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Acute cellular rejection

Bangari Haldipur, Prudhvi Lal Bhukya, Vidya Arankalle, Kavita Lole
Molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease in HEV infection remain unclear. MicroRNAs are known to modulate viral pathogenesis either by directly altering viral gene expression or by enhancing cellular antiviral responses. Given the importance of microRNA-122 (miR-122) in liver pathobiology, we investigated possible role of miR-122 in HEV infection. In silico predictions using genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 HEV sequences showed that majority of genomes (203/222) harbor at least one miR-122/miR-122* target site...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Jan-Michael Abicht, Riccardo Sfriso, Bruno Reichart, Matthias Längin, Katja Gahle, Gisella L Puga Yung, Jörg D Seebach, Robert Rieben, David Ayares, Eckhard Wolf, Nikolai Klymiuk, Andrea Baehr, Alexander Kind, Tanja Mayr, Andreas Bauer
BACKGROUND: In pig-to-human xenotransplantation, early cellular rejection reactions are mediated by natural killer cells (NK cells). Human NK cells are inhibited by HLA-E via CD94/NKG2A receptors. To protect porcine grafts against human NK cell responses, transgenic GTKO pigs expressing hCD46 and HLA-E have been generated. The aim of this study was to test the effect of this genetic modification on xenogeneic, and in particular human NK cell response, using an ex vivo perfusion model of pig hearts with human blood...
March 14, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Ahmed I Akl, Hussein A Sheashaa, Mona Abdel Rahim, Muhammed A El Hadedy, Ayman F Refaie
Transplant is the optimal therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease. Acute cellular rejection refractory to treatment remains a major risk factor for graft loss and poor outcomes. In this study, we describe a 39-year-old man who received a living-related kidney transplant. Two days after transplant, the patient displayed acute deterioration of graft function. Conventional anti-rejection therapy was initiated, but graft function did not improve. Biopsy revealed acute cellular rejection (grade IIA), and C4d and HLA antibodies were negative...
March 9, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
S M Dehghani, I Shahramian, M Afshari, M Bahmanyar, M Ataollahi, A Sargazi
Background: Acute cellular rejection (ACR), a reversible process, can affect the graft survival. Objective: To evaluate the relation between ACR and clinical factors in recipients of allograft liver transplantation. Methods: 47 recipients of liver were consecutively enrolled in a retrospective study. Their information were retrieved from their medical records and analyzed. Results: Of the 47 recipients, 38 (81%) experienced acute rejection during 24 months of the transplantation...
2018: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
B Handan Özdemir, Alev Ok Atılgan, Eda Yılmaz Akçay, Gökçe Özdemir, Ebru Ayvazoğlu Soy, Aydıncan Akdur, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Thrombotic microangiopathy is a form of renal capillary injury possibly associated with calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, acute humoral rejection, infections, and recurrent diseases. Here, we examined its incidence in patients diagnosed with acute and chronic active humoral rejection, polyomavirus nephropathy, acute cellular rejection, and immunoglobulin A recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 272 renal allograft recipients who met the inclusion criteria were reevaluated for presence of renal thrombotic microangiopathy...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Orçun Çiftci, Neslihan Arzu Akgün, Kerem Can Yılmaz, Emir Karaçağlar, Alp Aydınalp, Atilla Sezgin, I Haldun Müderrisoğlu, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Endomyocardial biopsy sampling is used to check acute rejection after cardiac transplant. However, it may lead to tricuspid valve injury and cardiac perforation; therefore, less invasive tools may be useful. Right heart catheterization provides valuable information about cardiac hemodynamics. Herein, we aimed to determine the correlation of right heart catheterization parameters with acute rejection and death during cardiac transplant follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated follow-up right heart catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy results from 47 adult patients who underwent cardiac transplant at Başkent University Faculty of Medicine between 2004 and 2016...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Christopher R Ensor, Carlo J Iasella, Kate M Harrigan, Matthew R Morrell, Cody A Moore, Norihisa Shigemura, Adriana Zeevi, John F McDyer, Raman Venkataramanan
Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are the backbone of traditional immunosuppressive regimens for lung transplant recipients (LTR). The CNIs are both narrow therapeutic index drugs with significant interpatient and intrapatient variability that require therapeutic drug monitoring to ensure safety and effectiveness. We hypothesized that tacrolimus time-in-therapeutic range (TTR) affects acute and chronic rejection rates in LTRs. This was a single-center, observational, cross-sectional study of 292 adult LTRs. Subjects who received tacrolimus post-transplant for the first year were included...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Shinji Okano, Kareem Abu-Elmagd, Danielle D Kish, Karen Keslar, William M Baldwin, Robert L Fairchild, Masato Fujiki, Ajai Khanna, Mohammed Osman, Guilherme Costa, John Fung, Charles Miller, Hiroto Kayashima, Koji Hashimoto
Recent advances in immunosuppressive regimens have decreased acute cellular rejection (ACR) rates and improved intestinal transplant (ITx) recipient survival. We investigated the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in ITx. We identified MDSCs as CD33+ CD11b+ lineage(CD3/CD56/CD19)- HLA-DR-/low cells with 3 subsets, CD14- CD15- (e-MDSC), CD14+ CD15- (M-MDSC), and CD14- CD15+ (PMN-MDSC), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and mononuclear cells in the grafted intestinal mucosa. Total MDSC numbers increased in PBMCs following ITx; among MDSC subsets, M-MDSC numbers were maintained at high level after 2 months following ITx...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Francisco E Rodríguez Castellanos, Francisco Domínguez Quintana, Virgilia Soto Abraham, Eduardo Mancilla Urrea
INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is considered the ideal treatment for end-stage renal disease. Acute rejection can influence graft survival. The aim of this study was to propose a classification system for acute rejection based on factor analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from kidney transplant recipients with acute rejection diagnosis based on standard histological variables, the presence of peritubular eosinophils, and immunolabeling for lysozyme and myeloperoxidase in kidney tissue...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Sean Agbor-Enoh, Annette M Jackson, Ilker Tunc, Gerald J Berry, Adam Cochrane, David Grimm, Andrew Davis, Pali Shah, Anne W Brown, Yan Wang, Irina Timofte, Palak Shah, Sasha Gorham, Jennifer Wylie, Natalie Goodwin, Moon Kyoo Jang, Argit Marishta, Kenneth Bhatti, Ulgen Fideli, Yanqin Yang, Helen Luikart, Zeling Cao, Mehdi Pirooznia, Jun Zhu, Charles Marboe, Aldo Iacono, Steven D Nathan, Jonathan Orens, Hannah A Valantine, Kiran Khush
BACKGROUND: Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) often progresses to poor health outcomes in lung transplant recipients (LTRs). This, combined with the relatively insensitive clinical tools used for its diagnosis (spirometry, histopathology) led us to determine whether clinical AMR is diagnosed significantly later than its pathologic onset. In this study, we leveraged the high sensitivity of donor-derived cell-free DNA (ddcfDNA), a novel genomic tool, to detect early graft injury after lung transplantation...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Guosheng Wu, Ruy J Cruz
Background and aims: A co-transplanted liver allograft has been thought to protect other organs from rejection-mediated injury; however, detailed analyses of co-transplanted liver on intestinal allograft outcomes have not been conducted to date. The aim of the study was to compare immune-mediated injury, causes of graft failure and clinical outcomes between recipients who underwent either a liver-inclusive intestinal transplant (LITx) or liver-exclusive intestinal transplant (LETx). Methods: Between May 2000 and May 2010, 212 adult patients undergoing LITx ( n  =76) and LETx ( n  =136) were included...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Report
Nozomi Aibara, Kaname Ohyama, Masaaki Hidaka, Naoya Kishikawa, Yasuyoshi Miyata, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Susumu Eguchi, Naotaka Kuroda
Liver transplantation is a life-saving procedure for many end-stage liver diseases; however, rejection after transplantation is still occurs in some recipients. The most common form of rejection is T cell-related acute cellular rejection (ACR). To understand the mechanism of rejection, it is necessary to identify immune targets. Since the development of B cell immunity depends upon concordant T cell immunity, we hypothesized that rejection-specific antigens in circulating immune complexes (CICs) may be present in the sera of recipients experiencing rejection, and as such, may be useful as diagnostic biomarkers for ACR...
