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Plant lipids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641138/changes-in-lipid-peroxidation-in-stay-green-leaves-of-tobacco-with-senescence-induced-synthesis-of-cytokinins
#1
Maria Pilarska, Ernest Skowron, Rafał Pietraś, Karin Krupinska, Ewa Niewiadomska
The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the progress of leaf senescence has long been suggested, but there are contrasting results to either support or deny the positive correlation between the senescence progression and the level of ROS-triggered lipid peroxidation. The inconsistency among reported results can partly be attributed to the poor specificity of the most commonly employed colorimetric assay and changes in the ratio of dry weight/fresh weight during leaf senescence. In this study we determined the end-product of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) by GS-MS, and analyzed its changes during senescence of tobacco leaves as calculated on dry weight basis...
June 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634483/elicitor-induced-biochemical-and-molecular-manifestations-to-improve-drought-tolerance-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-through-seed-priming
#2
Mahesh K Samota, Minnu Sasi, Monika Awana, Om P Yadav, S V Amitha Mithra, Aruna Tyagi, Suresh Kumar, Archana Singh
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major grain cereals of the Indian subcontinent which face water-deficit stress for their cultivation. Seed-priming has been reported to be a useful approach to complement stress responses in plants. In the present study, seed-priming with hormonal or chemical elicitor [viz. methyl jasmonate (MJ), salicylic acid (SA), paclobutrazol (PB)] showed significant increase in total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and expression of Rice Drought-responsive (RD1 and RD2) genes (of AP2/ERF family) in contrasting rice genotypes (Nagina-22, drought-tolerant and Pusa Sugandh-5, drought-sensitive) under drought stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633105/effects-of-triacontanol-on-ascorbate-glutathione-cycle-in-brassica-napus-l-exposed-to-cadmium-induced-oxidative-stress
#3
Elham Asadi Karam, Viviana Maresca, Sergio Sorbo, Batool Keramat, Adriana Basile
The ability of exogenous triacontanol (TRIA), a plant growth regulator, to reduce Cd toxicity was studied in canola (Brassica napus L.) plants. The following biological parameters were examined in canola seedlings to investigate TRIA-induced tolerance to Cd toxicity: seedling growth, chlorophyll damage and antioxidant response. In particular, TRIA application reduced Cd-induced oxidative damage, as shown by reduction of ROS content, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and lipid peroxidation level. TRIA pretreatment increased non-enzymatic antioxidant contents (ascorbate, AsA, glutathione and GSH), phytochelatin content (PCs) and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydro ascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), so reducing the oxidative stress...
June 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631440/recognition-cascade-and-metabolite-transfer-in-a-marine-bacteria-phytoplankton-model-system
#4
Bryndan P Durham, Stephen P Dearth, Shalabh Sharma, Shady A Amin, Christa B Smith, Shawn R Campagna, E Virginia Armbrust, Mary Ann Moran
The trophic linkage between marine bacteria and phytoplankton in the surface ocean is a key step in the global carbon cycle, with almost half of marine primary production transformed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton within hours to weeks of fixation. Early studies conceptualized this link as the passive addition and removal of organic compounds from a shared seawater reservoir. Here we analyzed transcript and intracellular metabolite patterns in a two-member model system and found that the presence of a heterotrophic bacterium induced a potential recognition cascade in a marine phytoplankton species that parallels better-understood vascular plant response systems...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631132/adaptive-biochemical-and-physiological-responses-of-eriobotrya-japonica-to-fluoride-air-pollution
#5
Nada Elloumi, Mohamed Zouari, Imed Mezghani, Ferjani Ben Abdallah, Steve Woodward, Monem Kallel
The biochemical and physiological effects of fluoride were investigated in loquat trees (Eriobotrya japonica) grown in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plant in Tunisia. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (E), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were assessed; along with photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, electrolytic leakage (EL) and total phenolic contents in foliage and roots of trees at different distances from the phosphate fertilizer plant...
