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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471432/effectiveness-of-seven-and-thirteen-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-a-schedule-without-a-booster-dose-a-ten-year-observational-study
#1
Sanjay Jayasinghe, Clayton Chiu, Helen Quinn, Rob Menzies, Robin Gilmour, Peter McIntyre
Background: Uniquely among high income countries, Australia uses a 3+0 schedule (3 primary doses; no booster) for infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine since January 2005, initially 7-valent (PCV7) then 13-valent (PCV13) from July 2011. We measured vaccine effectiveness (VE) of both PCVs against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) by two methods. Method: Cases were IPD notifications to national surveillance system in children eligible for respective PCVs. For the case-control method, up to ten age-matched controls were derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471258/outcomes-of-pregnancies-in-women-taking-antiepileptic-drugs-for-non-epilepsy-indications
#2
Dana Jazayeri, Janet Graham, Alison Hitchcock, Terence J O'Brien, Frank J E Vajda
PURPOSE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), particularly valproate (VPA), are known to be teratogens when taken by women with epilepsy (WWE), but the risk in women who take these drugs for indications other than epilepsy have been little studied. This study aims to investigate the incidence of birth defects in children born to mothers taking AEDs for non-epilepsy indications. METHODS: The Australian Pregnancy Register (APR), established in 1998, is a prospective observational study operating with ethical approval and informed written consent for participation...
February 17, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471174/characterizing-gestational-weight-gain-in-a-cohort-of-indigenous-australian-women
#3
Tracy L Schumacher, Loretta Weatherall, Lyniece Keogh, Kathryn Sutherland, Clare E Collins, Kirsty G Pringle, Kym M Rae
OBJECTIVE: to determine the adequacy of gestational weight gain for a cohort of Indigenous Australian women and investigate whether it is associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index. DESIGN: analysis of observational data collected from a longitudinal cohort study that follows Indigenous Australian women through pregnancy. SETTING: women recruited through antenatal clinics in regional and remote towns in NSW, Australia to the Gomeroi gaaynggal program...
January 31, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470475/putting-action-into-the-revised-australian-medical-council-standards-on-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-and-m%C3%A4-ori-health
#4
Shannon Springer, Suzanne Pitama, Kate Leslie, Shaun Ewen
Since 2006 the Australian Medical Council (AMC) accreditation standards have required medical schools to comprehensively address issues related to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia, and Māori in New Zealand. This has spanned areas of staff expertise, staff and student recruitment, curriculum and institutional leadership. These Indigenous specific standards have, until now, been absent for specialist medical college accreditation. The AMC revised its accreditation standards for specialist medical colleges in 2015, and for the first time included Indigenous specific standards...
February 23, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470348/predicting-expected-organ-donor-numbers-in-australian-hospitals-outside-of-the-donate-life-network-using-the-anzics-adult-patient-database
#5
Yvette O'Brien, Shaila Chavan, Sue Huckson, Graeme Russ, Helen Opdam, David Pilcher
BACKGROUND: The majority of organ donations in Australia occur in the DonateLife Network of hospitals, but limited monitoring at other sites may allow donation opportunities to be missed. Our aim was to estimate expected donor numbers using routinely collected data from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Adult Patient Database (APD), and determine whether unrecognised potential donors might exist in non-DonateLife hospitals. METHODS: All deaths at 150 Australian ICUs contributing to the ANZICS APD were analysed between January 2010 and December 2015...
