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Inherited metabolic disorders

Zerrin Demirtürk, Evren Şentürk, Abbas Köse, Perihan Ergin Özcan, Lütfi Telci
BACKGROUND: Biotinidase deficiency (BD) is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disorder that is treatable within childhood. We present a patient with pneumonia and respiratory acidosis who was not diagnosed with any systemic disorders; the patient was finally diagnosed as BD. CASE REPORT: A thirty-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with respiratory failure that had persisted for a few days and progressively weakening over the previous six months...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Amichai Gutgold, David J Gross, Benjamin Glaser, Auryan Szalat
CONTEXT: Hypoglycemia is a rare event in healthy adults, and the differential diagnosis includes many diseases some of which are rare and easily missed. Description of the case: A 20 year-old male military paramedic was referred to our Emergency Department for the investigation of recurrent hypoglycemia episodes during the last months. Factitious hypoglycemia was excluded and organic hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia was diagnosed by prolonged fast. Imaging studies (endoscopic ultrasound and triple-phase computed tomography) were normal...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Monika Dyczko, Anna Grzywa-Celińska, Wojciech Barud, Rafał Celiński, Wojciech Dworzański, Katarzyna Szmygin-Milanowska, Jerzy Mosiewicz
: Gaucher's disease if one of the most frequent, among extremely rare, lysosomal storage diseases. It is the autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder, which can present in three main clinical forms. Type 1 - the most benign, in a not-neuropathic form, and types 2 and 3, both in neuropathic form, which manifest serious neurological symptoms. AIM: The aim of the study was to draw attention to the late diagnosing of Gaucher's disease in the Polish population and to popularize the knowledge about this ultra-rare disease...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Reza Najafi, Mahin Hashemipour, Omid Yaghini, Fatemeh Najafi, Amirsalar Rashidianfar
CONTEXT: Aminoacidopathies refer to defects in protein synthesis pathways which result in a range of biochemical disorders and clinical presentations. The enzyme defects in intermediate metabolic pathways lead to accumulation of one or more amino acids or metabolites. Despite higher prevalence rates, screening infants for inherited metabolic disorders is not run in many Middle East countries. AIM: This research is part of a larger study of inherited metabolic disorders to characterize and measure the prevalence of aminoacidopathies...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Stephanie Romanus, Patrick Neven, Adelheid Soubry
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) theory focuses on the consequences of periconceptional and in utero exposures. A wide range of environmental conditions during early development are now being investigated as a driving force for epigenetic disruptions that enhance disease risk in later life, including cardiovascular, metabolic, endocrine, and mental disorders and even breast cancer. Most studies involve mother-child dyads, with less focus on environmental influences through the father...
October 12, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Judith A Hobert, Aiping Liu, Marzia Pasquali
Quantitative analysis of urine acylglycines has shown to be a highly sensitive and specific method with proven clinical utility for the diagnosis of several inherited metabolic disorders including: medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, isovaleric acidemia, propionic academia, and isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency...
October 11, 2016: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
S Somanadhan, P J Larkin
BACKGROUND: Many rare diseases of childhood are life-threatening and chronically debilitating, so living with a rare disease is an on-going challenge for patients and their families. MPS is one of a range of rare inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) that come under category 3 of life-limiting conditions, where there is no curative treatment available at present. Although the study of rare diseases is increasingly novel, and of clinical importance to the population, the lack of empirical data in the field to support policy and strategy development is a compelling argument for further research to be sought...
October 10, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Clara D M van Karnebeek, Kristin Bowden, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis
BACKGROUND: Neurogenetic developmental conditions represent a heterogeneous group of rare inherited disorders with neurological manifestation during development. Treatments for these conditions have largely been supportive; however, a number of treatments are emerging which target the underlying physiology and offer great potential. Our aim was to present a state-of-the-art overview of the current and potential causal treatments available or under development for neurogenetic developmental conditions...
