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Speech and language

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448161/peaches-for-lunch-creating-and-using-visual-variables
#1
Elizabeth Cartwright, Adam Clegg
In this article, I describe the process of systematically including non-verbal data in medical anthropology research. I demonstrate the process of visualizing and coding videotaped moments of life and show how we can analyze what is being done along with what is being said. I ground my discussion in toddler language socialization and then expand my observations to the realm of language pathologies. Aphasia from strokes, speech difficulties in neurologically based illnesses like Lou Gehrig's disease, and the variety of communication challenges that face those on the autism spectrum can all be studied in interesting ways by including precise descriptions of non-verbal actions...
April 27, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447984/experience-is-instrumental-in-tuning-a-link-between-language-and-cognition-evidence-from-6-to-7-month-old-infants-object-categorization
#2
Danielle R Perszyk, Sandra R Waxman
At birth, infants not only prefer listening to human vocalizations, but also have begun to link these vocalizations to cognition: For infants as young as three months of age, listening to human language supports object categorization, a core cognitive capacity. This precocious link is initially broad: At 3 and 4 months, vocalizations of both humans and nonhuman primates support categorization. But by 6 months, infants have narrowed the link: Only human vocalizations support object categorization. Here we ask what guides infants as they tune their initially broad link to a more precise one, engaged only by the vocalizations of our species...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447851/-understanding-the-role-of-speech-production-in-reading-evidence-for-a-print-to-speech-neural-network-using-graphical-analysis-correction-to-cummine-et-al-2016
#3
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Understanding the role of speech production in reading: Evidence for a print-to-speech neural network using graphical analysis" by Jacqueline Cummine, Ivor Cribben, Connie Luu, Esther Kim, Reyhaneh Bahktiari, George Georgiou and Carol A. Boliek (Neuropsychology, 2016[May], Vol 30[4], 385-397). In the article, the fifth author's name [Bakhtiari] was misspelled. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-49069-001...
May 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445784/brain-potentials-predict-language-selection-before-speech-onset-in-bilinguals
#4
Yan Jing Wu, Guillaume Thierry
Studies of language production in bilinguals have seldom considered the fact that language selection likely involves proactive control. Here, we show that Chinese-English bilinguals actively inhibit the language not-to-be used before the onset of a picture to be named. Depending on the nature of a directive cue, participants named a subsequent picture in their native language, in their second language, or remained silent. The cue elicited a contingent negative variation of event-related brain potentials, greater in amplitude when the cue announced a naming trial as compared to when it announced a silent trial...
April 23, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443686/combined-clinician-parent-delivery-of-rapid-syllable-transition-rest-treatment-for-childhood-apraxia-of-speech
#5
Donna C Thomas, Patricia McCabe, Kirrie J Ballard
PURPOSE: Although speech-language pathologists use parent-delivered home-practice, little is known about the quality of this practice and its relation to treatment efficacy. This study reports both treatment outcomes and fidelity following combined clinician-parent delivery of Rapid Syllable Transition (ReST) treatment. METHOD: Five children aged 5:1-11:7 with childhood apraxia of speech received 12 treatment sessions; six clinic-based and six at home, using multiple baselines across participants design...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443053/perceptual-improvement-of-lexical-tones-in-infants-effects-of-tone-language-experience
#6
Feng-Ming Tsao
To learn words in a tonal language, tone-language learners should not only develop better abilities for perceiving consonants and vowels, but also for lexical tones. The divergent trend of enhancing sensitivity to native phonetic contrasts and reduced sensitivity to non-native phonetic contrast is theoretically essential to evaluate effects of listening to an ambient language on speech perception development. The loss of sensitivity in discriminating lexical tones among non-tonal language-learning infants was apparent between 6 and 12 months of age, but only few studies examined trends of differentiating native lexical tones in infancy...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443036/auditory-motor-rhythms-and-speech-processing-in-french-and-german-listeners
#7
Simone Falk, Chloé Volpi-Moncorger, Simone Dalla Bella
Moving to a speech rhythm can enhance verbal processing in the listener by increasing temporal expectancies (Falk and Dalla Bella, 2016). Here we tested whether this hypothesis holds for prosodically diverse languages such as German (a lexical stress-language) and French (a non-stress language). Moreover, we examined the relation between motor performance and the benefits for verbal processing as a function of language. Sixty-four participants, 32 German and 32 French native speakers detected subtle word changes in accented positions in metrically structured sentences to which they previously tapped with their index finger...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443018/the-treatment-based-on-temporal-information-processing-reduces-speech-comprehension-deficits-in-aphasic-subjects
#8
Aneta Szymaszek, Tomasz Wolak, Elzbieta Szelag
Experimental studies have reported a close association between temporal information processing (TIP) and language comprehension. Brain-injured subjects with aphasia show disturbed TIP which was evidenced in elevated temporal order threshold (TOT) as compared to control subjects. The present study is aimed at improving auditory speech comprehension in aphasic subjects using a specific temporal treatment. Fourteen patients having deficits in both speech comprehension and TIP were tested. The Token Test, phoneme discrimination tests (PDT) and Voice-Onset-Time (VOT) Test were employed to assess speech comprehension...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442056/corrigendum-to-socioeconomic-status-as-a-factor-in-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-children-with-hearing-loss-analysis-of-national-survey-data
#9
Andrea Simpson, Joanne C Enticott, Jacinta Douglas
In this paper, the association between socioeconomic status and speech, language and communication outcomes for primary-school-going children with hearing loss using population survey data was analysed. The dataset used for analysis consisted of 289973 children in total, of which 3174 children had hearing loss. For all children, higher socioeconomic status was positively correlated with better speech, language and communication outcomes. A hearing loss was indicated for 1% of non-Indigenous children and 4.3% of Indigenous children...
