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Speech and language

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917133/waiting-for-lexical-access-cochlear-implants-or-severely-degraded-input-lead-listeners-to-process-speech-less-incrementally
#1
Bob McMurray, Ashley Farris-Trimble, Hannah Rigler
Spoken language unfolds over time. Consequently, there are brief periods of ambiguity, when incomplete input can match many possible words. Typical listeners solve this problem by immediately activating multiple candidates which compete for recognition. In two experiments using the visual world paradigm, we examined real-time lexical competition in prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users, and normal hearing (NH) adults listening to severely degraded speech. In Experiment 1, adolescent CI users and NH controls matched spoken words to arrays of pictures including pictures of the target word and phonological competitors...
September 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915782/voicing-assimilation-in-czech-and-slovak-speakers-of-english-interactions-of-segmental-context-language-and-strength-of-foreign-accent
#2
Radek Skarnitzl, Pavel Šturm
This study focuses on voicing assimilation across word boundaries in the speech of second language (L2) users. We compare native speakers of British English to speakers of two West Slavic languages, Czech and Slovak, which, despite their many similarities, differ with respect to voicing assimilation rules. Word-final voicing was analysed in 30 speakers, using the static value of voicing percentage and the voicing profile method. The results of linear mixed-effects modelling suggest an effect of first language (L1) transfer in all L2 English speaker groups, with the tendency to assimilate being correlated with the strength of foreign accent...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915779/relative-salience-of-speech-rhythm-and-speech-rate-on-perceived-foreign-accent-in-a-second-language
#3
Leona Polyanskaya, Mikhail Ordin, Maria Grazia Busa
We investigated the independent contribution of speech rate and speech rhythm to perceived foreign accent. To address this issue we used a resynthesis technique that allows neutralizing segmental and tonal idiosyncrasies between identical sentences produced by French learners of English at different proficiency levels and maintaining the idiosyncrasies pertaining to prosodic timing patterns. We created stimuli that (1) preserved the idiosyncrasies in speech rhythm while controlling for the differences in speech rate between the utterances; (2) preserved the idiosyncrasies in speech rate while controlling for the differences in speech rhythm between the utterances; and (3) preserved the idiosyncrasies both in speech rate and speech rhythm...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915514/developmental-stuttering-in-children-who-are-hard-of-hearing
#4
Richard M Arenas, Elizabeth A Walker, Jacob J Oleson
Purpose: A number of studies with large sample sizes have reported lower prevalence of stuttering in children with significant hearing loss compared to children without hearing loss. This study used a parent questionnaire to investigate the characteristics of stuttering (e.g., incidence, prevalence, and age of onset) in children who are hard of hearing (CHH). Method: Three hundred three parents of CHH who participated in the Outcomes of Children With Hearing Loss study (Moeller & Tomblin, 2015) were sent questionnaires asking about their child's history of stuttering...
September 15, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915512/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-predictors-of-expressive-language-outcomes-among-late-talkers
#5
Evelyn L Fisher
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the literature on predictors of outcomes among late talkers using systematic review and meta-analysis methods. We sought to answer the question: What factors predict preschool-age expressive-language outcomes among late-talking toddlers? Method: We entered carefully selected search terms into the following electronic databases: Communication & Mass Media Complete, ERIC, Medline, PsycEXTRA, Psychological and Behavioral Sciences, and PsycINFO...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914429/a-systematic-review-of-patient-and-caregiver-experiences-with-a-tracheostomy
#6
REVIEW
Ivana Nakarada-Kordic, Niamh Patterson, Jill Wrapson, Stephen D Reay
BACKGROUND: A tracheostomy is a surgically created opening through the anterior neck tissues and the trachea, into which a tube is inserted. Despite its influence on basic human needs such as respiration, communication and nutrition, little is known about the impact of tracheostomy on patients and their caregivers or what could be done to enable better care and quality of life (QoL) for these individuals. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to better understand the current knowledge related to the experience and QoL of adults living with a tracheostomy and their caregivers so as to be able to improve these experiences...
September 15, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914137/comparing-phoneme-frequency-age-of-acquisition-and-loss-in-aphasia-implications-for-phonological-universals
#7
Cristina Romani, Claudia Galuzzi, Cecilia Guariglia, Jeremy Goslin
Phonological complexity may be central to the nature of human language. It may shape the distribution of phonemes and phoneme sequences within languages, but also determine age of acquisition and susceptibility to loss in aphasia. We evaluated this claim using frequency statistics derived from a corpus of phonologically transcribed Italian words (phonitalia, available at phonitalia,org), rankings of phoneme age of acquisition (AoA) and rate of phoneme errors in patients with apraxia of speech (AoS) as an indication of articulatory complexity...
