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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534654/functions-and-substrates-of-plastoglobule-localized-metallopeptidase-pgm48
#1
Nazmul H Bhuiyan, Klaas J van Wijk
Plastoglobules (PGs) in chloroplasts are monolayer lipid-protein particles attached to thylakoids. The size and number of PGs per chloroplast respond dynamically to abiotic environmental stresses and developmental transitions. During senescence, the thylakoid membranes and its constituents are dismantled in controlled fashion. Leaf senescence coincides with a dramatic increase in the size of PGs, which is consistent with a functional role of PG in remobilization of thylakoid membrane components. In a recent publication (1) , we showed that PG-localized metallopeptidase PGM48 promotes natural senescence...
May 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534439/hypolipidemic-and-hepatoprotective-activities-of-rosemary-and-thyme-in-gentamicin-treated-rats
#2
A M Hegazy, A S Abdel-Azeem, H M Zeidan, K S Ibrahim, Em El Sayed
Rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis; RM) and thyme ( Thymus vulgaris; TV) are used as remedies. We designed this work to investigate the preventive effect of aqueous extracts of RM or TV on the gentamicin (GM)-induced hepatotoxicity and abnormalities of lipid profile in rats. Both plant extracts exhibited an in vitro antioxidant activity as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. Radical scavenging activity for TV extract was 48.7% and for RM extract was 25.6%. Polyphenolic determination by high-performance liquid chromatography for both extracts revealed that catechin, coumarin, cinnamic acid and rutin were detected in both extracts...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533927/antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-medicinal-plants-have-potential-role-in-the-treatment-of-cardiovascular-disease-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Peter Adegbola, Ifewumi Aderibigbe, Wasiu Hammed, Tolulope Omotayo
Cardiovascular disease is a compound name for clusters of disorders afflicting the heart and blood vessels; it is assuming an increasing role as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Unhealthy practices such as smoking, high intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, diabetes and physical inactivity are predisposing factors. The risk factors cause alteration in vascular integrity, compromised membrane integrity, increase free radical generation and reduced endogenous antioxidant system resulting in oxidative stress...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533793/exogenous-supplementation-of-silicon-improved-the-recovery-of-hyperhydric-shoots-in-dianthus-caryophyllus-l-by-stabilizing-the-physiology-and-protein-expression
#4
Prabhakaran Soundararajan, Abinaya Manivannan, Yoon S Cho, Byoung R Jeong
Hyperhydricity is one of the major problems hindering in vitro propagation of Dianthus caryophyllus L. Silicon (Si) is a well-known beneficial element renowned for its stress amelioration properties in plants. This study has demonstrated the physiological and molecular mechanism behind the Si-mediated recovery from hyperhydricity in D. caryophyllus L. 'Green Beauty'. Four weeks old hyperhydric shoots obtained from temporary immersion system were cultured on the Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0 (control), 1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532507/isoprenoid-biosynthesis-in-dandelion-latex-is-enhanced-by-the-overexpression-of-three-key-enzymes-involved-in-the-mevalonate-pathway
#5
Katharina M Pütter, Nicole van Deenen, Kristina Unland, Dirk Prüfer, Christian Schulze Gronover
BACKGROUND: Latex from the dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum contains many high-value isoprenoid end products, e.g. triterpenes and polyisoprenes such as natural rubber. The isopentenyl pyrophosphate units required as precursors for these isoprenoids are provided by the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. The key enzyme in this pathway is 3-hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and its activity has been thoroughly characterized in many plant species including dandelion. However, two enzymes acting upstream of HMGR have not been characterized in dandelion latex: ATP citrate lyase (ACL), which provides the acetyl-CoA utilized in the MVA pathway, and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (AACT), which catalyzes the first step in the pathway to produce acetoacetyl-CoA...
May 22, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532301/heterotrimeric-g-protein-regulatory-circuits-in-plants-conserved-and-novel-mechanisms
#6
Sona Pandey
Article Addendum Efficient activation and deactivation of Gα protein is critical for the regulation of heterotrimeric G-protein mediated signaling pathways. While the core G-protein components and their activation/deactivation chemistries are broadly conserved throughout the eukaryotic evolution, their regulatory mechanisms seem to have been rewired in plants to meet specific needs. Plants such as Arabidopsis, which have a limited number of G-protein components and their regulators, offer a unique opportunity to dissect the mechanistic details of distinct signaling pathways...