April 2017: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441074/assessing-lebanese-bilingual-children-the-use-of-cross-linguistic-lexical-tasks-in-lebanese-arabic
#10
Christel Khoury Aouad Saliby, Christophe Dos Santos, Edith Kouba Hreich, Camille Messarra
Since norms for vocabulary acquisition in Lebanese bilingual children (L1: Lebanese, L2: French and/or English) do not yet exist, clinical assessment based on normative data and using appropriate tools remains difficult for speech and language therapists. The current study focuses on exploring and comparing lexical performances of typically developing Lebanese bilingual children (32 Bi-TD, aged 5;7 to 6;9) and those with specific language impairment (10 Bi-SLI, aged 5;9 to 7;10), using cross-linguistic lexical tasks (LITMUS-CLT, COST Action IS0804, 2011) in Lebanese Arabic language (CLT-LB), specific to the Lebanese context...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441063/validating-the-psycholinguistic-aspects-of-litmus-clt-evidence-from-polish-and-norwegian
#11
Pernille Hansen, Hanne Gram Simonsen, Magdalena Łuniewska, Ewa Haman
The novel assessment tool Cross-Linguistic Lexical Tasks (LITMUS-CLT) aims for comparable cross-linguistic assessment of multilingual children's lexical skills by basing each language version on two language-specific variables: age of acquisition (AoA) and complexity index (CI), a novel measure related to phonology, morphology, exposure and etymology. This article investigates the validity of this methodology, asking whether the underlying properties are robust predictors of children's performance. The Polish and Norwegian CLTs were used to assess 32 bilingual Polish-Norwegian, 34 monolingual Norwegian and 36 monolingual Polish children...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440537/speech-therapy-a-non-pharmacological-method-to-manage-difficult-to-treat-chronic-cough
#12
Karolina Krakowiak, Marta Dąbrowska, Filip Buła, Anna Łobacz, Dorota Rojek, Elżbieta M Grabczak, Antoni Krzeski, Rafał Krenke
Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. The results of management of chronic cough in adults are still unsatisfactory. Unexplained and difficult-to-treat chronic cough causes significant impairment in patients' quality of life. The results of recent studies suggest that speech therapy (speech language intervention) is one of the few methods which are usefull in management of persistent chronic cough. We present a case of a patient with chronic cough due to chronic nonallergic rhinitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease, who had been unsuccessfully treated for 18 years...
2017: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438437/schizophrenia-patients-have-higher-order-language-and-extralinguistic-impairments
#13
Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Magdalena Kotlicka-Antczak, Emila Łojek, Anna Ruszpel, Tomasz Pawełczyk
INTRODUCTION: The extralinguistic and paralinguistic aspects of the language refer to higher-order language functions such as lexical-semantic processes, prosody, indirect speech acts or discourse comprehension and production. Studies suggest that these processes are mediated by the Right Hemisphere (RH) and there is also some evidence of RH dysfunctions in schizophrenia. The aim of the paper is to investigate the extralinguistic and paralinguistic processing mediated by Right Hemisphere in schizophrenia patients using a validated and standardized battery of tests...
