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Acute cellular rejection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089194/left-ventricular-global-longitudinal-strain-predicts-major-adverse-cardiac-events-and-all-cause-mortality-in-heart-transplant-patients
#1
Tor Skibsted Clemmensen, Hans Eiskjær, Brian Bridal Løgstrup, Lars Bo Ilkjær, Steen Hvitfeldt Poulsen
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) is a robust longitudinal myocardial deformation marker that is strongly affected by cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), microvascular dysfunction, and acute cellular rejection (ACR). We evaluated graft deformation for risk stratification in long-term heart transplant (HTx) patients. METHODS: The study included 196 patients who underwent HTx between 2011 and 2013. Patients underwent comprehensive echocardiography and coronary angiography...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073833/exosomal-mir-142-3p-is-increased-during-cardiac-allograft-rejection-and-augments-vascular-permeability-through-down-regulation-of-endothelial-rab11fip2-expression
#2
Ihdina Sukma Dewi, Selvi Celik, Anna Karlsson, Zsuzsanna Hollander, Karen Lam, Janet-Wilson McManus, Scott Tebbutt, Raymond Ng, Paul Keown, Robert McMaster, Bruce McManus, Jenny Öhman, Olof Gidlöf
AIMS: Exosome-mediated microRNA transfer is a recently discovered mode of cell-to-cell communication, in which microRNAs act as paracrine molecules, exerting their regulatory effects in recipient cells. T cells and endothelial cells are two main players in the mechanism of acute cellular cardiac rejection. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of exosomal microRNAs in the crosstalk between T cells and endothelial cells and its implications for the molecular mechanisms that drive acute cellular rejection in heart transplantation...
January 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070117/re-transplantation-higher-creatinine-levels-in-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-and-donor-age-are-predictors-of-mortality-in-long-term-analysis-of-late-acute-rejection-in-liver-transplantation
#3
Lucas Souto Nacif, Rafael Soares Pinheiro, Rafael Antônio de Arruda Pécora, Ryan Yukimatsu Tanigawa, Vinicius Rocha-Santos, Wellington Andraus, Venancio Avancini Ferreira Alves, Luiz Carneiro D'Albuquerque
BACKGROUND Late acute rejection (LAR) differs in its clinical and histological presentation and management from early acute rejection. This clinical entity is not completely understood; thus, we aimed to identify significant prognostic factors that can influence post-transplant survival in LAR patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and post-transplant survival of patients from a single center with a focus on late acute rejection. MATERIAL AND METHODS From January 2002 to June 2013, all liver biopsies from patients with rejection were scored using the Banff criteria...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059835/donor-liver-small-droplet-macrovesicular-steatosis-is-associated-with-increased-risk-for-recipient-allograft-rejection
#4
Won-Tak Choi, Kuang-Yu Jen, Dongliang Wang, Mehdi Tavakol, John P Roberts, Ryan M Gill
Although donor livers with <30% large droplet macrovesicular steatosis (MaS) and/or small droplet MaS (irrespective of percentage) are considered safe to use, this consensus is based on variable definitions of MaS subtypes and/or without a reproducible scoring system. We analyzed 134 donor liver biopsies from allografts transplanted at University of California at San Francisco between 2000 and 2015 to determine whether large and/or small droplet MaS is a risk factor for poor outcomes. Large droplet MaS was defined as a fat droplet occupying greater than one half of an individual hepatocyte, with nuclear displacement, and scored as the percentage of total parenchymal area replaced by large fat droplets on ×40 magnification...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058227/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-transplanted-pediatric-heart-as-a-potential-predictor-of-rejection
#5
Steven C Greenway, Frederic Dallaire, Paul F Kantor, Anne I Dipchand, Rajiv R Chaturvedi, Monali Warade, Eugenie Riesenkampff, Shi-Joon Yoo, Lars Grosse-Wortmann
AIM: To evaluate cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) as a non-invasive tool to detect acute cellular rejection (ACR) in children after heart transplant (HT). METHODS: Thirty pediatric HT recipients underwent CMR at the time of surveillance endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and results were compared to 14 non-transplant controls. Biventricular volumes, ejection fractions (EFs), T2-weighted signal intensities, native T1 times, extracellular volumes (ECVs) and presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) were compared between patients and controls and between patients with International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) grade ≥ 2R rejection and those with grade 0/1R...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035084/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-modulators-and-drug-discovery
#6
REVIEW
Soo-Jin Park, Dong-Soon Im
Initial discovery on sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) as an intracellular second messenger was faced unexpectedly with roles of S1P as a first messenger, which subsequently resulted in cloning of its G protein-coupled receptors, S1P₁₋₅. The molecular identification of S1P receptors opened up a new avenue for pathophysiological research on this lipid mediator. Cellular and molecular in vitro studies and in vivo studies on gene deficient mice have elucidated cellular signaling pathways and the pathophysiological meanings of S1P receptors...