February 21, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470284/evolving-practice-and-changing-phenotype-in-pediatric-autoimmune-liver-disease-outcomes-from-an-australian-center
#6
Harveen Singh, Fariha Balouch, Charlton Noble, Peter Lewindon
OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune liver disease (AILD) incorporates primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), and autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC). ASC is a condition that includes overlap of AIH and PSC. We investigate changes in practice in relation to diagnosis and phenotype over 2 time periods. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was conducted from January 2000 to 2016. Data were divided into two 8-year cohorts, CI and C2. RESULTS: Data were collected in 75 children, 29 in 2000-2007 (C1) and 46 in 2008-2016 (C2)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470235/is-climate-associated-with-revision-for-prosthetic-joint-infection-after-primary-tka
#7
Ben Parkinson, Drew Armit, Peter McEwen, Michelle Lorimer, Ian A Harris
BACKGROUND: Climate factors have been shown to be associated with spontaneous musculoskeletal and some surgical site infections with increased rates of infection during warmer periods. To date, little research has been performed to determine if this phenomenon is associated with differences in the risk of revision for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) in primary TKA. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does the rate of revision for early PJI within the first year after primary TKA differ between tropical and nontropical regions? (2) Is there a seasonal variation in the rate of revision for PJI? (3) Is the geographic and seasonal variation (if present) associated with the sex, age, and/or American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade of the patient? METHODS: All 219,983 primary TKAs performed for osteoarthritis over a 5-year period (2011-2015) in the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry were examined based on the month of the primary procedure to determine the rate of revision for PJI within 12 months...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468765/outcomes-of-paediatric-critical-care-asthma-patients
#8
Neeta Rampersad, Barry Wilkins, Jonathan R Egan
AIM: The aim of this study was to characterise patients with asthma admitted to an Australian paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients with asthma admitted to a university-affiliated, 23-bed, tertiary PICU between January 2000 and December 2011, with a subset of pharmacotherapy and biochemical data from patients admitted between July 2007 and December 2011. RESULTS: A total of 589 admissions (501 patients) with asthma over 12 years constituted 4...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468041/genome-wide-comparisons-reveal-a-clinal-species-pattern-within-a-holobenthic-octopod-the-australian-southern-blue-ringed-octopus-hapalochlaena-maculosa-cephalopoda-octopodidae
#9
Peter Morse, Shannon R Kjeldsen, Mark G Meekan, Mark I Mccormick, Julian K Finn, Christine L Huffard, Kyall R Zenger
The southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa (Hoyle, 1883) lacks a planktonic dispersal phase, yet ranges across Australia's southern coastline. This species' brief and holobenthic life history suggests gene flow might be limited, leaving distant populations prone to strong genetic divergence. This study used 17,523 genome-wide SNP loci to investigate genetic structuring and local adaptation patterns of H. maculosa among eight sampling sites along its reported range. Within sites, interrelatedness was very high, consistent with the limited dispersal of this taxon...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468012/the-use-of-nutritional-guidance-within-chiropractic-patient-management-a-survey-of-333-chiropractors-from-the-acorn-practice-based-research-network
#10
Mi Kyung Lee, Lyndon Amorin-Woods, Vincenzo Cascioli, Jon Adams
Background: Food consumption and nutritional status affect an individual's health throughout their life-course and an unhealthy diet is a major risk factor for the current global burden of chronic disease. The promotion of health and good nutrition through healthy eating requires the active involvement of all health professionals including chiropractors. This paper reports findings from the first nationally representative examination of the use of nutritional guidance within chiropractic patient management in Australia...
2018: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467155/australian-exam-shambles-forces-registrars-into-resits
#11
Paul Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467071/relative-contribution-of-overweight-and-obesity-to-rising-public-hospital-in-patient-expenditure-in-south-australia
#12
Allison Larg, John R Moss, Nicola Spurrier
Objective Arguments to fund obesity prevention have often focused on the growing hospital costs of associated diseases. However, the relative contribution of overweight and obesity to public hospital expenditure growth is not well understood. This paper examines the effect of overweight and obesity on acute public hospital in-patient expenditure in South Australia over time compared with other expenditure drivers. Methods Annual inflation-adjusted acute public admitted expenditure attributable to a high body mass index was estimated for 2007-08 and 2011-12 and compared with other expenditure drivers...