February 22, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Badri Man Shrestha
The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Senthil Kumar, Nihar Mohapatra, Deeplaxmi Purushottam Borle, Ashok Choudhury, Shashwat Sarin, Ekta Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: Transplant Immunology
A I Dipchand, S Webber, K Mason, B Feingold, C Bentlejewski, W T Mahle, R Shaddy, C Canter, E D Blume, J Lamour, W Zuckerman, H Diop, Y Morrison, B Armstrong, D Ikle, J Odim, A Zeevi
Data on the clinical importance of newly detected donor specific antibodies (ndDSA) following pediatric heart transplantation is lacking despite mounting evidence of the detrimental effect of de novo DSA in solid organ transplantation. We prospectively tested 237 pediatric heart transplant recipients for ndDSA in the first year post-transplant in order to determine their incidence, pattern and clinical impact. One third of patients developed ndDSA; when present, these were mostly detected within the first 6 weeks after transplant suggesting that memory responses may predominate over true de novo DSA production in this population...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Sarah Fitzsimons, Jonathan Evans, Jayan Parameshwar, Stephen J Pettit
BACKGROUND: Acute cellular rejection (ACR) is a common complication in the first year after heart transplantation (HT). Routine surveillance for ACR is undertaken by endomyocardial biopsy (EMB). Measurement of cardiac troponins (cTn) in serum is an established diagnostic test of cardiac myocyte injury. This systematic review aimed to determine whether cTn measurement could be used to diagnose or exclude ACR. METHODS: PubMed, Google Scholar and the JHLT archive were searched for studies reporting the result of a cTn assay and a paired surveillance EMB...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
P West-Thielke, K Progar, M Campara, N Jasiak, L Gallon, I Tang, M Spaggiari, I Tzvetanov, E Benedetti
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is one of the leading causes of allograft failure especially in patients undergoing ABO-incompatible (ABOi) renal transplantation. We hypothesized that complement inhibition with eculizumab, a C5 inhibitor, would protect against AMR and maintain graft function in ABOi renal transplant recipients. Four patients undergoing living donor kidney transplant from ABOi donors were treated with a 9-week eculizumab course without therapeutic plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, or splenectomy...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Y Zhao, Y Wang, M S Zhu, W M Han, Z Li, S F Hong, P Yin, G H Zhuang, Z Q Qi
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein-8 like-2 (TIPE2) is a negative regulator of innate immunity and cellular immunity, yet the expression pattern of TIPE2 in acute rejection of cardiac allograft remain enigmatic. METHODS: We developed cardiac transplantation models and divided into 3 groups: a naive group, a syngeneic group, and an allogeneic group. Then, we detected the messenger RNA and protein of TIPE2 in cardiac allografts. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed expression of CD4 and CD8 in the donor heart, and immunofluorescence assay revealed the association between T cells and TIPE2...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Sapana Verma, Yuka Tanaka, Seiichi Shimizu, Naoki Tanimine, Hideki Ohdan
Previous studies have found that preferential accumulation of regulatory T (Treg) cells in liver allografts during acute cellular rejection (ACR) is associated with less severe rejection, suggesting a role of Treg cells in preventing excessive progress of ACR. We investigated the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Forkhead box P3 ( FOXP3 ) gene, a master regulator gene of Treg cells, on ACR severity in liver transplant (LT) recipients. In total, 102 living donor LT patients were enrolled in this study and categorized into no rejection (n = 86), steroid-sensitive acute rejection (SSAR; n = 11), and steroid-resistant acute rejection (SRAR; n = 5)...
July 2017: Hepatology Communications
Thomas Schachtner, Natalie M Otto, Maik Stein, Petra Reinke
Background: The number of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) being waitlisted for a subsequent transplantation has disproportionately increased to almost 25%. Evidence for the optimal management of the failed allograft, however, remains inconsistent. Methods: We studied 111 KTRs who underwent their second kidney transplantation from 1998 to 2015. In 51/111 KTRs (46%) the failed allograft was removed and in 60/111 (54%) the failed allograft was retained. KTRs with primary non-function and allograft loss <12  months of the first failed allograft were excluded from analysis...
February 1, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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