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Botanical medicine

Elizabeth M Mudge, Ying Liu, Jensen A Lund, Paula N Brown
Suitably validated analytical methods that can be used to quantify medicinally active phytochemicals in natural health products are required by regulators, manufacturers, and consumers. Hawthorn (Crataegus) is a botanical ingredient in natural health products used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. A method for the quantitation of vitexin-2″-O- rhamnoside, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and hyperoside in hawthorn leaf and flower raw materials and finished products was optimized and validated according to AOAC International guidelines...
October 24, 2016: Planta Medica
Behjat Javadi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Seyed Ahmad Emami
OBJECTIVE: To search major Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) textbooks for medicinal plants used to treat asthma. The conformity of the TPM findings on the anti-asthmatic efficacy of plants with the findings of pharmacological studies was also explored. METHODS: Major TPM textbooks were hand searched to find medicinal plants used for the treatment of asthma. Scientific names of TPM-suggested plants were determined using botanical databases and were used for a multi-database electronic search in PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Rafik U Shaikh, Mahesh M Pund, Rajesh N Gacche
The present study was carried out to evaluate in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of selected medicinal plants used in Indian traditional medication. The sequentially extracted plant samples as, Cissus quadrangularis, Plumbago zeylanica, Terminalia bellarica and Terminalia chebula in water, ethanol and hexane were evaluated in-vitro for COX-1 and 2 inhibitory and antioxidant activities. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of selected samples showing promising COX-2 inhibition was assessed using carrageenan and Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA) induced mice edema animal model...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Alfred Maroyi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Crinum macowanii is a deciduous bulbous plant which grows in east, central and southern Africa. Crinum macowanii has been used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of east and southern Africa has for several centuries. The bulb, leaves and roots of C. macowanii are reported to possess diverse medicinal properties and used to treat or manage various human and animal diseases and ailments throughout its distributional range. Crinum macowanii is used traditionally as a remedy for boils, diarrhoea, fever, inflammation, respiratory system problems, skin rashes, tuberculosis, wounds and urinary tract problems...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Marian L Neuhouser, Ashley Wilder Smith, Stephanie M George, James T Gibson, Kathy B Baumgartner, Richard Baumgartner, Catherine Duggan, Leslie Bernstein, Anne McTiernan, Rachel Ballard
PURPOSE: Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common among breast cancer patients, but less is known about whether CAM influences breast cancer survival. METHODS: Health Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study participants (n = 707) were diagnosed with stage I-IIIA breast cancer. Participants completed a 30-month post-diagnosis interview including questions on CAM use (natural products such as dietary and botanical supplements, alternative health practices, and alternative medical systems), weight, physical activity, and comorbidities...
October 21, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Zhengwang Sun, Sang Yong Park, Eunson Hwang, Bom Park, Seul A Seo, Jin-Gyeong Cho, Mengyang Zhang, Tae-Hoo Yi
BACKGROUND: Foeniculum vulgare Mill (FV) has long been prescribed in traditional medicine due to its antioxidant anti-inflammatory properties. However, little research has been done on the use of FV to alleviate changes in UVB-induced photoaging PURPOSE: This study was to investigate the photoprotective effects and mechanism of FV in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The anti-photoaging effect of FV was assessed in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) in vitro. The secretion of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), GSH, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), procollagen type I, IL-6 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured by kits...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Qi-Lei Chen, Lin Zhu, Yi-Na Tang, Hiu-Yee Kwan, Zhong-Zhen Zhao, Hu-Biao Chen, Tao Yi
Herbal healthcare products are used worldwide as relatively safe and effective alternatives to allopathic drugs. Saussurea laniceps Hand.-Mazz.(SL), S. medusa Maxim. (SM) and S. involucrata (Kar. et Kir.) Sch.Bip. (SI) are three sources of the renowned "snow lotus" Chinese Materia Medica for treating inflammatory diseases. The three species have different therapeutic effects, among which SL has been proved to be the most potent, but they are frequently confused on the market and in the academic community. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was developed and used to analyze 49 herbal samples for species analysis and overall quality evaluation...
October 20, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jing Wang, Meizhu Zheng, Lina Chen, Zhiqiang Liu, Yuchi Zhang, Chun-Ming Liu, Shu Liu
Hydroxyl radicals are the most reactive free radical of human body, a strong contributor to tissue damage. In this study, liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was applied to screen and identify hydroxyl radical scavengers from the total flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba leaves, and high-performance counter current chromatography was used to separate and isolate the active compounds. Furthermore, molecular devices was used to determine hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the obtained hydroxyl radical scavengers and other flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba leaves...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Melissa Yit Yee Kam, Li Chin Chai, Chiew Foan Chin
Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Aponogetonaceae) is a commercially important ornamental aquatic plant species with traditional medicinal uses. Due to the low survival rate of seedlings, propagation by conventional means has been met with many difficulties. In this study, botanical aspects of A. ulvaceus were examined with regards to the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the plant and an efficient protocol for its in vitro propagation using immature tuber explants has been established. The existence of glandular trichomes on the leaves was discovered and the occurrence of circumnutation in A...
