early phase of the disease. Aim of this study was to assess if these intrahospital cardiac complications may account for overall mortality and cardiovascular events occurring during a long-term follow-up. Three hundred one consecutive patients admitted to the University-Hospital, Policlinico Umberto I, with community-acquired pneumonia were prospectively recruited and followed up for a median of 17.4 months. Primary end point was the occurrence of death for any cause, and secondary end point was the occurrence of cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke)...
August 15, 2015: American Journal of Cardiology
Maud Gits-Muselli, Marie-Noelle Peraldi, Nathalie de Castro, Véronique Delcey, Jean Menotti, Nicolas Guigue, Samia Hamane, Emmanuel Raffoux, Anne Bergeron, Sandrine Valade, Jean-Michel Molina, Stéphane Bretagne, Alexandre Alanio
Pneumocystis pneumonia is a severe opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients caused by the unusual fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii. Transmission is airborne, with both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals acting as a reservoir for the fungus. Numerous reports of outbreaks in renal transplant units demonstrate the need for valid genotyping methods to detect transmission of a given genotype. Here, we developed a short tandem repeat (STR)-based molecular typing method for P. jirovecii. We analyzed the P...
2015: PloS One
I V Leshchenko, Z D Bobyleva, N M Trifanova
UNLABELLED: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major challenge facing health service. The aim of this work was to estimate the effectiveness of introduction of Sverdlovsk region territorial CAP standards into clinical practice in 2002-2011. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis included 523 case histories of the patients who diedfrom CAP and 127 one who recovered after treatment (groups 1 and 2 respectively). The primary end-point was general and intrahospital mortality rate, secondary end-points the day of admission to the intensive therapy unit (ITI) and the onset of starting antibiotic therapy (ABT), conformity of ABT to the regional standard...
2014: Klinicheskaia Meditsina
Lidija Popovic-Dragonjic, Maja Jovanovic, Miodrag Vrbic, Velimir Kostic, Natasa Miladinovic-Tasic, Biljana Kocic, Aleksandar Rankovic, Ivan Dragonjic
Anaphylactic shock due to unruptured hydatid cyst is a rare complication of hepatic echinococcosis. Here, we present an unusual case of unruptured hydatid cyst causing anaphylactic shock followed by appendicitis, ileus, and complicated by septic condition due to multiple intrahospital infections. Decision of the surgical cyst removal at the right moment and appropriate antimicrobial treatment are key factors for a positive outcome.
December 2014: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Marco Falcone, Alessandro Russo, Roberto Cangemi, Alessio Farcomeni, Camilla Calvieri, Francesco Barillà, Maria Gabriella Scarpellini, Giuliano Bertazzoni, Paolo Palange, Gloria Taliani, Mario Venditti, Francesco Violi
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is complicated by high rate of mortality and cardiovascular events (CVEs). The potential benefit of aspirin, which lowers platelet aggregation by inhibition of thromboxane A2 production, is still unclear. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of aspirin on mortality in patients with pneumonia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients admitted to the University-Hospital Policlinico Umberto I (Rome, Italy) with community-onset pneumonia were recruited and prospectively followed up until discharge or death...
January 6, 2015: Journal of the American Heart Association
María Guadalupe Frías-de León, Gustavo Acosta-Altamirano, Esperanza Duarte-Escalante, José Enrique Martínez-Hernández, María de Los Ángeles Martínez-Rivera, María Del Rocío Reyes-Montes
Increase in the incidence of invasive aspergillosis has represented a difficult problem for management of patients with this infection due to its high rate of mortality, limited knowledge concerning its diagnosis, and therapeutic practice. The difficulty in management of patients with aspergillosis initiates with detection of the fungus in the specimens of immunosuppressed patients infected with Aspergillus fumigatus; in addition, difficulty exists in terms of the development of resistance to antifungals as a consequence of their indiscriminate use in prophylactic and therapeutic practice and to ignorance concerning the epidemiological data of aspergillosis...
January 2014: Cirugia y Cirujanos
S Wesley Long, Stephen B Beres, Randall J Olsen, James M Musser
Nosocomial transmission of pathogens is a major health care challenge. The increasing spread of antibiotic-resistant strains represents an ongoing threat to public health. Previous Staphylococcus aureus transmission studies have focused on transmission of S. aureus between asymptomatic carriers or used low-resolution typing methods such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST) or spa typing. To identify patient-to-patient intrahospital transmission using high-resolution genetic analysis, we sequenced the genomes of a consecutive set of 398 S...
2014: MBio
Svea Sachse, Stephanie Bresan, Marcel Erhard, Birgit Edel, Wolfgang Pfister, Angela Saupe, Jürgen Rödel
Extended spectrum of β-lactam (ESBL) resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae has become an increasing problem in hospital infections. Typing of isolates is important to establish the intrahospital surveillance of resistant clones. In this study, the discriminatory potential of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analyses were compared with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) by using 17 β-lactam-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates of different genotypes...
December 2014: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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