May 22, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531112/effects-of-polyphenols-on-oxidative-stress-mediated-injury-in-cardiomyocytes
#7
REVIEW
Rosanna Mattera, Monica Benvenuto, Maria Gabriella Giganti, Ilaria Tresoldi, Francesca Romana Pluchinotta, Sonia Bergante, Guido Tettamanti, Laura Masuelli, Vittorio Manzari, Andrea Modesti, Roberto Bei
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes and anti-cancer drugs contribute to heart failure through oxidative and nitrosative stresses which cause cardiomyocytes nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, denaturation of intracellular proteins, lipid peroxidation and inflammation. Oxidative or nitrosative stress-mediated injury lead to cardiomyocytes apoptosis or necrosis. The reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) concentration is dependent on their production and on the expression and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529502/effect-of-rocket-eruca-sativa-extract-on-mrsa-growth-and-proteome-metabolic-adjustments-in-plant-based-media
#8
Agapi I Doulgeraki, Georgios Efthimiou, Spiros Paramithiotis, Katherine M Pappas, Milton A Typas, George-John Nychas
The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in food has provoked a great concern about the presence of MRSA in associated foodstuff. Although MRSA is often detected in various retailed meat products, it seems that food handlers are more strongly associated with this type of food contamination. Thus, it can be easily postulated that any food could be contaminated with this pathogen in an industrial environment or in household and cause food poisoning. To this direction, the effect of rocket (Eruca sativa) extract on MRSA growth and proteome was examined in the present study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528971/regulatory-effects-of-4-methoxychalcone-on-adipocyte-differentiation-through-ppar%C3%AE-activation-and-reverse-effect-on-tnf-%C3%AE-in-3t3-l1-cells
#9
Younho Han, Sung Ho Lee, Ik-Soo Lee, Kwang Youl Lee
Chalcones, the biosynthetic precursors of flavonoids and isoflavonoids abundant in edible plants, possess a number of pharmacological properties, and there is growing evidence that chalcone derivatives inhibit TNF-α mediated insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to define the effects of 4-methoxychalcone (4-MC) on adipocyte differentiation and to determine the underlying molecular mechanism. We investigated the effects of 4-MC on adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation, and expression of adipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 cells...
May 18, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527335/dissection-of-cis-regulatory-element-architecture-of-the-rice-oleosin-gene-promoters-to-assess-abscisic-acid-responsiveness-in-suspension-cultured-rice-cells
#10
Sol Kim, Soo-Bin Lee, Chae-Seong Han, Mi-Na Lim, Sung-Eun Lee, In Sun Yoon, Yong-Sic Hwang
Oleosins are the most abundant proteins in the monolipid layer surrounding neutral storage lipids that form oil bodies in plants. Several lines of evidence indicate that they are physiologically important for the maintenance of oil body structure and for mobilization of the lipids stored inside. Rice has six oleosin genes in its genome, the expression of all of which was found to be responsive to abscisic acid (ABA) in our examination of mature embryo and aleurone tissues. The 5'-flanking region of OsOle5 was initially characterized for its responsiveness to ABA through a transient expression assay system using the protoplasts from suspension-cultured rice cells...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526713/co-evolution-of-domain-interactions-in-the-chloroplast-tgd1-2-3-lipid-transfer-complex-specific-to-brassicaceae-and-poaceae-plants
#11
Yang Yang, Agnieszka Zienkiewicz, Anastasiya Lavell, Christoph Benning
The import of lipids into the chloroplast is essential for photosynthetic membrane biogenesis. This process requires an ABC transporter in the inner envelope membrane with three subunits, TRIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL (TGD) 1, 2, and 3 named after the oligogalactolipids that accumulate in the respective Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Unlike Arabidopsis, in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon, chloroplast lipid biosynthesis is largely dependent on imported precursors, resulting in a characteristic difference in chloroplast lipid acyl composition between plants...
May 19, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525595/gut-transcriptome-analysis-shows-different-food-utilization-efficiency-by-the-grasshopper-oedaleous-asiaticus-orthoptera-acrididae
#12
Xunbing Huang, Mark Richard McNeill, Jingchuan Ma, Xinghu Qin, Xiongbing Tu, Guangchun Cao, Guangjun Wang, Xiangqun Nong, Zehua Zhang
Oedaleus asiaticus B. Bienko is a persistent pest occurring in north Asian grasslands. We found that O. asiaticus feeding on Stipa krylovii Roshev. had higher approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), compared with cohorts feeding on Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel, Artemisia frigida Willd., or Cleistogenes squarrosa (Trin.) Keng. Although this indicated high food utilization efficiency for S. krylovii, the physiological processes and molecular mechanisms underlying these biological observations are not well understood...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522139/in-vivo-confocal-raman-microscopic-determination-of-depth-profiles-of-the-stratum-corneum-lipid-organization-influenced-by-application-of-various-oils
#13
ChunSik Choe, Johannes Schleusener, Jürgen Lademann, Maxim E Darvin
BACKGROUND: The intercellular lipids (ICL) of stratum corneum (SC) play an important role in maintaining the skin barrier function. The lateral and lamellar packing order of ICL in SC is not homogenous, but rather depth-dependent. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the influence of the topically applied mineral-derived (paraffin and petrolatum) and plant-derived (almond oil and jojoba oil) oils on the depth-dependent ICL profile ordering of the SC in vivo. METHOD: Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), a unique tool to analyze the depth profile of the ICL structure non-invasively, is employed to investigate the interaction between oils and human SC in vivo...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521510/differential-growth-promotion-of-poplar-and-birch-inoculated-with-three-dark-septate-endophytes-in-two-trace-element-contaminated-soils
#14
Charlotte Berthelot, Damien Blaudez, Corinne Leyval
Dark septate endophytes (DSEs) are abundant in stressful environments, including trace element- (TE-) enriched soils. However, knowledge about the effects of DSEs on plant growth in such soils is poor compared to the well-known mycorrhizal fungi. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of three DSE strains isolated from TE-contaminated soils on the growth and mineral nutrition of Betula pendula and Populus tremula x alba grown on two contrasting TE-polluted soils. The three DSEs evenly colonized the two plant species in both soils...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521238/transcriptomic-approach-for-assessment-of-the-impact-on-microalga-and-macrophyte-of-in-situ-exposure-in-river-sites-contaminated-by-chlor-alkali-plant-effluents
#15
Perrine Dranguet, Claudia Cosio, Séverine Le Faucheur, Rebecca Beauvais-Flück, Aline Freiburghaus, Isabelle A M Worms, Brice Petit, Natacha Civic, Mylène Docquier, Vera I Slaveykova
Water quality degradation is a worldwide problem, but risk evaluation of chronic pollution in-situ is still a challenge. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of transcriptomic analyses in representative aquatic primary producers to assess the impact of environmental pollution in-situ: the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii were exposed 2 h in the Babeni Reservoir of the Olt River impacted by chlor-alkali plant effluent release resulting in increased concentrations of Hg and NaCl in receiving water...