September 15, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912200/development-and-validation-of-electronic-quality-measures-to-assess-care-for-patients-with-transient-ischemic-attack-and-minor-ischemic-stroke
#8
Dawn M Bravata, Laura J Myers, Eric Cheng, Mathew Reeves, Fitsum Baye, Zhangsheng Yu, Teresa Damush, Edward J Miech, Jason Sico, Michael Phipps, Alan Zillich, Jason Johanning, Seemant Chaturvedi, Curt Austin, Jared Ferguson, Bailey Maryfield, Kathy Snow, Susan Ofner, Glenn Graham, Rachel Rhude, Linda S Williams, Greg Arling
BACKGROUND: Despite interest in using electronic health record (EHR) data to assess quality of care, the accuracy of such data is largely unknown. We sought to develop and validate transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke electronic quality measures (eQMs) using EHR data. METHODS AND RESULTS: A random sample of patients with transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke, cared for in Veterans Health Administration facilities (fiscal year 2011), was identified...
September 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911819/non-neurogenic-language-disorders-a-preliminary-classification
#9
REVIEW
Mario F Mendez
BACKGROUND: Few publications deal with non-neurogenic language disorders (NNLDs), distinct from psychogenic speech disorders such as psychogenic dysphonia or stuttering. NNLDs are alterations in language owing to psychosomatic preoccupations, conversion disorder, psychiatric disorders, or other psychological reasons. OBJECTIVE: To identify and classify the range of NNLDs and their characteristics. METHODS: This review summarizes the literature on disturbances in language, broadly defined as the use of symbols for communication, which may have a psychogenic or psychiatric etiology...
August 10, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910442/unilateral-laryngoscopic-findings-associated-with-response-to-gabapentin-in-patients-with-chronic-cough
#10
John Paul Giliberto, Daniel Dibildox, Albert Merati
Importance: Chronic cough is a debilitating, often multifactorial problem. Vagal neuropathy has been proposed as a cause for a fraction of these cases. There are certain features that support the clinical diagnosis of vagal neuropathy. It is hypothesized that patients with neurogenic cough who have vocal fold motion asymmetry (VFMA) on laryngoscopy will be more likely to respond to gabapentin. Objective: To evaluate the association between the history, physical and videostroboscopic examinations, and clinical response to gabapentin...
September 14, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906244/hearing-aid-use-and-mild-hearing-impairment-learnings-from-big-data
#11
Barbra H B Timmer, Louise Hickson, Stefan Launer
BACKGROUND: Previous research, mostly reliant on self-reports, has indicated that hearing aid (HA) use is related to the degree of hearing impairment (HI). No large-scale investigation of the relationship between data-logged HA use and HI has been conducted to date. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate if objective measures of overall daily HA use and HA use in various listening environments are different for adults with mild HI compared to adults with moderate HI...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906243/pediatric-hearing-aid-management-challenges-among-hispanic-families
#12
Ana Caballero, Karen Muñoz, Karl White, Lauri Nelson, Melanie Domenech-Rodriguez, Michael Twohig
BACKGROUND: Hearing aid fitting in infancy has become more common in the United States as a result of earlier identification of hearing loss. Consistency of hearing aid use is an area of concern for young children, as well as other hearing aid management challenges parents encounter that may contribute to less-than-optimal speech and language outcomes. Research that describes parent hearing aid management experiences of Spanish-speaking Hispanic families, or the extent of their needs, is not available...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901779/initial-consonant-deletion-in-bilingual-spanish-english-speaking-children-with-speech-sound-disorders
#13
Leah Fabiano-Smith, Suzanne Lea Cuzner
The purpose of this study was to utilize a theoretical model of bilingual speech sound production as a framework for analyzing the speech of bilingual children with speech sound disorders. In order to distinguish speech difference from speech disorder, we examined between-language interaction on initial consonant deletion, an error pattern found cross-linguistically in the speech of children with speech sound disorders. Thirteen monolingual English-speaking and bilingual Spanish-and English-speaking preschoolers with speech sound disorders were audio-recorded during a single word picture-naming task and their recordings were phonetically transcribed...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899551/relationship-between-neuronal-network-architecture-and-naming-performance-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-connectome-based-approach-using-machine-learning
#14
REVIEW
B C Munsell, G Wu, J Fridriksson, K Thayer, N Mofrad, N Desisto, D Shen, L Bonilha
Impaired confrontation naming is a common symptom of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The neurobiological mechanisms underlying this impairment are poorly understood but may indicate a structural disorganization of broadly distributed neuronal networks that support naming ability. Importantly, naming is frequently impaired in other neurological disorders and by contrasting the neuronal structures supporting naming in TLE with other diseases, it will become possible to elucidate the common systems supporting naming...
