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Plant lipids

K Raafat, M Wurglics, M Schubert-Zsilavecz
Prunella vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) (PV) is a herbaceous plant traditionally utilized in management of diabetes and it has immunomodulatory activity. In this study, acute and subchronic antidiabetic, in-vivo antioxidant and antinociceptive effects of PV were evaluated in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a mouse model. Bio-guided fractionation, isolation, RP-HPLC, and (1)H and (13)C NMR identification of the active components responsible for PV effects were determined. RP-HPLC analysis showed that PV contained rosmarinic acid (RA) 4...
October 18, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
V A Doss, Dharaniyambigai Kuberapandian
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to develop a new animal model based on signaling pathways to understand the pathophysiology, therapy of depression, and to investigate the antidepressant activity of Enicostemma littorale which is not yet established. METHODS: Animal models of depression were raised by physical methods and administration of methyl isobutyl ketone (100 mg/kg b.w., i.p.,) and a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (30 mg/kg b...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Parayil Varghese Christapher, Subramani Parasuraman, Palanimuthu Vasanth Raj, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Murugaiyah Vikneswaran
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effect of aqueous and methanol extract of leaves of Polygonum minus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute antihyperlipidemic effect was studied on chemically induced hyperlipidemic rat model. Treated groups received aqueous and methanol extract of leaves of P. minus respectively (1000 mg/kg; oral) whereas standard treated group received atorvastatin (60 mg/kg; oral) for 3 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at fixed intervals for lipid profile analysis...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Kai Xu, Peter D Nagy
Positive-strand RNA viruses build extensive membranous replication compartments to support replication and protect the virus from antiviral responses by the host. These viruses require host factors and various lipids to form viral replication complexes (VRCs). The VRCs built by Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) are enriched with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) through a previously unknown pathway. To unravel the mechanism of PE enrichment within the TBSV replication compartment, in this paper, the authors demonstrate that TBSV co-opts the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound active form of the endosomal Rab5 small GTPase via direct interaction with the viral replication protein...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Maria Esther Perez-Perez, Stéphane D Lemaire, Jose L Crespo
Autophagy is a major catabolic pathway by which eukaryotic cells deliver unnecessary or damaged cytoplasmic material to the vacuole for its degradation and recycling in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. Control of autophagy has been associated with the production of reactive oxygen species in several organisms including plants and algae but the precise regulatory molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that the ATG4 protease, an essential protein for autophagosome biogenesis, plays a central role for the redox regulation of autophagy in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...
October 17, 2016: Plant Physiology
Daniela Pelclova, Vladimir Zdimal, Petr Kacer, Martin Komarc, Zdenka Fenclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Nadezda Zikova, Jaroslav Schwarz, Otakar Makes, Tomas Navratil, Sergey Zakharov, Dhimiter Bello
Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls...
October 18, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Xiefeng Ye, Tianxiao Ling, Yanfeng Xue, Cunfa Xu, Wei Zhou, Liangbin Hu, Jian Chen, Zhiqi Shi
Thymol is a famous plant-derived compound that has been widely used in pharmacy due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. However, the modulation of intrinsic plant physiology by thymol remains unclear. It is a significant challenge to confer plant tolerance to Cd (cadmium) stress. In the present study physiological, histochemical, and biochemical methods were applied to investigate thymol-induced Cd tolerance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seedlings. Thymol was able to alleviate Cd-induced growth inhibition of tobacco seedlings in both dose- and time-dependent manners...
October 14, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
I Kafantaris, B Kotsampasi, V Christodoulou, E Kokka, P Kouka, Z Terzopoulou, K Gerasopoulos, D Stagos, C Mitsagga, I Giavasis, S Makri, K Petrotos, D Kouretas
Grape pomace is a by-product of winemaking process and rich in bioactive compounds such as plant polyphenols having antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. As known, oxidative stress may cause a number of pathological conditions in farm animals and thus affecting animal welfare and production. Moreover, pathogenic bacteria affect animals' health status. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether lambs' feed supplemented with grape pomace enhances the antioxidant mechanisms and reduces the growth of pathogenic bacteria...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Ravdeep Kaur, Poonam Yadav, Ashwani Kumar Thukral, Amandeep Walia, Renu Bhardwaj
Plant growth regulator-assisted phytoremediation has been assessed as a novel strategy to improve phytoremediation potential of plants. In the present work, potential of castasterone, a plant growth regulator, combined with citric acid was explored for phytoremediation of cadmium in Brassica juncea seedlings. The seedlings were raised under controlled laboratory conditions for 7 days. Results revealed that 0.6 mM cadmium exposure induced toxicity in the seedlings, which was reflected through root growth inhibition, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, and loss of cell viability...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhihui Liu, Jianxiu Zhai, Na Han, Jun Yin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Astilboides tabularis has a long history of usage as the functional food with the effect of adjunctive therapy of diabetic in northeast of China. The present study was undertaken to assess anti-diabetic activity of the aqueous extract of leaves of A. tabularis and provided experimental evidence for the clinical usage of A. tabularis in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aqueous extracts of leaves of A. tabularis (EAT) were orally administered at 300 and 600mg/kg dose to epinephrine-induced and alloxan-induced diabetes mice...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Solange E Brandão, Patricia Bulbovas, Marcos E L Lima, Marisa Domingos
The tolerance potential against the oxidative injury in native plants from forest ecosystems affected by environmental stressors depends on how efficiently they keep their pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Great variations in plant tolerance are expected, highlighting the higher relevance of measuring biochemical leaf trait indicators of oxidative injury in species with similar functions in the forest than in single species. The use of this functional approach seems very useful in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest because it still holds high plant diversity and was the focus of this study...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
A Rajeshwari, Barsha Roy, Natarajan Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mukherjee
The current study reveals the impact of gold nanorods (NRs) capped with CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) or PEG (polyethylene glycol) on Allium cepa. The morphology and surface charge of CTAB- and PEG-capped gold NRs were characterized by electron microscopic and zeta potential analyses. The chromosomal aberrations like clumped chromosome, chromosomal break, chromosomal bridge, diagonal anaphase, disturbed metaphase, laggard chromosome, and sticky chromosome were observed in the root tip cells exposed to different concentrations (0...
