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Nini H Jonkman, Vieri Del Panta, Trynke Hoekstra, Marco Colpo, Natasja M van Schoor, Stefania Bandinelli, Luca Cattelani, Jorunn L Helbostad, Beatrix Vereijken, Mirjam Pijnappels, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: Early identification of people at risk of functional decline is essential for delivering targeted preventive interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify and predict trajectories of functional decline over 9 years in males and females aged 60-70 years. METHODS: We included 403 community-dwelling participants from the InCHIANTI study and 395 from the LASA study aged 60-70 years at baseline, of whom the majority reported no functional decline at baseline (median 0, interquartile range 0-1)...
December 13, 2017: Gerontology
Kristin E Schneider, Noa Krawczyk, Ziming Xuan, Renee M Johnson
BACKGROUND: Most recent research on adolescent drug use has focused on alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Less is known about the recent epidemiology of adolescent cocaine use, which has serious health consequences. PURPOSE: To describe recent trends in cocaine use by U.S. high school students, and identify differences in lifetime and repeated use across sex and racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: We used data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) from 1999 to 2015...
December 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Ahmed Galal Osman, Khaled M Elokely, Vivek K Yadav, Paulo Carvalho, Mohamed Radwan, Desmond Slade, Waseem Gul, Shabana Khan, Olivia R Dale, Afeef S Husni, Michael L Klein, Stephen J Cutler, Samir A Ross, Mahmoud A ElSohly
Photooxygenation of Δ8 tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC), Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ9-THCA) and some derivatives (acetate, tosylate and methyl ether) yielded 24 oxygenated derivatives, 18 of which were new and 6 were previously reported, including allyl alcohols, ethers, quinones, hydroperoxides, and epoxides. Testing these compounds for their modulatory effect on cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 led to the identification of 7 and 21 as CB1 partial agonists with Ki values of 0...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ting-Ting Li, Tao-Hua Li, Juan Peng, Bei He, Lu-Shan Liu, Dang-Heng Wei, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Xi-Long Zheng, Zhi-Han Tang
Transmembrane 6 superfamily 2 (TM6SF2), a gene identified at the locus 19p12, has been recognized to regulate plasma lipids. Here, we provide an overview of the roles of TM6SF2 as a novel target for plasma lipid regulation. We first review the association of TM6SF2 variant with plasma lipid traits, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Then, we present an overview about the in vivo validation of TM6SF2 as a regulator of plasma lipid levels using mice, with overexpression or knockdown/knockout of TM6SF2...
December 1, 2017: Atherosclerosis
Toshiyuki Yamada, Motohiko Osako, Tomoya Uchimuro, Ryogen Yoon, Toshiaki Morikawa, Maki Sugimoto, Hisao Suda, Hideyuki Shimizu
OBJECTIVE: As the use of minimally invasive surgery in cardiothoracic surgery increases, so does the need for simulation and training. We developed a heart model for simulation and training of minimally invasive cardiac surgery, particularly minimally invasive mitral valve repair using our new three-dimensional printing system. METHODS: Digital imaging and communication in medicine data from patient computed tomography, three-dimensional computer-aided design, and three-dimensional printing helped create replicas of the heart and thoracic cavity...
December 7, 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
Alexey N Bilyachenko, Victor N Khrustalev, Yan V Zubavichus, Lidia S Shul'pina, Alena N Kulakova, Xavier Bantreil, Frédéric Lamaty, Mikhail M Levitsky, Evgeniy I Gutsul, Elena S Shubina, Georgiy B Shul'pin
A new representative of an unusual family of metallagermaniumsesquioxanes, namely the heterometallic cagelike phenylgermsesquioxane (PhGeO2)12Cu2Fe5(O)OH(PhGe)2O5(bipy)2 (2), was synthesized and structurally characterized. Fe(III) ions of the complex are coordinated by oxa ligands: (i) cyclic (PhGeO2)12 and acyclic (Ph2Ge2O5) germoxanolates and (ii) O2- and (iii) HO- moieties. In turn, Cu(II) ions are coordinated by both oxa (germoxanolates) and aza ligands (2,2'-bipyridines). This "hetero-type" of ligation gives in sum an attractive pagoda-like molecular architecture of the complex 2...