September 9, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899200/spoken-language-and-everyday-functioning-in-5-year-old-children-using-hearing-aids-or-cochlear-implants
#15
Linda Cupples, Teresa Yc Ching, Laura Button, Mark Seeto, Vicky Zhang, Jessica Whitfield, Miriam Gunnourie, Louise Martin, Vivienne Marnane
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the factors influencing 5-year language, speech and everyday functioning of children with congenital hearing loss. DESIGN: Standardised tests including PLS-4, PPVT-4 and DEAP were directly administered to children. Parent reports on language (CDI) and everyday functioning (PEACH) were collected. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of a range of demographic variables on outcomes. STUDY SAMPLE: Participants were 339 children enrolled in the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894969/categorical-speech-perception-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#16
Mary E Stewart, Alexandra M Petrou, Mitsuhiko Ota
This study tested whether individuals with autism spectrum conditions (n = 23) show enhanced discrimination of acoustic differences that signal a linguistic contrast (i.e., /g/ versus /k/ as in 'goat' and 'coat') and whether they process such differences in a less categorical fashion as compared with 23 IQ-matched typically developed adults. Tasks administered were nonverbal IQ, verbal IQ, 5 language measures, a speech perception task, and the ADOS. The speech perception task measured the discrimination of paired exemplars along the /g/-/k/ continuum...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894942/first-steps-towards-development-of-an-instrument-for-the-reproducible-quantification-of-oropharyngeal-swallow-physiology-in-bottle-fed-children
#17
Maureen A Lefton-Greif, Katlyn Elizabeth McGrattan, Kathryn A Carson, Jeanne M Pinto, Jennifer M Wright, Bonnie Martin-Harris
The incidence of feeding/swallowing impairments (deglutition disorders) in young children is rising and poses serious acute and long-term health consequences. Accurate detection and prompt intervention can lessen the impact of dysphagia-induced sequelae. Videofluoroscopic Swallow Studies (VFSSs) are used to make critical decisions for medically fragile children despite procedural variability and the lack of agreed upon measures for interpreting and reporting results. This investigation represents the first steps in the development of a novel tool for the quantification of oropharyngeal swallow physiology from full-length VFSS examinations in bottle-fed children...
September 11, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892822/audiometric-testing-with-pulsed-steady-and-warble-tones-in-listeners-with-tinnitus-and-hearing-loss
#18
Jennifer J Lentz, Matthew A Walker, Ciara E Short, Kimberly G Skinner
Purpose: This study evaluated the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's recommendation that audiometric testing for patients with tinnitus should use pulsed or warble tones. Using listeners with varied audiometric configurations and tinnitus statuses, we asked whether steady, pulsed, and warble tones yielded similar audiometric thresholds, and which tone type was preferred. Method: Audiometric thresholds (octave frequencies from 0.25-16 kHz) were measured using steady, pulsed, and warble tones in 61 listeners, who were divided into 4 groups on the basis of hearing and tinnitus status...
September 11, 2017: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892819/input-subject-diversity-accelerates-the-growth-of-tense-and-agreement-indirect-benefits-from-a-parent-implemented-intervention
#19
Pamela A Hadley, Matthew Rispoli, Janet K Holt
Purpose: This follow-up study examined whether a parent intervention that increased the diversity of lexical noun phrase subjects in parent input and accelerated children's sentence diversity (Hadley et al., 2017) had indirect benefits on tense/agreement (T/A) morphemes in parent input and children's spontaneous speech. Method: Differences in input variables related to T/A marking were compared for parents who received toy talk instruction and a quasi-control group: input informativeness and full is declaratives...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890684/neural-correlates-of-early-sound-encoding-and-their-relationship-to-speech-in-noise-perception
#20
Emily B J Coffey, Alexander M P Chepesiuk, Sibylle C Herholz, Sylvain Baillet, Robert J Zatorre
Speech-in-noise (SIN) perception is a complex cognitive skill that affects social, vocational, and educational activities. Poor SIN ability particularly affects young and elderly populations, yet varies considerably even among healthy young adults with normal hearing. Although SIN skills are known to be influenced by top-down processes that can selectively enhance lower-level sound representations, the complementary role of feed-forward mechanisms and their relationship to musical training is poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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