January 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008661/rescue-alemtuzumab-for-refractory-acute-cellular-rejection-and-bronchiolitis-obliterans-syndrome-after-lung-transplantation
#7
Christopher R Ensor, Lindsey C Rihtarchik, Matthew R Morrell, J W Awori Hayanga, Alicia B Lichvar, Joseph M Pilewski, Stephen Wisniewski, Bruce A Johnson, Jonathan D'Cunha, Adriana Zeevi, John F McDyer
Refractory acute-cellular rejection (rACR) is associated with death and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post-lung transplantation. We report the largest cohort of lung transplant recipients (LTR) treated with rescue alemtuzumab for rACR or BOS. RACR outcomes included burden of ACR 30-days before and 180-days after rescue assessed by a novel composite rejection standardized score (CRSS, range 0-6); freedom from ≥A2 ACR. BOS outcomes included freedom from BOS progression and FEV1 decline >10%. Univariate parametric and nonparametric statistical approaches were used to assess treatment response...
December 23, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990483/identification-of-novel-and-noninvasive-biomarkers-of-acute-cellular-rejection-after-liver-transplantation-by-protein-microarray
#8
Keita Okubo, Hiroshi Wada, Atsushi Tanaka, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Masahide Hamaguchi, Akira Tomokuni, Yoshito Tomimaru, Tadafumi Asaoka, Naoki Hama, Koichi Kawamoto, Shogo Kobayashi, Shigeru Marubashi, Hiroaki Nagano, Noriko Sakaguchi, Hiroyoshi Nishikawa, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Shimon Sakaguchi
BACKGROUND: Acute cellular rejection (ACR) is one of the main factors in transplanted organ failure in liver transplantation. A precise marker for diagnosing or predicting rejection is not currently available; therefore, invasive liver biopsy is standard procedure. To develop a noninvasive method for precise diagnosis of ACR, we evaluated autoantibodies from patient sera as potential biomarkers using protein microarrays (seromics). METHODS: Sera from hepatitis C virus-positive ACR patients were compared to three hepatitis C virus cirrhosis control groups and healthy volunteers...
December 2016: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990480/efficacy-of-acute-cellular-rejection-treatment-according-to-banff-score-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Caroline Lamarche, Jean-Maxime Côté, Lynne Sénécal, Héloïse Cardinal
BACKGROUND: The poor prognosis classically associated with Banff grade 2 acute cell-mediated rejection (CMR) may be due to unrecognized antibody-mediated damage. We thus performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the rate of response to treatment in kidney transplant recipients with pure CMR, stratified by Banff class. METHODS: In addition to a manual search, databases interrogated included Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) databases, Central, PubMed and CINAHL...
