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Yijie Chen, Yang Yu, Shuya Sun, Zhaotong Wang, Peiqing Liu, Shenglan Liu, Jianmin Jiang
Tumor metastasis is the main reason of death for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Cell migration and invasion are two prerequisites for tumor metastasis, in which TRPM7 and MMPs play an important role. In our study, we found that bradykinin (BK) could upregulate the expression of TRPM7 and dynamically regulate the phosphorylation of non-muscle myosin IIA heavy chain (NMHC-IIA) Ser-1943 in HepG2 cells. The influx of Ca(2+) via TRPM7 was necessary for elevating the activity of m-calpain and μ-calpain...
September 30, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
J C Huang, J Yang, F Huang, M Huang, K J Chen, X L Xu, G H Zhou
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of fast pH decline during the early postmortem period on calpain activity and the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins in broilers. Eighty broilers were randomly categorized into two groups: physical restraint (PR) and free struggle (FS). M. pectoralis major (PM) was used for determination of calpain activity, shear value, ultrastructure of myofibrils, and the degradation of desmin, titin, nebulin, and troponin-T. The pH (6.05) of FS group is significantly low than PR group (6...
October 1, 2016: Poultry Science
Yogesh A Karpe, Kunal D Pingale, Gayatri D Kanade
Replication of many viruses is dependent on the ubiquitin proteasome system. The present study demonstrates that Chikungunya virus replication increases proteasome activity and induces unfolded protein response (UPR) in cultured cells. Further, it was seen that the virus replication was dependent on the activities of proteasomes and m-calpain. Proteasome inhibition induced accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and earlier visualization of UPR.
October 2016: Virus Genes
Mahalingam Sundararajan, Philip A Thomas, P Archana Teresa, Muniyandi Anbukkarasi, Pitchairaj Geraldine
PURPOSE: Selenite-induced cataract is associated with oxidative stress, loss of calcium homeostasis, activation of calpain enzymes, and apoptotic cell death in the lens. An evaluation of naturally occurring antioxidants that also restrict calcium influx into the lens and calpain activation and thus prevent lenticular cell death may lead to the development of safe and effective anticataractogenic drugs. This study focuses on a naturally occurring flavone, chrysin, and its efficacy in preventing cataractogenic changes in in vitro cultured Wistar rat lenses...
2016: Molecular Vision
T D Jennings, M G Gonda, K R Underwood, A E Wertz-Lutz, A D Blair
The objective of this study was to determine whether altered maternal energy supply during mid-gestation results in differences in muscle histology or genes regulating fetal adipose and muscle development. In total, 22 Angus cross-bred heifers (BW=527.73±8.3 kg) were assigned randomly to the three dietary treatments providing 146% (HIGH; n=7), 87% (INT; n=7) or 72% (LOW; n=8) of the energy requirements for heifers from day 85 to day 180 of gestation. Fetuses were removed via cesarean section at day 180 of gestation and longissimus muscle (LM) and subcutaneous fat were collected and prepared for analysis of gene expression...
October 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Kyung Hye Baek, Han Vit Yu, Eosu Kim, Younghwa Na, Youngjoo Kwon
Proteomic analysis of ionomycin-treated and untreated mammary epithelial MCF10A cells elucidated differences in Ku80 cleavage. Ku80, a subunit of the Ku protein complex, is an initiator of the non-homologous, end-joining (NHEJ), double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair pathway. The nuclear Ku80 was cleaved in a calcium concentration-dependent manner by m-calpain but not by m-calpain. The cleavage of nuclear Ku80 at its α/β domain was validated by Western blotting analysis using flag-tagged expression vectors of truncated versions of Ku80 and a flag antibody and was confirmed in m-calpain knock-down cells and in vitro cell-free evaluation with recombinant proteins of calpains, Ku70, and Ku80...