December 12, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Zheng Li, Kenneth S Suslick
Successful discrimination of 14 representative liquors (including scotch, bourbon and rye whiskies, brandy, and vodka) was achieved using a 36-element colorimetric sensor array comprising multiple classes of cross-reactive, chemically responsive inks. In combination with a palm-sized image analyzer, the sensor array permits real-time identification of liquor products based on vapor analysis within 2 min. Changes in sensor spot colors before and after exposure to the vapors of the liquors that are partially oxidized as they are pumped over the sensor array provides a unique color difference pattern for each analyte...
December 12, 2017: ACS Sensors
Daniel Rozbesky, Michal Rosulek, Zdenek Kukacka, Josef Chmelik, Petr Man, Petr Novák
Chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry is a popular technique for deriving structural information of proteins and protein complexes. Also, cross-linking has become a powerful tool for stabilizing macromolecular complexes for single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. However, an effect of cross-linking on protein structure and function should not be forgotten, and surprisingly it has not been investigated in detail so far. Here, we used kinetic studies, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy to systematically investigate an impact of cross-linking on structure and function of human carbonic anhydrase and alcohol dehydrogenase 1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
December 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Anna Sarosiekjeznach-Steinhagen, Joanna Ostrowska, Aneta Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Iwona Boniecka
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease in the developed world (15% to 40% of the adult population). Introduction of lifestyle changes including dietary intervention and increased physical activity is most often the first-line treatment and is intended to support not only the treatment of liver disease, but also for diseases associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and dyslipidemia. In addition to well-known metformin, there are new classes of antidiabetic drugs, including GLP-1analog, SGLT-2 antagonist, pioglitazon...
November 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Rafael Estevez, Ivan Iglesias, Diego Luna, Felipa M Bautista
The etherification of glycerol with tert-butyl alcohol in the liquid phase, over different sulfonic acid functionalized zeolites, has been studied. The reaction was carried out using microwaves as a way of heating, measured at autogenous pressure and without any solvent. Dealuminated HY and HZSM-5 zeolites by acid treatment were functionalized with two different organosilica precursors: 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (M), which incorporates thiol groups, and 2-(4-chlorosulfonylphenyl)ethyltrimethoxysilane (C), which incorporates the sulfonic acid groups directly...
December 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mathias Pickl, Christoph K Winkler, Silvia M Glueck, Marco W Fraaije, Kurt Faber
The oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl or carboxyl compounds represents a convenient strategy for the selective introduction of electrophilic carbon centres into carbohydrate-based starting materials. The O₂-dependent oxidation of prim-alcohols by flavin-containing alcohol oxidases often yields mixtures of aldehyde and carboxylic acid, which is due to "over-oxidation" of the aldehyde hydrate intermediate. In order to directly convert alcohols into carboxylic acids, rational engineering of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural oxidase was performed...
December 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ioannis Metaxas, Eleni Vasilikogiannaki, Manolis Stratakis
A simple method for the synthesis of formate esters and formamides is presented based on the Au/TiO₂-catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling between alcohols or amines and formaldehyde. The suitable form of formaldehyde is paraformaldehyde, as cyclic trimeric 1,3,5-trioxane is inactive. The reaction proceeds via the formation of an intermediate hemiacetal or hemiaminal, respectively, followed by the Au nanoparticle-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of the intermediate. Typically, the oxidative coupling between formaldehyde (2 equiv) and amines occurs quantitatively at room temperature within 4 h, and there is no need to add a base as in analogous coupling reactions...