July 26, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Hung-Chi Yang, Yi-Hsuan Wu, Hui-Ya Liu, Arnold Stern, Daniel Tsun-Yee Chiu
G6PD deficiency has been the most pervasive inherited disorder in the world since having been discovered. G6PD has an antioxidant role by functioning as a major NADPH provider to reduce excessive oxidative stress. NADPH can produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species mediated by NADPH oxidase (NOX) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), respectively. Hence, G6PD also has a pro-oxidant role. Research in the past has focused on the enhanced susceptibility of G6PD-deficient cells or individuals to oxidative challenge...
August 10, 2016: Free Radical Research
Cristian Layton Tovar, Hugo Mendieta Zerón
Among the most prevalent neoplasias, breast cancer shows an astonishing tendency. Unfortunately this cancer has a high mortality worldwide, requiring sustained management of all actors involved in public health in order to get an early diagnosis and treatment. The methods associated with conventional cytogenetics and molecular cell culture, besides early detection of gene expression patterns associated with cancer susceptibility, have contributed to identify inherited genes and metabolic disorders related to obesity, which are also involved in breast cancer...
July 2013: EJIFCC
M J Kotze, D P van Velden, S J van Rensburg, R Erasmus
Iron uptake, utilisation, release and storage occur at the gene level. Individuals with variant forms of genes involved in iron metabolism may have different requirements for iron and are likely to respond differently to the same amount of iron in the diet, a concept termed nutrigenetics. Iron deficiency, iron overload and the anemia of inflammation are the commonest iron-related disorders. While at least four types of hereditary iron overload have been identified to date, our knowledge of the genetic basis and consequences of inherited iron deficiency remain limited...
August 2009: EJIFCC
Raashda Ainuddin Sulaiman, Marwan Yassin Shaheen, Hamad Al-Zaidan, Zuhair Al-Hassnan, Moeenaldeen Al-Sayed, Zuhair Rahbeeni, Nasir Ahmed Bakshi, Namik Kaya, Mazhor Aldosary, Mohammed Al-Owain
We report an unusual case of recurrent encephalopathy due to acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in a patient with propionic acidemia (PA). PA is an inherited metabolic disorder in which patients often present with encephalopathy and pancytopenia during metabolic decompensation. However, these patients may rarely develop HLH with similar presentation. This case illustrates the need to distinguish HLH induced encephalopathy from the one secondary to metabolic decompensation in these patients, as early diagnosis and treatment of HLH improves prognosis...
August 2016: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Ivo Barić, Christian Staufner, Persephone Augoustides-Savvopoulou, Yin-Hsiu Chien, Dries Dobbelaere, Sarah C Grünert, Thomas Opladen, Danijela Petković Ramadža, Bojana Rakić, Anna Wedell, Henk J Blom
Inherited methylation disorders are a group of rarely reported, probably largely underdiagnosed disorders affecting transmethylation processes in the metabolic pathway between methionine and homocysteine. These are methionine adenosyltransferase I/III, glycine N-methyltransferase, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and adenosine kinase deficiencies. This paper provides the first consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and management of methylation disorders. Following search of the literature and evaluation according to the SIGN-methodology of all reported patients with methylation defects, graded recommendations are provided in a structured way comprising diagnosis (clinical presentation, biochemical abnormalities, differential diagnosis, newborn screening, prenatal diagnosis), therapy and follow-up...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Joeva J Barrow, Eduardo Balsa, Francisco Verdeguer, Clint D J Tavares, Meghan S Soustek, Louis R Hollingsworth, Mark Jedrychowski, Rutger Vogel, Joao A Paulo, Jan Smeitink, Steve P Gygi, John Doench, David E Root, Pere Puigserver
Mitochondrial diseases comprise a heterogeneous group of genetically inherited disorders that cause failures in energetic and metabolic function. Boosting residual oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity can partially correct these failures. Herein, using a high-throughput chemical screen, we identified the bromodomain inhibitor I-BET 525762A as one of the top hits that increases COX5a protein levels in complex I (CI) mutant cybrid cells. In parallel, bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), a target of I-BET 525762A, was identified using a genome-wide CRISPR screen to search for genes whose loss of function rescues death of CI-impaired cybrids grown under conditions requiring OXPHOS activity for survival...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Cell