December 2016: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974559/mtor-promotes-anti-viral-humoral-immunity-by-differentially-regulating-cd4-helper-t-cell-and-b-cell-responses
#10
Lilin Ye, Junghwa Lee, Lifan Xu, Ata-Ur-Rasheed Mohammed, Weiyan Li, J Scott Hale, Wendy G Tan, Tuoqi Wu, Carl W Davis, Rafi Ahmed, Koichi Araki
: mTOR has important roles in regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity but whether and how mTOR modulates humoral immune responses is yet to be fully understood. To address this issue, we examined the effects of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, on B cell and CD4 T cell responses during acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Rapamycin treatment resulted in suppression of virus-specific B cell responses by inhibiting proliferation of germinal center (GC) B cells...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973391/a-3-center-study-reveals-new-insights-into-the-impact-of-nonhla-antibodies-on-lung-transplantation-outcome
#11
Nancy L Reinsmoen, James Mirocha, Christopher R Ensor, Marilyn Marrari, George Chaux, Deborah J Levine, Xiaohai Zhang, Adriana Zeevi
BACKGROUND: The presence of antibodies to angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and endothelin type A receptor (ETAR) is associated with allograft rejection in kidney and heart transplantation. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of AT1R and ETAR antibodies on graft outcome in lung transplantation. METHODS: Pre and posttransplant sera from 162 lung recipients transplanted at 3 centers between 2011 and 2013 were tested for antibodies to AT1R and ETAR by the ELISA assay...
August 4, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938774/a-48-year-old-man-with-leukopenia-jaundice-and-skin-rash-after-lung%C3%A2-transplantation
#12
Ali Ataya, Abhishek Biswas, Satish Chandrashekaran, Juan C Salgado, Steven S Goldstein, Amir M Emtiazjoo
A 48-year-old African-American male subject presented with progressive fatigue, jaundice, and new-onset leukopenia 12 weeks after undergoing bilateral lung transplantation for advanced pulmonary sarcoidosis. His transplant surgery and immediate posttransplantation course were uneventful. Induction immunosuppression included methylprednisolone 500 mg intraoperatively and basiliximab (anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody) on days 0 and 4 after transplantation. His maintenance immunosuppression posttransplantation was prednisone 20 mg daily, tacrolimus with target tacrolimus levels 10 to 15 ng/mL, and mycophenolate mofetil 750 mg twice daily...
December 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932138/potential-immunomodulatory-role-of-specific-anticytomegalovirus-intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-heart-recipients
#13
J Carbone, A Gallego, J Fernandez Yañez, I Sousa, E Sarmiento
BACKGROUND: Specific anticytomegalovirus (anti-CMV) intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has the potential to influence the immune response, but its complex mode of action has not been well evaluated. METHODS: An immunologic study of 6 CMV-seronegative heart transplant patients receiving anti-CMV prophylaxis with the use of ganciclovir and CMV-IVIG (150 mg/kg within 24 hours after transplantation and 100 mg/kg on days 2, 7, 14, 22, 35, 56, and 77 after transplantation) was performed in a single center...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932107/antibody-mediated-acute-vascular-rejection-of-kidney-allografts-fifteen-year-follow-up
#14
B Rodríguez Cubillo, I Pérez Flores, N Calvo, A Pascual, J A Cortés, M A Moreno, J Blanco, A Sánchez Fructuoso
BACKGROUND: Although acute vascular rejection (AVR) is associated with a high risk of graft loss, it remains unclear whether AVR with accompanied cellular or humoral rejection (AHR) has dissimilar outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between subtypes of AVR and graft loss. METHODS: We assessed patients who provided biopsy samples for acute allograft rejection from 1998 to 2014. To investigate distinct rejection patterns, we retrospectively assessed rejection episodes with review of graft histology as well as donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies when available...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916033/-the-early-changes-of-respiratory-system-resistance-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-lymphocytes-infiltrated-in-graft-after-lung-transplantation-of-mouse
#15
Q R Chen, L F Wang, Y M Zhang, J N Xu, H Li, Y Z Ding
Objectives: To generate an orthotopic left lung transplantation model in mice, and to observe the early changes of respiratory system resistance and γδT lymphocytes infiltrated in grafts. Methods: The research time was from March 2014 to May 2015. The male C57BL/6 mice (n=35) and BALB/c mice (syngenic group, n=10) were randomly divided into five groups. Control group (n=5): wild C57BL/6 mice; syngenic transplant group (n=10): C57BL/6→C57BL/6; allogenic transplant group(allogenic group, n=10): BALB/c→C57BL/6; each transplant group was randomly divided into 3-day and 7-day subgroups (n=5)...