December 12, 2017: Nanomaterials
Pernille Lykke Andersen, Adnan Madzak, Søren Schou Olesen, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Jens Brøndum Frøkjaer
OBJECTIVES: Parenchymal calcifications are considered a hallmark finding of chronic pancreatitis (CP), but little is known about its relation to the clinical presentation and other morphological features such as atrophy, fibrosis and ductal changes. The aim was to quantify the number and maximal size of parenchymal calcifications assessed on computed tomography (CT) and to explore the association with other CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based pancreatic features and clinical parameters...
December 12, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Luis F Hidalgo, Srihari S Naidu, Wilbert S Aronow
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy has been rising in prevalence, due to increased awareness and advanced imaging. For the symptomatic patient, pharmacological management remains an effective approach to the majority of patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, a significant subset fails to improve sufficiently with medical therapy initially, or progressively becomes more symptomatic despite augmented medications over time. Most of the advances in the treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have therefore been made in the area of non-pharmacologic management, particularly septal reduction therapy...
December 12, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Carolynn S Kohn, Nicole R Schultz, Katrina Bettencourt, Heather Dunn Carlton
We examined the correspondence between college students' ( N = 192, 71% women) definitions of free-pours and their free-poured volumes of beer, wine, and liquor. Participants' mean beer definitions and free-pours were positively correlated; participants' mean wine and liquor definitions were larger than their free-pours, which were fairly accurate. Contrary to what the aggregate mean values indicated, fewer than half of the participants accurately free-poured a standard volume of beer, wine, or liquor (37...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Drug Education
Mark A Flynn, Elizabeth Carter, Clay Craig
While there is mounting support for the efficacy of alcohol-based curriculum infusion (CI) programs, studies have yielded mixed results. Insufficient attention has been given to nuances in the types of CI. Using a two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design, this study assessed two forms of CI, information-only (IO) and service learning (SL), on drinking perceptions, drinking behavior, and protective behaviors. When the entire sample was considered, CI significantly improved participants' drinking perceptions and behavior...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Drug Education
Keith J Zullig, Robert F Valois
Researchers examined the association between perceptions of harm from substance use and social self-efficacy (SSE) in a sample of early adolescents in public middle schools ( n = 4,122). One-way analysis of covariance and post hoc tests were used to assess the relationships between perceptions of harm from tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use and SSE while controlling for the effects of grade, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. Effect sizes were calculated from the post hoc comparisons to estimate practical importance...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Drug Education
Dawn M Nederhoff, Kathleen M Lenk, Keith J Horvath, Toben F Nelson, Alexandra M Ecklund, Darin J Erickson, Traci L Toomey
Excessive alcohol consumption can result from illegal sales to intoxicated patrons at bars and restaurants. We surveyed bar/restaurant managers about their practices in reducing illegal sales to intoxicated patrons. We found that managers were confident that they could refuse service to intoxicated customers but were less likely to have communicated necessary information to their staff on how to refuse such sales. Managers who agreed that a business in their community would be cited for overservice were more likely to be confident that they could handle customers who had been cut off from alcohol service...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Drug Education
Ashley L Merianos, Adam E Barry
This investigation examined the association between alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention/education programs and drinking behaviors among students aged 12 to 17 years. We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health ( N = 17,736). AOD prevention/education was assessed in three school settings: special class, regular class, and outside regular class. Outcome variables included past year alcohol use and current heavy episodic drinking. Associations were assessed via one-way analyses of variance and multiple regression models...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Drug Education
L L Tian, Lei Shen, J F Xue, M M Liu, L J Liang
OBJECTIVES: To establish an automation system for detection of alcohol content in blood. METHODS: The determination was performed by automated workstation of extraction-headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). The blood collection with negative pressure, sealing time of headspace bottle and sample needle were checked and optimized in the abstraction of automation system. The automatic sampling was compared with the manual sampling. RESULTS: The quantitative data obtained by the automated workstation of extraction-HS-GC for alcohol was stable...
February 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
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