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Acute cellular rejection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933173/-cytomegalovirus-and-polyomavirus-infection-after-renal-transplantation
#1
Jana Machová, Tomáš Reischig
Viral infections are among the most common infectious complications affecting transplant recipients. Due to immunosuppressive therapy predominantly affecting cellular immunity and thus successfully reducing the incidence of acute rejection, there is a higher incidence of viral infections. Herpesviruses and polyomaviruses are ubiquitous pathogens which have the ability to persist in a state of latent infection. In addition to post-transplant reactivation, donor-induced primoinfection can also occur, leading to increased morbidity and contributing to decreased survival of patients...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926770/1-25-oh-2d3-induces-regulatory-t-cell-differentiation-by-influencing-the-vdr-plc-%C3%AE-1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-pathway
#2
Qiang Zhou, Shengying Qin, Jinyan Zhang, Lin Zhon, Zhihai Pen, Tonghai Xing
Vitamin D has been recommended as an immune modulator in recent years, in addition to regulating calcium-phosphorous-bone metabolism. Clinical studies on organ transplantation found that vitamin D sufficiency patients were less likely to develop acute cellular rejection within one year after transplantation compared to those with vitamin D deficiency. Thus, a high percentage of regulatory T cells might play a key role in preventing acute cellular rejection (ACR). In this report, we studied the specific effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on human T cell diff ;erentiation, and determined the potential molecule mechanism behind...
September 16, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921709/kidney-allograft-failure-in-the-steroid-free-immunosuppression-era-a-matched-case-control-study
#3
Mohamad M Alkadi, Jim Kim, Meredith J Aull, Joseph E Schwartz, John R Lee, Anthony Watkins, Jun B Lee, Darshana M Dadhania, Surya V Seshan, David Serur, Sandip Kapur, Manikkam Suthanthiran, Choli Hartono, Thangamani Muthukumar
We studied the causes and predictors of death-censored kidney allograft failure among 1670 kidney recipients transplanted at our center in the corticosteroid-free maintenance immunosuppression era. As of January 1, 2012, we identified 137 recipients with allograft failure; 130 of them (cases) were matched 1-1 for recipient age, calendar year of transplant and donor type with 130 recipients with functioning grafts (controls). Median time to allograft failure was 29 months (interquartile range 18-51). Physician validated and biopsy confirmed categories of allograft failure were: acute rejection (21%), glomerular disease (19%), transplant glomerulopathy (13%), interstitial fibrosis tubular atrophy (10%), and polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (7%)...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894794/short-and-long-term-outcomes-of-de-novo-liver-transplant-patients-treated-with-once-daily-prolonged-release-tacrolimus
#4
Yuichiro Okumura, Takehiro Noda, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Yoshifumi Iwagami, Daisaku Yamada, Tadafumi Asaoka, Hiroshi Wada, Koichi Kawamoto, Kunihito Gotoh, Yutaka Takeda, Masahiro Tanemura, Shigeru Marubashi, Koji Umeshita, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori
BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus is the key immunosuppressive drug for liver transplantation. Once-daily prolonged-release tacrolimus (TAC-PR) exhibits good drug adherence but has difficulty controlling the trough level in the early phase of liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to compare the feasibility and efficacy of immediately starting oral TAC-PR versus traditional twice-daily tacrolimus (TAC-BID) in de novo liver transplantation recipients. METHODS: The study included 28 patients treated with conventional TAC-BID and 60 patients treated with TAC-PR (median follow-up 70...
September 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875890/new-onset-diabetes-after-transplant-incidence-risk-factors-and-outcome
#5
S C Alagbe, A Voster, R Ramesar, C R Swanepoel
BACKGROUND: The outcome of renal transplantation depends on achieving effective immunosuppression while minimising the consequences of such treatment. The occurrence of new-onset diabetes in the post-transplant period has been associated with several risk factors including some immunosuppressive medication. Better understanding of the clinical and genetic risk factors associated with new-onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT) could enable risk stratification of patients in the pre-transplant period, with the goal of applying measures that will reduce the incidence...
August 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873074/adipose-derived-cellular-therapies-in-solid-organ-and-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation
#6
Katlin B Stivers, Jason E Beare, Paula M Chilton, Stuart K Williams, Christina L Kaufman, James B Hoying
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Controlling acute allograft rejection following vascularized composite allotransplantation requires strict adherence to courses of systemic immunosuppression. Discovering new methods to modulate the alloreactive immune response is essential for widespread application of vascularized composite allotransplantation. Here, we discuss how adipose-derived cellular therapies represent novel treatment options for immune modulation and tolerance induction in vascularized composite allotransplantation...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838454/acute-graft-rejection-and-formation-of-de-novo-donor-specific-antibodies-triggered-by-low-cyclosporine-levels-and-interferon-therapy-for-recurrent-hepatitis-c-infection-after-liver-transplantation-a-case-report
#7
R Nakano, M Ohira, K Ishiyama, K Ide, T Kobayashi, H Tahara, S Shimizu, K Arihiro, M Imamura, K Chayama, Y Tanaka, H Ohdan
BACKGROUND: We report a case of acute rejection of a liver graft, together with the occurrence of de novo donor-specific antibodies (DSAs), in a 53-year-old Japanese man who had undergone deceased-donor liver transplantation. METHODS: The graft rejection was triggered by low cyclosporine levels and pegylated interferon treatment for the recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection 18 months after transplantation. Although the graft was ABO-compatible, pre-formed DSA B51 was detected; therefore, total plasma exchange was performed and intravenous rituximab (500 mg/body) was administered before transplantation...