Saoussen M'Dimegh, Cécile Aquaviva-Bourdain, Asma Omezzine, Ibtihel M'Barek, Geneviéve Souche, Dorsaf Zellama, Kamel Abidi, Abdelattif Achour, Tahar Gargah, Saoussen Abroug, Ali Bouslama
Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by inherited mutations in the AGXT gene encoding liver peroxisomal alanine : glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) which is deficient or mistargeted to mitochondria. PH1 shows considerable phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. The incidence and severity of PH1 varies in different geographic regions. DNA samples of the affected members from two unrelated Tunisian families were tested by amplifying and sequencing each of the AGXT exons and intron-exon junctions...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Silvia Castagnaro, Camilla Pellegrini, Massimo Pellegrini, Martina Chrisam, Patrizia Sabatelli, Silvia Toni, Paolo Grumati, Claudio Ripamonti, Loredana Pratelli, Nadir M Maraldi, Daniela Cocchi, Valeria Righi, Cesare Faldini, Marco Sandri, Paolo Bonaldo, Luciano Merlini
A pilot clinical trial based on nutritional modulation was designed to assess the efficacy of a one-year low-protein diet in activating autophagy in skeletal muscle of patients affected by COL6/collagen VI-related myopathies. Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy are rare inherited muscle disorders caused by mutations of COL6 genes and for which no cure is yet available. Studies in col6 null mice revealed that myofiber degeneration involves autophagy defects and that forced activation of autophagy results in the amelioration of muscle pathology...
September 22, 2016: Autophagy
M Focardi, V Pinchi, B Defraia, B Gualco, G Varvara, G A Norelli
Starting from an international overview of the current status of screening programs, the present paper focuses on the legal situation in Italy and the great differences among Italian regions. Since the introduction of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in the ‘90s the paradigm “one spot-one disease” changed. Only recently, some regions issued legislative acts to promote expanded newborn screening with MS/MS. This approach raises medico-legal and ethical issues because a fast neonatal diagnosis of an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) could increase chances of an early treatment and reduce disabilities, therefore citizens ought to have the same access to care countrywide...
July 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Enrique Rodríguez-Lomba, Irene Molina-López, Verónica Parra-Blanco, Ricardo Suárez-Fernández, Minia Campos-Domínguez
Papular elastorrhexis (PE) is an uncommon elastic tissue disorder clinically characterized by the onset of asymptomatic flesh-colored to whitish papules over the trunk and upper limbs in children. Its etiology remains unknown, although isolated familial cases have suggested that acquired and inherited forms of the disease may exist. We present the case of a 13-year-old boy with human immunodeficiency virus who presented with such lesions after immunological recovery from very low CD4(+) counts after introducing highly active antiretroviral therapy...
September 22, 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
Haluk Topaloglu, Judith Melki
A rare syndrome characterized by lower motor neuron disease associated with progressive myoclonic epilepsy, referred to as "spinal muscular atrophy associated with progressive myoclonic epilepsy" (SMA-PME), has been described in childhood and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. SMA-PME is caused by mutation in the ASAH1 gene encoding acid ceramidase. Ceramide and the metabolites participate in various cellular events as lipid mediators. The catabolism of ceramide in mammals occurs in lysosomes through the activity of ceramidase...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Géraldine Liot, Julien Valette, Jérémy Pépin, Julien Flament, Emmanuel Brouillet
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with involuntary abnormal movements (chorea), cognitive deficits and psychiatric disturbances. The most striking neuropathological change in HD is the early atrophy of the striatum. While the disease progresses, other brain structures also degenerate, including the cerebral cortex. Changes are also seen outside the brain, in particular weight loss/cachexia despite high dietary intake. The disease is caused by an abnormal expansion of a CAG repeat in the gene encoding the huntingtin protein (Htt)...
September 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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