May 11, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521062/relative-metabolizable-energy-values-for-fats-and-oils-in-young-broilers-and-adult-roosters
#16
M P Aardsma, R D Mitchell, C M Parsons
Our goal was to determine if relative bioavailability values (RBV) for fats and oils (lipids) determined in adult roosters are different than RBV determined with young broiler chickens. Lipids that were expected to have widely varying ME content were evaluated using a slope-ratio approach in adult roosters (Exp. 1) via the precision-fed rooster assay (PFRA) and broiler chicks via a growth assay (Exp. 2). The same lipids were tested in both experiments and were refined corn oil (RCO), a 2:1 blend of stearic acid (C18:0) with RCO (SAB1), a 1:1 blend of C18:0 with RCO (SAB2), tallow (TW), poultry fat (PF), and corn oil from a corn ethanol plant (DDGSCO)...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514949/membrane-of-candida-albicans-as-a-target-of-berberine
#17
Nataša Zorić, Ivan Kosalec, Siniša Tomić, Ivan Bobnjarić, Mario Jug, Toni Vlainić, Josipa Vlainić
BACKGROUND: We investigated the mechanisms of anti-Candida action of isoquinoline alkaloid berberine, active constituent of medically important plants of Barberry species. METHODS: The effects on membrane, morphological transition, synthesis of ergosterol and the consequent changes in membrane permeability have been studied. Polarization and lipid peroxidation level of the membrane following berberine treatment have been addressed. RESULTS: Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of berberine against C...
May 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512601/anti-nociceptive-and-anti-inflammatory-potentials-of-vernoniaamygdalina-leaf-extract-via-reductions-of-leucocyte-migration-and-lipid-peroxidation
#18
Samuel Adetunji Onasanwo, Oyetola Tolulope Oyebanjo, Abayomi Mayowa Ajayi, Mujeedat Adebukola Olubori
BACKGROUND: Vernonia amygdalina is well known as a medicinal plant in folk medicine as antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimalarial, laxative/purgative, and expectorant among others. AIM: This study was conducted to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of V. amygdalina. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanol extract of V. amygdalina leaf (MEVA) was evaluated for antinociceptive effect and possible mechanisms of action in the presence of naloxone (1 mg/kg), atropine (2 mg/kg), and prazosin (1 mg/kg) using acetic acid writhing test in mice...
April 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511903/novel-role-of-the-nutraceutical-bioactive-compound-berberine-in-lectin-like-oxldl-receptor-1-mediated-endothelial-dysfunction-in-comparison-to-lovastatin
#19
C Caliceti, P Rizzo, R Ferrari, F Fortini, G Aquila, E Leoncini, L Zambonin, B Rizzo, D Calabria, P Simoni, M Mirasoli, M Guardigli, S Hrelia, A Roda, A F G Cicero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) or pro-inflammatory stimuli lead to increased oxidative stress linked to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. The oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX1) is elevated within atheromas and cholesterol-lowering statins inhibit LOX1 expression. Berberine (BBR), an alkaloid extracted from plants of gender Berberis, has lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activity. However, its role in regulating LOX1-mediated signaling is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BBR on oxLDL- and TNFα-induced endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to compare it with that of lovastatin (LOVA)...
April 19, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510251/short-term-effects-of-green-tea-chronotherapy-on-the-metabolic-homeostasis-of-mice-on-different-diets
#20
R P Amorim, I P Daher, F P D Arcangelo, M F Bellini, W A Orcini, G R Sarria, R L Peruquetti
Biological rhythms can be defined as changes in physiological or behavioral variables that repeat at certain time intervals. Rhythms that last approximately 24 h are referred to as circadian rhythms. Modern lifestyles have drastically affected human habits, as well as the population's eating habits. These changes have generated an epidemic of metabolic syndromes, such as obesity and diabetes. In an attempt to combat obesity, populations have attempted to use many different herbal remedies and plant-based drugs, the most common of which is Camellia sinensis, or green tea...
May 10, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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