September 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808594/spontaneous-renal-allograft-rupture-caused-by-acute-tubular-necrosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Deepak Shankar Ray, Sharmila Thukral
Renal allograft rupture (RAR) is a rare but lethal complication of renal transplantation. It potentially threatens graft and patient survival. RAR is frequently associated with acute rejection, but other causes like renal vein thrombosis and acute tubular necrosis have also been observed. Most commonly a graft nephrectomy is required, but graft repair can also be attempted in selected cases to salvage the graft. Herein, we describe a rare case of spontaneous renal allograft rupture in the early posttransplant period due to acute tubular necrosis...
2017: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789823/serum-exosomal-protein-profiling-for-the-non-invasive-detection-of-cardiac-allograft-rejection
#9
Peter J Kennel, Amit Saha, Dawn A Maldonado, Raymond Givens, Danielle L Brunjes, Estibaliz Castillero, Xiaokan Zhang, Ruiping Ji, Alexandre Yahi, Isaac George, Donna M Mancini, Antonius Koller, Barry Fine, Emmanuel Zorn, Paolo C Colombo, Nicholas Tatonetti, Emily I Chen, P Christian Schulze
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are cell-derived circulating vesicles that play an important role in cell-cell communication. Exosomes are actively assembled and carry messenger RNAs, microRNAs and proteins. The "gold standard" for cardiac allograft surveillance is endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), an invasive technique with a distinct complication profile. The development of novel, non-invasive methods for the early diagnosis of allograft rejection is warranted. We hypothesized that the exosomal proteome is altered in acute rejection, allowing for a distinction between non-rejection and rejection episodes...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766066/outcome-of-kidney-transplantation-in-pediatric-patients-with-anca-associated-glomerulonephritis-a-single-center-experience
#10
Damien Noone, Rae S M Yeung, Diane Hebert
OBJECTIVES: Data on kidney transplant outcomes for pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody glomerulonephritis (ANCA GN), particularly granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), is limited. We describe our experience of kidney transplantation in pediatric ANCA GN patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with ANCA GN who developed ESRD and were transplanted at a single center between the years 2000 and 2014...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764990/reporting-the-first-subcutaneous-icd-placed-in-the-immediate-postorthotopic-heart-transplant-period-for-acute-cellular-rejection-associated-cardiac-arrest-and-investigating-the-role-of-secondary-prevention-icds-in-this-population
#11
Mudit Kaushal, Jonathan Leff, Jay Gross, William Alex Jakobleff, Stephen Forest, Galina Leyvi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752907/down-regulation-of-protective-genes-is-associated-with-cellular-and-antibody-mediated-rejection
#12
Hui Tzu Lin-Wang, Reginaldo Cipullo, Jarbas J Dinkhuysen, Marco A Finger, João M Rossi, Edileide B Correia, Mário H Hirata
Despite advances in immunosuppressive therapy, rejection still remains the main obstacle to a successful transplant. This study aims to explore the gene expression profile of the rejection process in order to decrease the number of unnecessary endomyocardial biopsies in stable patients. METHODS: A total of 300 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) endomyocardial biopsies sampled from 63 heart allograft recipients were included in this study. Acute cellular rejection (ACR) and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) were diagnosed by histological analysis and immunohistochemical C4d staining, respectively...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751522/liver-allograft-biopsies-with-histological-cholestasis-a-clinicopathological-study-of-254-cases-from-a-single-centre
#13
Regina Cheuk-Lam Lo, Kristy Kwan-Shuen Chan, Kenneth Siu-Ho Chok, Irene Oi-Lin Ng
AIMS: Liver allograft biopsy is important in the management of liver transplant (LT) recipients. Cholestasis is an indicator of liver dysfunction, and histological evidence of cholestasis can be observed in a wide range of pathological entities in the post-LT setting. In this study, we describe the clinicopathological features and significance of liver allograft biopsies with histological cholestasis over 11 years in our centre. METHODS: Liver allograft biopsies performed in Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong from 2004 to 2014 showing histological cholestasis were retrieved from the pathology archive...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743539/recommendations-of-everolimus-use-in-liver-transplant
#14
Angel Rubín Suárez, Itxarone Bilbao Aguirre, Javier Fernández-Castroagudin, José Antonio Pons Miñano, Magdalena Salcedo Plaza, Evaristo Varo Pérez, Martín Prieto Castillo
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, everolimus (EVL) and sirolimus are immunosuppressive agents with a minor nephrotoxic effect, limited to the development of proteinuria in some cases. The combination of EVL and low-dose tacrolimus has proven to be as safe and effective as standard therapy with tacrolimus for the prevention of acute cellular rejection. Early initiation of EVL-based immunosuppressive regimens with reduced exposure to calcineurin inhibitors has been shown to significantly improve renal function of LT recipients during induction and maintenance phases, with comparable efficacy and safety profiles...