May 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Liang Zhao, Nanqi Jiang, Miaozhen Li, Ming Huang, Guanghong Zhou
The objective of this study was to investigate changes occurring in μ/m-calpain in post mortem chicken muscles and to determine the origin of the unknown bands found in calpain casein zymography. The unknown bands were reported with slightly greater mobility compared to conventional μ/m-calpain bands in casein zymography. Identification of these bands was accomplished using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and with protein phosphatase treatment. Results showed that the unknown bands were corresponding to μ/m-calpain, and dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase did not change their appearance...
March 17, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
A K Biswas, S Tandon, C K Beura
The aim of this study was to develop a simple, specific and rapid analytical method for accurate identification of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and muscle samples. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by casein Zymography detection. The target compounds were extracted from blood and meat samples by tris buffer, and purified and separated on anion exchange chromatography. It has been observed that buffer (pH 6.7) containing 50 mM tris-base appears to be excellent extractant as activity of analytes was maximum for all samples...
June 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
P Moriel, L F A Artioli, M H Poore, A W Confer, R S Marques, R F Cooke
We evaluated the effects of MP supply on growth performance before and after preconditioning and measurements of innate and humoral immune response of beef steers following vaccination. Angus steers ( = 36; BW = 231 ± 21 kg; age = 184 ± 18 d) were weaned on d -6, stratified by BW and age on d 0, and randomly assigned to 1 of 18 drylot pens (2 steers/pen). Treatments were assigned to pens (6 pens/treatment) and consisted of corn silage-based diets formulated to provide 85%, 100%, or 115% of the daily MP requirements of a beef steer gaining 1...
September 2015: Journal of Animal Science
Cheng-Lung Chen, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Oliver Yoa-Pu Hu, Li-Heng Pao
Tubular cell apoptosis significantly contributes to cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) pathogenesis. Although KCa3.1, a calcium-activated potassium channel, participates in apoptosis, its involvement in cisplatin-induced AKI is unknown. Here, we found that cisplatin treatment triggered an early induction of KCa3.1 expression associated with HK-2 cell apoptosis, the development of renal tubular damage, and apoptosis in mice. Treatment with the highly selective KCa3.1 blocker TRAM-34 suppressed cisplatin-induced HK-2 cell apoptosis...
September 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Sarah J Storr, Nicola Thompson, Xuan Pu, Yimin Zhang, Stewart G Martin
The calpains are a family of intracellular cysteine proteases that function in a wide array of cellular activities, including cytoskeletal remodelling, survival and apoptosis. The ubiquitously expressed micro (µ)-calpain and milli (m)-calpain are archetypal family members that require calcium for function and can be inhibited by their endogenous inhibitor calpastatin. This review describes the role of the calpain system in the prognosis of breast cancer and disease progression, in addition to the role of the calpain system in the response to breast cancer treatments, including chemotherapeutic, endocrine and targeted therapies...
September 2015: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
Anna Mikosik, Izabella Henc, Katarzyna Ruckemann-Dziurdzińska, Joanna E Frąckowiak, Anna Płoszyńska, Anna Balcerska, Ewa Bryl, Jacek M Witkowski
Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) blasts are characterized by inhibited apoptosis promoting fast disease progress. It is known that in chronic lymphocytic and acute myeloid leukemias the reduced apoptosis is strongly related with the activity of calpain-calpastatin system (CCS) composed of cytoplasmic proteases--calpains--performing the modulatory proteolysis of key proteins involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis, and of their endogenous inhibitor--calpastatin. Here, the CCS protein abundance and activity was for the first time studied in childhood ALL blasts and in control bone marrow CD19+ B cells by semi-quantitative flow cytometry and western blotting of calpastatin fragments resulting from endogenous calpain activity...
2015: PloS One
Kazuki Nakashima, Aiko Ishida, Daichi Ijiri, Akira Ohtsuka
Expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx, a muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase, is high under catabolic conditions, that result in muscle atrophy. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx is increased by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone in mammalian skeletal muscle. This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone on expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx in skeletal muscle of neonatal chicks and in chick myotubes. Chicks were given a single intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone at a concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight...
March 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Ken-Ichi Yoshida
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Isoforms of Ca(2+)-activated cysteine proteases, calpains, are implicated in the development of myocardial infarction in ischemia-reperfusion. Growing evidence has revealed the presence of calpains in the mitochondria. We aimed to characterize mitochondrial calpains in the rat heart and to investigate the roles of calpains in mPTP opening after ischemia-reperfusion...