February 22, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466458/flogging-tired-horses-who-wants-whipping-and-who-would-walk-away-if-whipping-horses-were-withheld
#13
Paul D McGreevy, Mark D Griffiths, Frank R Ascione, Bethany Wilson
Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533) to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males) who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males) who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466411/molecular-epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-tasmania-and-genomic-characterisation-of-its-first-known-multi-drug-resistant-case
#14
Sanjay S Gautam, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Louise A Cooley, Greg Haug, Janet A Fyfe, Maria Globan, Ronan F O'Toole
BACKGROUND: The origin and spread of tuberculosis (TB) in Tasmania and the types of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) present in the population are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform the first genomic analysis of MTBC isolates from Tasmania to better understand the epidemiology of TB in the state. METHODS: Whole-genome sequencing was performed on cultured isolates of MTBC collected from 2014-2016...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466164/human-neonatal-rotavirus-vaccine-rv3-bb-to-target-rotavirus-from-birth
#15
Julie E Bines, Jarir At Thobari, Cahya Dewi Satria, Amanda Handley, Emma Watts, Daniel Cowley, Hera Nirwati, James Ackland, Jane Standish, Frances Justice, Gabrielle Byars, Katherine J Lee, Graeme L Barnes, Novilia S Bachtiar, Ajeng Viska Icanervilia, Karen Boniface, Nada Bogdanovic-Sakran, Daniel Pavlic, Ruth F Bishop, Carl D Kirkwood, Jim P Buttery, Yati Soenarto
BACKGROUND: A strategy of administering a neonatal rotavirus vaccine at birth to target early prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis may address some of the barriers to global implementation of a rotavirus vaccine. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia to evaluate the efficacy of an oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy newborns received three doses of RV3-BB, administered according to a neonatal schedule (0 to 5 days, 8 weeks, and 14 weeks of age) or an infant schedule (8 weeks, 14 weeks, and 18 weeks of age), or placebo...
February 22, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466065/physical-preparation-factors-that-influence-technical-and-physical-match-performance-in-professional-australian-football
#16
Samuel Ryan, Aaron J Coutts, Joel Hocking, Patrick A Dillon, Anthony Whitty, Thomas Kempton
OBJECTIVES: To examine the collective influence of a range of physical preparation elements on selected performance measures during Australian football match-play. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal. METHODS: Data were collected from 34 professional Australian football players from the same club during the 2016 AFL competition season. Match activity profiles, acute (7-day) and chronic (3-week) training load were collected via GPS devices. Training response was measured by well-being questionnaires completed prior to main training session each week...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464899/proteomic-adaptation-of-australian-epidemic-bordetella-pertussis
#17
Laurence Don Wai Luu, Sophie Octavia, Ling Zhong, Mark Raftery, Vitali Sintchenko, Ruiting Lan
Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough. The predominant strains in Australia changed to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) cluster I (pertussis toxin promoter allele ptxP3/pertactin gene allele prn2) from cluster II (non-ptxP3/non-prn2). Cluster I were mostly responsible for the 2008-2012 Australian epidemic and were found to have higher fitness compared to cluster II using an in vivo mouse competition assay, regardless of host's immunisation status. This study aimed to identify proteomic differences that explain higher fitness in cluster I using iTRAQ, and high-resolution multiple reaction monitoring (MRM-hr)...
February 21, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464891/continuous-glucose-monitoring-a-review-of-the-evidence-opportunities-for-future-use-and-ongoing-challenges
#18
Anna Wood, David O'Neal, John Furler, Elif I Ekinci
The advent of devices that can track interstitial glucose levels which are closely related to blood glucose levels on a near continuous basis has facilitated better insights into patterns of glycaemia. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) therefore allows for more intensive monitoring of blood glucose levels and potentially improved glycaemic control. In the context of the announcement on 1 April 2017 that the Australian Government will fund CGM monitoring for people with type 1 diabetes under the age of 21, this paper provides a review of the evidence for CGM and some of the ongoing challenges...
February 21, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464705/variations-in-australian-dental-therapy-practice-by-practitioner-and-workplace-characteristics
#19
Dana N Teusner, Julie Satur, Suzanne P Gardner, Najith Amarasena, David S Brennan
INTRODUCTION: Understanding dental therapy practice across clinical settings is useful for education and service planning. This study assessed if dental therapy service provision varied according to practitioner and workplace characteristics. METHODS: Members of professional associations representing dental therapists (DT) and oral health therapists (OHT) were posted a self-complete survey collecting practitioner and workplace characteristics, together with clinical activity on a self-selected typical day of practice...
February 21, 2018: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464675/outpatient-parenteral-antibiotic-therapy-in-a-suburban-tertiary-referral-centre-in-australia-over-10-years
#20
Wenlong Li, James Branley, Archana Sud
PURPOSE: Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) is a widely accepted and safe therapeutic option for carefully selected patients. This study reviewed the practice of an OPAT service in a large Australian tertiary teaching hospital in Western Sydney over a 10-year period. METHOD: Data were retrieved from a prospectively maintained electronic database which included information on patient demographics, clinical diagnosis, microbiological identity, antimicrobial therapy, complications and readmissions...
February 20, 2018: Infection
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