December 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915964/posttransplant-de-novo-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-renal-transplant-recipients-its-impact-on-morbidity-and-mortality
#16
Farina M Hanif, S Muddasir Laeeq, Nasir Hassan Luck, Tahir Aziz, Zaigham Abbas, Muhammed Mubarak
OBJECTIVES: The clinical effects of hepatitis C virus infection acquired after transplant have not been thoroughly studied. We aimed to study hepatitis C virus-related morbidity and mortality with de novo hepatitis C virus infection after renal transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from mortality files were retrospectively collected from January 2011 to January 2015. Patients were divided into 2 groups: hepatitis C virus positive (group A) and hepatitis C virus negative (group B)...
December 2, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898719/myocardial-gene-expression-profiling-to-predict-and-identify-cardiac-allograft-acute-cellular-rejection-the-get-study
#17
Diane Bodez, Hakim Hocini, Nicolas Tchitchek, Pascaline Tisserand, Nicole Benhaiem, Caroline Barau, Mounira Kharoubi, Aziz Guellich, Soulef Guendouz, Costin Radu, Jean-Paul Couetil, Bijan Ghaleh, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Emmanuel Teiger, Luc Hittinger, Yves Levy, Thibaud Damy
AIMS: Serial invasive endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) remain the gold standard for acute cellular rejection (ACR) diagnosis. However histological grading has several limitations. We aimed to explore the value of myocardial Gene Expression Profiling (GEP) for diagnosing and identifying predictive biomarkers of ACR. METHODS: A case-control study nested within a retrospective heart transplant patients cohort included 126 patients with median (IQR) age 50 (41-57) years and 111 (88%) males...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893614/the-presence-of-pretransplant-hla-antibodies-does-not-impact-the-development-of-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction-or-clad-related-death
#18
Oscar E Zazueta, Sara E Preston, Anna Moniodis, Sabrina Fried, Miae Kim, Keri Townsend, Isabelle Wood, Steve Boukedes, Indira Guleria, Phillip Camp, Souheil El-Chemaly, Ivan O Rosas, Anil Chandraker, Edgar Milford, Hilary J Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Development of Donor-specific Antibodies (DSA) after lung transplantation is associated with antibody mediated rejection (AMR), acute cellular rejection, and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS); however, the significance of circulating antibodies before transplant remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study including recipients of primary lung transplants between 2008 and 2012.We assessed the impact of circulating human leukocyte (HLA) and noncytotoxic Donor Specific antibodies (DSA) detected before transplant on development of Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction (CLAD) or CLAD related death...
November 23, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885144/treatment-of-multiple-myeloma-in-a-heart-transplant-recipient-focus-on-the-immunomodulatory-effects-of-lenalidomide
#19
Lola Xie, Bartosz Jozwik, Phillip Weeks, L Maximilian Buja, Robert Brown, Sriram Nathan, Keshava Rajagopal, Christina Paruthi, Biswajit Kar, Pranav Loyalka, Indranee Rajapreyar
Malignancy following solid organ transplant remains a significant threat to the survival of cardiac transplant recipients. Plasma cell dyscrasias including multiple myeloma have been encountered in this population, and medication treatments traditionally used to treat these disorders demonstrate immunomodulatory effects that may have implications on the transplanted allograft. Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent that has been used to treat plasma cell disorders, including light-chain amyloidosis (AL) and multiple myeloma, and represents such a class of medications in which the risks and benefits in the solid organ transplant population remain to be fully elucidated...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878627/right-ventricular-dysfunction-as-an-echocardiographic-measure-of-acute-rejection-following-heart-transplantation-in-children
#20
Sanjeev Aggarwal, Jennifer Blake, Swati Sehgal
Noninvasive biomarkers of acute allograft rejection (AAR) following orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) are needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of echocardiographic (ECHO) right ventricular (RV) global functional and resistance indices in the detection of AAR. This retrospective chart review included children with biopsy-proven AAR (grade ≥ 2R cellular or CD4 + antibody-mediated rejection) following OHT and an ECHO within 12 h of the biopsy. ECHO measures: (a) ratio of systolic to diastolic duration (S/D), (b) RV myocardial performance index (MPI) and (c) tricuspid regurgitant gradient to RV outflow tract velocity time integral ratio (TRG/VTI), were derived at baseline, during AAR and at two follow-ups...
November 23, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
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