April 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438296/discussing-hpv-with-oropharyngeal-cancer-patients-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-attitudes-in-health-professionals
#14
Rachael H Dodd, Alice S Forster, Jo Waller, Laura A V Marlow
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is now known to cause a significant proportion of head and neck cancers (HNC). Qualitative research has shown that some health professionals find it difficult to discuss HPV with patients due to its sexually transmitted nature, and have concerns about their own knowledge of the virus. We used a survey to quantify attitudes towards discussing HPV among HNC health professionals. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional survey of HNC health professionals (n=260) in the UK and Ireland, assessing participants' knowledge of HPV, their experiences of and attitudes towards discussing HPV with patients, and their willingness to discuss HPV with their patients in the future...
May 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436053/measuring-family-centred-practices-of-professionals-in-early-intervention-services-in-taiwan
#15
L-J Kang, R J Palisano, R J Simeonsson, A-W Hwang
BACKGROUND: Family-centred practices emphasize professional supports for forming partnerships with families in early intervention. The Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers (MPOC-SP) measures the perceptions of paediatric service providers in supporting children and families. This study aimed to establish reliability of the Chinese version of the MPOC-SP (C-MPOC-SP) and to examine professional perceptions of family-centred practices in relation to professional discipline and years of experience...
April 23, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434136/facial-expressions-and-speech-acts-experimental-evidences-on-the-role-of-the-upper-face-as-an-illocutionary-force-indicating-device-in-language-comprehension
#16
Filippo Domaneschi, Marcello Passarelli, Carlo Chiorri
Language scientists have broadly addressed the problem of explaining how language users recognize the kind of speech act performed by a speaker uttering a sentence in a particular context. They have done so by investigating the role played by the illocutionary force indicating devices (IFIDs), i.e., all linguistic elements that indicate the illocutionary force of an utterance. The present work takes a first step in the direction of an experimental investigation of non-verbal IFIDs because it investigates the role played by facial expressions and, in particular, of upper-face action units (AUs) in the comprehension of three basic types of illocutionary force: assertions, questions, and orders...
April 22, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433347/phonological-and-semantic-processing-during-comprehension-in-wernicke-s-aphasia-an-n400-and-phonological-mapping-negativity-study
#17
Holly Robson, Emma Pilkington, Louise Evans, Vincent Deluca, James L Keidel
Comprehension impairments in Wernicke's aphasia are thought to result from a combination of impaired phonological and semantic processes. However, the relationship between these cognitive processes and language comprehension has only been inferred through offline neuropsychological tasks. This study used ERPs to investigate phonological and semantic processing during online single word comprehension. EEG was recorded in a group of Wernicke's aphasia n=8 and control participants n=10 while performing a word-picture verification task...
April 19, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431488/core-vocabulary-of-young-children-with-down-syndrome
#18
Stijn R J M Deckers, Yvonne Van Zaalen, Hans Van Balkom, Ludo Verhoeven
The aim of this study was to develop a core vocabulary list for young children with intellectual disabilities between 2 and 7 years of age because data from this population are lacking in core vocabulary literature. Children with Down syndrome are considered one of the most valid reference groups for researching developmental patterns in children with intellectual disabilities; therefore, spontaneous language samples of 30 Dutch children with Down syndrome were collected during three different activities with multiple communication partners (free play with parents, lunch- or snack-time at home or at school, and speech therapy sessions)...
June 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430531/phonological-development-of-danish-speaking-children-a-normative-cross-sectional-study
#19
Marit Carolin Clausen, Annette Fox-Boyer
Detailed knowledge about speech development in children acquiring different languages provides important information from a clinical and a theoretical perspective: First, it provides a baseline for the evaluation of whether a child shows typical, delayed or deviant speech development. Further, differences in speech development across languages can help to understand how the phonological systems of ambient languages affects children's speech acquisition. To date, little is known about Danish. It was suggested, however, that the acquisition process might be slower for Danish-speaking children due to the "blurry" sound structure of Danish...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427388/movement-cognition-and-narration-of-the-emotions-treatment-versus-standard-speech-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-children-with-borderline-intellectual-functioning-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
V Blasi, G Baglio, F Baglio, M P Canevini, M Zanette
BACKGROUND: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is defined as a "health meta-condition… characterized by various cognitive dysfunctions associated with an intellectual quotient (IQ) between 71 and 85 which determines a deficit in the individual's functioning both in the restriction of activities and in the limitation of social participation". It can be caused by many factors, including a disadvantaged background and prematurity. BIF affects 7-12% of primary school children that show academic difficulties due to poor executive functioning...
April 20, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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