June 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630182/study-of-biodistribution-and-in-vivo-anti-leishmanial-activity-of-a-distigmasterylhemisuccinoyl-glycero-phosphocholine-liposome-intercalated-amphotericin-b
#6
Maryam Iman, Zhaohua Huang, Seyedeh Hoda Alavizadeh, Francis C Szoka, Mahmoud R Jaafari
Distigmasterylhemisuccinoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine (DSHemsPC) is a new lipid in which two molecules of stigmasterol (an inexpensive plant sterol) are covalently linked via a succinic acid to glycerophosphocholine. Our previous study revealed that a liposome-intercalated Amphotericin B prepared from DSHemsPC (DSHemsPC-Lip-AmB) possess excellent colloidal properties and in vitro antifungal and anti-leishmanial activity similar to AmBisome™. The aim of this study was to determine biodistribution and evaluate the anti-leishmanial effects of DSHemsPC-Lip-AmB in Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629493/naumannella-huperziae-sp-nov-an-endophytic-actinobacterium-isolated-from-huperzia-serrata-thunb
#7
Ye Sun, Hua-Hong Chen, Hong-Min Sun, Meng-Jie Ai, Jing Su, Li-Yan Yu, Yu-Qin Zhang
An endophytic, short rod-shaped, non-motile and non-spore-forming actinobacterium, designated strain CPCC 204135T, was isolated from a surface-sterilized medicinal plant, Huperzia serrata (Thunb.), collected from Sichuan Province, south-west China. Strain CPCC 204135T was observed to grow at temperatures between 20 and 37 °C (optimum, 28-32 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 0-9.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0-3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CPCC 204135T belonged to the genus Naumannella, showing the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Naumannella halotolerans DSM 24323T (97...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629321/the-biocontrol-agent-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-pa23-primes-brassica-napus-defenses-through-distinct-gene-networks
#8
Kelly A Duke, Michael G Becker, Ian J Girard, Jenna L Millar, W G Dilantha Fernando, Mark F Belmonte, Teresa R de Kievit
BACKGROUND: The biological control agent Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is capable of protecting Brassica napus (canola) from the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum via direct antagonism. While we have elucidated bacterial genes and gene products responsible biocontrol, little is known about how the host plant responds to bacterial priming on the leaf surface, including global changes in gene activity in the presence and absence of S. sclerotiorum. RESULTS: Application of PA23 to the aerial surfaces of canola plants reduced the number of S...
June 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629120/metabolomics-characterization-of-two-apocynaceae-plants-catharanthus-roseus-and-vinca-minor-using-gc-ms-and-lc-ms-methods-in-combination
#9
Qi Chen, Xueyan Lu, Xiaorui Guo, Qingxi Guo, Dewen Li
Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) and Vinca minor (V. minor) are two common important medical plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae. In this study, we used non-targeted GC-MS and targeted LC-MS metabolomics to dissect the metabolic profile of two plants with comparable phenotypic and metabolic differences. A total of 58 significantly different metabolites were present in different quantities according to PCA and PLS-DA score plots of the GC-MS analysis. The 58 identified compounds comprised 16 sugars, eight amino acids, nine alcohols and 18 organic acids...
June 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625124/occurrence-and-importance-of-plant-lipids-a-promising-insight-into-algae
#10
Nihed Ben Halima
BACKGROUND: Lipids are biomolecules with interesting structural variability. They are involved in many processes such as the storage of energy, in nutrition and are also of relevance for signal transduction processes, in apoptosis, cell differentiation and phagocytosis, etc. Algae and microalgae are a promising and very diverse group of organisms. These living arganisms inhabit a vaste range of ecosystems from the Antarctic to the Deserts. They account for above half the primary productivity at the base of the food chain because of their multiple nutritional products including, for instance, lipids...
June 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624948/metal-release-from-contaminated-leaf-litter-and-leachate-toxicity-for-the-freshwater-crustacean-gammarus-fossarum
#11
Florence Maunoury-Danger, Vincent Felten, Clément Bojic, Fabrice Fraysse, Mar Cosin Ponce, Odile Dedourge-Geffard, Alain Geffard, François Guérold, Michael Danger
Industrialization has left large surfaces of contaminated soils, which may act as a source of pollution for contiguous ecosystems, either terrestrial or aquatic. When polluted sites are recolonized by plants, dispersion of leaf litter might represent a non-negligible source of contaminants, especially metals. To evaluate the risks associated to contaminated leaf litter dispersion in aquatic ecosystems, we first measured the dynamics of metal loss from leaf litter during a 48-h experimental leaching. We used aspen (Populus tremula L...
June 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624684/photoprotection-regulated-by-phosphorus-application-can-improve-photosynthetic-performance-and-alleviate-oxidative-damage-in-dwarf-bamboo-subjected-to-water-stress
#12
Chenggang Liu, Yanjie Wang, Yanqiang Jin, Kaiwen Pan, Xingmei Zhou, Na Li
Water and nutrients, particularly phosphorus (P), are the two most limiting factors for dwarf bamboo growth in tropical and subtropical areas. Dwarf bamboo is highly sensitive to water stress and often causes severe P deficiency in its growing soils due to the characteristics of shallower roots and expeditious growth. However, little is known about its photoprotective response to soil water deficit and the underlying mechanisms regulated by P application. In this study, a completely randomized design with two factors of two water regimes (well-watered and water-stressed) and two P levels (with and without P application) was arranged to investigate this issue in dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa) plants...
June 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623709/the-mechanism-of-neuroprotective-action-of-natural-compounds
#13
REVIEW
Agnieszka Wąsik, Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk
Disturbance of cerebral redox homeostasis is the primary cause of human neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. Well known experimental research demonstrates that oxidative stress is a main cause of cell death. A high concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species leads to damage of a lot of proteins, lipids and also DNA. Synthetic compounds used for the treatment in the neurodegenerative diseases failed to meet the hopes they had raised and often exhibit a number of side effects...