October 6, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Nicole Regier, Rebecca Beauvais-Flück, Vera I Slaveykova, Claudia Cosio
The hypothesis that increased UV radiation result in co-tolerance to Hg toxicity in aquatic plants was studied at the physiological and transcriptomic level in Elodea nuttallii. At the transcriptomic level, combined exposure to UV+Hg enhanced the stress response in comparison with single treatments, affecting the expression level of transcripts involved in energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, nutrition, and redox homeostasis. Single and combined UV and Hg treatments dysregulated different genes but with similar functions, suggesting a fine regulation of the plant to stresses triggered by Hg, UV and their combination but lack of co-tolerance...
October 6, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
A D Vaudo, D Stabler, H M Patch, J F Tooker, C M Grozinger, G A Wright
Bee population declines are linked to reduction of nutritional resources due to land-use intensification, yet we know little about the specific nutritional needs of many bee species. Pollen provides bees their primary source of protein and lipids, but nutritional quality varies widely among host-plant species. Therefore, bees may be adapted to assess resource quality and adjust their foraging behavior to balance nutrition from multiple food sources. We tested the ability of two bumble bee species, Bombus terrestris and B...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Zhao Jiang, Bingbing Ma, Kehinde Olajide Erinle, Bo Cao, Xiaoxue Liu, Siyuan Ye, Ying Zhang
Plants belonging to the genus Pennisetum have been reported to be resistant to atrazine, a widely used herbicide that also can cause serious pollution of soil and water. To evaluate the enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanism to the oxidative stress of atrazine, experiments focusing on the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and antioxidant enzyme in the leaf and root of Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum (P. americanum) during long-term (68days) atrazine exposure were carried out. The test plant had not suffered obvious lipid membrane peroxidation, which was further confirmed by the result that the MDA content in the root and the leaf of the test plant did not significantly increase when treated with various concentrations of atrazine...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Pavel Pospíšil, Yasusi Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Photosystem II proteins of higher plant chloroplasts are prone to oxidative stress, and most prominently the reaction center-binding D1 protein is damaged under light stress and heat stress. The reactive oxygen species produced under these stress conditions have been suggested to be responsible for the protein injury. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Recently, it has been shown that the primary and secondary products of non-enzymatic and enzymatic lipid peroxidation have a capability to modify photosystem II proteins...
October 11, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hemmat Khattab, Zeinab El Marid
Now days, production of fuels and petrochemicals from renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an indispensable issue to meet the growing energy demand. Meanwhile, the changes in the climate and soil topography influence the growth and development as well as canopy level of the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, Zilla spinosa Turr (Zilla) plants with similar age and size were collected from three main sectors (upstream, midstream, and downstream) of Wadi Hagul during spring (April) and summer (July) seasons...
October 14, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
David F Driscoll
The first clinically successful lipid injectable emulsion was marketed in 1961, consisting of soybean oil triglycerides in sterile water for injection. Since that time, numerous products have entered the market, with the main difference being changes in the oil composition with triglycerides of plant and marine oil origin. With this change, the fatty acid profiles are unique, coming from medium- and long-chain triglycerides. The fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated, having different pharmaceutical and metabolic activities that affect the safety and efficacy of these unique pharmaceutical dosage forms...
October 13, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Julie Mellery, Florian Geay, Douglas R Tocher, Patrick Kestemont, Cathy Debier, Xavier Rollin, Yvan Larondelle
Aquaculture is meant to provide fish rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). This objective must be reached despite (1) the necessity to replace the finite and limited fish oil in feed production and (2) the increased temperature of the supply water induced by the global warming. The objective of the present paper was to determine to what extent increased water temperature influences the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-derived diet...
2016: PloS One
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