October 15, 2015: International Journal of Cardiology
Timothy Travers, Hanshuang Shao, Brian A Joughin, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Alan Wells, Carlos J Camacho
Phosphorylated residues occur preferentially in the intrinsically disordered regions of eukaryotic proteins. In the disordered amino-terminal region of human α-actinin-4 (ACTN4), Tyr(4) and Tyr(31) are phosphorylated in cells stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF), and a mutant with phosphorylation-mimicking mutations of both tyrosines exhibits reduced interaction with actin in vitro. Cleavage of ACTN4 by m-calpain, a protease that in motile cells is predominantly activated at the rear, removes the Tyr(4) site...
May 26, 2015: Science Signaling
M S Tikhomirova, M N Karpenko, O V Kirik, E G Sukhorukova, D É Korzhevskiĭ, V M Klimenko
The regenerative capacity of the Central Nervous System (CNS) is a key factor implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, the regenerative capacity of the CNS is considered using one of the markers of regeneration, Growth Associated Protein-43 (GAP-43) and its proteolytic fragment GAP-43-3 in the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model of multiple sclerosis. The EAE on Wistar rats was characterized as an adequate model of multiple sclerosis, with typical clinical (pares and paralysis) and morphological (infiltration of spinal cord and deformation of motoneurons) disorders...
January 2015: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
Rajendra K Sharma, Sujeet Kumar, Sreejit Parameswaran, Jonathan R Dimmock
N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) is an essential eukaryotic enzyme which catalyzes the transfer of the myristoyl group to the terminal glycine residue of a number of proteins including those involved in signal transduction and apoptotic pathways. In higher eukaryotes, two isoforms of NMT have been identified (NMT1 and NMT2) which share about 76% amino acid sequence identity in humans. Protein-protein interactions of NMTs reveal that m-calpain interacts with NMT1 whereas caspase-3 interacts with NMT2. These findings reveal differential interactions of both isoforms of NMT with various signaling molecules...
December 2014: Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics
Allur Subramaniyan Sivakumar, Inho Hwang
The effect of Sunphenon and Polyphenon 60 in oxidative stress response, myogenic regulatory factors, inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic and proteolytic pathways on H2O2-induced myotube atrophy was addressed. Cellular responses of H2O2-induced C2C12 cells were examined, including mRNA expression of myogenic regulatory factors, such as MyoD and myogenin, inflammatory pathways, such as TNF-α and NF-kB, as well as proteolytic enzymes, such as μ-calpain and m-calpain. The pre-treatment of Sunphenon (50 μg/mL)/Polyphenon 60 (50 μg/mL) on H2O2-treated C2C12 cells significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression of myogenin and MyoD when compared to those treated with H2O2-induced alone...
March 2015: Journal of Biosciences
Greta Geldenhuys, Nina Muller, Lorinda Frylinck, Louwrens C Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Baseline research on the toughness of Egyptian goose meat is required. This study therefore investigates the post mortem pH and temperature decline (15 min-4 h 15 min post mortem) in the pectoralis muscle (breast portion) of this gamebird species. It also explores the enzyme activity of the Ca(2+)-dependent protease (calpain system) and the lysosomal cathepsins during the rigor mortis period. RESULTS: No differences were found for any of the variables between genders...
January 15, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Hyuck Choi, Kyuho Myung
BACKGROUND: We conducted an in vivo experiment to determine whether vitamin D₃ acts as a fat synthesizer and/or meat tenderizer in mice. At 6 weeks of age, 20 male C57BL/6 wild-type mice were randomly divided into two groups (10 mice per group) and fed a modified AIN93G diet with (vitamin D₃ diet) or without (basal diet) 10 IU 25-OH-cholecalciferol kg⁻³ for 3 weeks. RESULTS: When vitamin D₃ was fed to mice for 3 weeks, body fat was significantly increased compared to mice fed a basal diet...
February 2012: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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