2016: SpringerPlus
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Eu-Jin Hyun, Hyun-Jin Kim, Tae-Woo Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Ming Song, Jingjian Li, Chao Xiong, Hexia Liu, Junsong Liang
Many members of the genus Artemisia are important for medicinal purposes with multiple pharmacological properties. Often, these herbal plants sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Routine testing and identification of these herbal materials should be performed to ensure that the raw materials used in pharmaceutical products are suitable for their intended use. In this study, five commonly used Artemisia species included Artemisia argyi, Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia indica, and Artemisia atrovirens were analyzed using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mahmoud Bahmani, Babak Baharvand-Ahmadi, Pegah Tajeddini, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Nasrollah Naghdi
INTRODUCTION: Kidney stones are the third most common urinary tract problems after urinary tract infections and prostate pathology. Kidney stones may cause extreme pain and blockage of urine flow. They are usually treated with medications that may cause a number of side-effects. Medicinal herbs are used in different cultures as a reliable source of natural remedies. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine native medicinal plants used by traditional healers of Shiraz for the treatment of kidney stones...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Ethan B Russo
This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration "Botanical Guidance." The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
A Kunwar, K I Priyadarsini
Curcumin, a yellow pigment from the spice turmeric, is used in Indian and Chinese medicine since ancient times for wide range of diseases. Extensive scientific research on this molecule performed over the last 3 to 4 decades has proved its potential as an important pharmacological agent. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and chemopreventive activities of curcumin have been extended to explore this molecule against many chronic diseases with promising results. Further, its multitargeting ability and nontoxic nature to humans even up to 12 g/day have attracted scientists to explore this as an anticancer agent in the clinic, which is in different phases of trials...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ida Apostolico, Luigi Aliberti, Lucia Caputo, Vincenzo De Feo, Florinda Fratianni, Filomena Nazzaro, Lucèia Fàtima Souza, Maroua Khadhr
Peganum harmala L., also known as Syrian rue or Pègano, is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Zygohpyllaceae family, and is widely used in traditional medicine. The chemical composition of essential oils of P. harmala seeds from five different regions of Northern Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia) was studied by GC and GC-MS analyses. A total of 105 compounds were identified, the main components being oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Eugenol is the main component in all oils...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Taketo Okada, Hironobu Takahashi, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Masaaki Noji, Hiromichi Kenmoku, Masao Toyota, Shigehiko Kanaya, Nobuo Kawahara, Yoshinori Asakawa, Setsuko Sekita
Ephedra plants are taxonomically classified as gymnosperms, and are medicinally important as the botanical origin of crude drugs and as bioresources that contain pharmacologically active chemicals. Here we show a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of aerial stems and roots of Ephedra sinica based on high-throughput mRNA sequencing by RNA-Seq. De novo assembly of short cDNA sequence reads generated 23,358, 13,373, and 28,579 contigs longer than 200 bases from aerial stems, roots, or both aerial stems and roots, respectively...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Matteo F Olivieri, Francesca Marzari, Andreas J Kesel, Laura Bonalume, Francesco Saettini
Melampus is a seer-healer of Greek myth attributed with having healed the young princesses of Argos of madness. Analysis of this legend and its sources sheds light on the early stages of the "medicalizing" shift in the history of ancient Greek medicine. Retrospective psychological diagnosis suggests that the descriptions of the youths' madness rose from actual observation of behavioral and mental disorders. Melampus is credited with having healed them by administering hellebore. Pharmacological analysis of botanical specimens proves that Helleborus niger features actual neurological properties effective in the treatment of mental disorders...
September 13, 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Niteen Ramdas Salve, Debendranath Mishra
CONTEXT: Mādhava is regarded as a 7(th) century Indian Physician who composed two treatises (in Sanskrit) on Ayurveda, the Mādhava Nidāna and Mādhava Cikitsā. The former treatise deals with the diagnosis of diseases while the latter with the treatment using medicinal plants and other recipes. In Mādhava Cikitsā, a common Sanskrit name is found to describe two or more totally different botanical plant species (thus leading to ambiguity) and a distinct botanical species is also found to represent two or more Sanskrit names at several instances...
April 2016: Ancient Science of Life
Mandeep Kaur, Rakesh Kumar, Deep Patel Upendrabhai, Inder Pal Singh, Sanehdeep Kaur
BACKGROUND: The use of botanical pesticides for protecting crops from insect pests has assumed greater importance all over the world due to growing awareness of harmful effects of indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides. Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Asteraceae), a medicinally important perennial herb is rich in sesquiterpenes with many biological activities. The present studies were conducted with the objective to evaluate the sesquiterpenes isolated from I. racemosa for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura (F...
September 8, 2016: Pest Management Science
Marimuthu Govindarajan, Shine Kadaikunnan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Giovanni Benelli
The recent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus highlighted the pivotal importance of mosquito vector control in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. However, mosquito control is facing hot challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance in Culicidae and the limited success of biocontrol programs on Aedes mosquitoes. In this framework, screening botanicals for their mosquitocidal potential may offer effective and eco-friendly tools in the fight against mosquitoes. In the present study, the essential oil (EO) obtained from the medicinal plant Origanum scabrum was analyzed by GC-MS and evaluated for its mosquitocidal and repellent activities towards Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus...
September 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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