July 22, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731207/polyclonal-and-monoclonal-antibodies-for-treating-acute-rejection-episodes-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#15
REVIEW
Angela C Webster, Sunny Wu, Krishna Tallapragada, Min Young Park, Jeremy R Chapman, Sue J Carr
BACKGROUND: Registry data shows that the incidence of acute rejection has been steadily falling. Approximately 10% to 35% of kidney recipients will undergo treatment for at least one episode of acute rejection within the first post-transplant year. Treatment options include pulsed steroid therapy, the use of an antibody preparation, the alteration of background immunosuppression, or combinations of these options. Over recent years, new treatment strategies have evolved, and in many parts of the world there has been an increase in use of tacrolimus and mycophenolate and a reduction in the use of cyclosporin and azathioprine use as baseline immunosuppression to prevent acute rejection...
July 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709641/glucocest-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in%C3%A2-vivo-may-be-diagnostic-of-acute-renal-allograft-rejection
#16
Dominik Kentrup, Philipp Bovenkamp, Annika Busch, Katharina Schuette-Nuetgen, Helga Pawelski, Hermann Pavenstädt, Eberhard Schlatter, Karl-Heinz Herrmann, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Bettina Löffler, Barbara Heitplatz, Veerle Van Marck, Nirbhay N Yadav, Guanshu Liu, Peter C M van Zijl, Stefan Reuter, Verena Hoerr
Acute cellular renal allograft rejection (AR) frequently occurs after kidney transplantations. It is a sterile T-cell mediated inflammation leading to increased local glucose metabolism. Here we demonstrate in an allogeneic model of Brown Norway rat kidneys transplanted into uninephrectomized Lewis rats the successful implementation of the recently developed glucose chemical exchange saturation transfer (glucoCEST) magnetic resonance imaging. This technique is a novel method to assess and differentiate AR...
September 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706981/outcomes-of-liver-transplant-recipients-with-autoimmune-liver-disease-using-long-term-dual-immunosuppression-regimen-without-corticosteroid
#17
Sanjaya K Satapathy, Ollie D Jones, Jason M Vanatta, Faisal Kamal, Satish K Kedia, Yu Jiang, Satheesh P Nair, James D Eason
BACKGROUND: Liver transplant (LT) recipients with autoimmune liver disease (primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis) are at increased risk of developing acute cellular rejection (ACR), and in many cases graft failure due to recurrent disease. We describe our experience with dual immunosuppression without steroid maintenance and analyze its effect on disease recurrence; ACR; patient and graft survivals; and complications, such as sepsis and de novo malignancy...
July 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705752/polymorphisms-of-the-human-platelet-antigen-1-2-3-5-and-15-systems-and-acute-cellular-liver-transplant-rejection
#18
Hansjörg Thude, Wiebke Bischoff, Martina Sterneck, Matthias Marget, Björn Nashan, Martina Koch
The human platelet antigen (HPA)-1, -2, -3, -5, and -15 systems are characterized as polymorphic alloantigens expressed on platelets and endothelial cells. In this retrospective study, we investigated, whether HPA-1, -2, -3, -5, and -15 incompatibilities are associated with acute cellular liver transplant rejection. A total of 96 Caucasian liver transplant recipients and corresponding donors were analyzed, 43 with biopsy proven acute cellular rejection (BPAR) and 53 without acute cellular rejection (No-BPAR)...
July 10, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691954/maintenance-belatacept-based-immunosuppression-in-lung-transplantation-recipients-who-failed-calcineurin-inhibitors
#19
Carlo J Iasella, Ryan J Winstead, Cody A Moore, Bruce A Johnson, Ayelet T Feinberg, Matthew R Morrell, J W Awori Hayanga, Elizabeth A Lendermon, Adriana Zeevi, John F McDyer, Christopher R Ensor
BACKGROUND: Traditional immunosuppressive regimens (ISR) used in lung transplantation rely on calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) that occasionally cause severe adverse reactions necessitating discontinuation. Belatacept is a novel costimulation antagonist approved for use in renal transplantation which lacks data in lung transplantation. This series aims to describe the response to belatacept ISR in 11 lung transplantation recipients after CNI failure. METHODS: Single center, retrospective medical record review of adult lung transplant recipients (LTR) before and after conversion to belatacept-based ISR...
July 6, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665300/transplant-trials-with-tregs-perils-and-promises
#20
REVIEW
Qizhi Tang, Flavio Vincenti
Modern immunosuppression regimens effectively control acute rejection and decrease graft loss in the first year after transplantation; however, these regimens do not have a durable effect on long-term graft survival owing to a combination of drug toxicities and the emergence of chronic alloimmune responses. Eliminating drugs and their toxicities while maintaining graft acceptance has been the primary aim of cellular therapies. Tregs suppress both autoimmune and alloimmune responses and are particularly effective in protecting allografts in experimental transplant models...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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