April 30, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622919/diet-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-bread-and-butter
#14
REVIEW
Mélanie K Rich, Eva Nouri, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Didier Reinhardt
Most plants entertain mutualistic interactions known as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) with soil fungi (Glomeromycota) which provide them with mineral nutrients in exchange for reduced carbon from the plant. Mycorrhizal roots represent strong carbon sinks in which hexoses are transferred from the plant host to the fungus. However, most of the carbon in AM fungi is stored in the form of lipids. The absence of the type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) complex from the AM fungal model species Rhizophagus irregularis suggests that lipids may also have a role in nutrition of the fungal partner...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622918/angiosperm-plant-desiccation-tolerance-hints-from-transcriptomics-and-genome-sequencing
#15
REVIEW
Valentino Giarola, Quancan Hou, Dorothea Bartels
Desiccation tolerance (DT) in angiosperms is present in the small group of resurrection plants and in seeds. DT requires the presence of protective proteins, specific carbohydrates, restructuring of membrane lipids, and regulatory mechanisms directing a dedicated gene expression program. Many components are common to resurrection plants and seeds; however, some are specific for resurrection plants. Understanding how each component contributes to DT is challenging. Recent transcriptome analyses and genome sequencing indicate that increased expression is essential of genes encoding protective components, recently evolved, species-specific genes and non-protein-coding RNAs...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620951/persistent-negative-temperature-response-of-mesophyll-conductance-in-red-raspberry-rubus-idaeus-l-leaves-under-both-high-and-low-vapour-pressure-deficits-a-role-for-abscisic-acid
#16
Changpeng Qiu, Gilbert Ethier, Steeve Pepin, Pascal Dubé, Yves Desjardins, André Gosselin
The temperature dependence of mesophyll conductance (gm ) was measured in well-watered red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants acclimated to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (VPDL) daytime differentials of contrasting amplitude, keeping a fixed diurnal leaf temperature (Tleaf ) rise from 20°C to 35°C. Contrary to the great majority of gm temperature responses published to date, we found a pronounced reduction of gm with increasing Tleaf irrespective of leaf chamber O2 level and diurnal VPDL regime. Leaf hydraulic conductance was greatly enhanced during the warmer afternoon periods under both low (0...
June 15, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619636/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-non-specific-lipid-transfer-protein-from-chelidonium-majus-l-latex
#17
Robert Nawrot, Damian Jozefiak, Anna Sip, Dorota Kuzma, Oskar Musidlak, Anna Gozdzicka-Jozefiak, Jakub Barylski
Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small basic proteins, which mostly play a role in intracellular lipid transport and antimicrobial defense. Recently it was shown using shotgun proteomic approach that the whole plant extract of Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae) contains relatively abundant nsLTPs. Therefore the aim of the work was to isolate and characterize nsLTP from C. majus latex. RESULTS: obtained using PCR approach with degenerate primers showed nsLTP protein from C...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618148/mechanisms-underlying-induction-of-allergic-sensitization-by-pru-p-3
#18
Leticia Tordesillas, Nuria Cubells-Baeza, Cristina Gómez-Casado, Cecilia Berin, Vanesa Esteban, Weronika Barcik, Liam O'Mahony, Carmen Ramirez, Luis F Pacios, María Garrido-Arandia, Araceli Díaz-Perales
BACKGROUND: Recently, the nature of the lipid-ligand of Pru p 3, one of the most common plant food allergens in Southern Europe, has been identified as a derivative of the alkaloid camptothecin bound to phytosphingosine. However, the origin of its immunological activity is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the role of the Pru p 3 lipid- ligand in the immunogenic activity of Pru p 3. METHODS: In vitro cultures of different cell types (monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), PBMCs and epithelial and iNKT-hybridoma cell lines) have been used to determine the immunological capacity of the ligand, by measuring cell proliferation, maturation markers and cytokine production...
June 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617956/apigenin-induces-ros-dependent-apoptosis-and-er-stress-in-human-endometriosis-cells
#19
Sunwoo Park, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Apigenin is a plant-derived flavonoid having anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties in chronic and metabolic diseases, and cancers. However, the functional role of apigenin remains to be identified in human endometriosis that is a benign inflammatory disease causing infertility, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and chronic abdominal or pelvic pain. In the present study, we determined the effects of apigenin on two well-established human endometriosis cell lines (VK2/E6E7 and End1/E6E7)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615866/virulence-assay-and-role-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-ts110-as-biocontrol-agent-against-the-larval-stages-of-rice-leaffolder-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis
#20
Tuhin Subhra Ghosh, Soumendranath Chatterjee, Syed Afrin Azmi, Abhijit Mazumdar, Tushar Kanti Dangar
The bacterial isolate Bacillus thuringiensis TS110 was isolated from the rice field soil of Burdwan district, West Bengal, India. Bioassay test of the bacteria TS110 against 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was carried out. Cut leaf assay, potted plant assay and field assay were done. During filed assay, it has been observed that the LC50 (×10(7)) values of TS110 against 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of C. medinalis were 3.77, 5.29, 4.83 and 4.93, 4.42, 4.72 in dry and wet season, respectively...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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