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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691979/the-bdnf-val68met-polymorphism-modulates-how-developmental-ethanol-exposure-impacts-the-hippocampus
#1
Clark W Bird, Brian C Baculis, Jacob J Mayfield, Glenna J Chavez, Tiahna Ontiveros, Dana J Paine, Aaron J Marks, Alicia L Gonzales, Dorit Ron, C Fernando Valenzuela
Prenatal exposure to alcohol causes a wide range of deficits known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Many factors determine vulnerability to developmental alcohol exposure including timing and pattern of exposure, nutrition, and genetics. Here, we characterized how a prevalent single nucleotide polymorphism in the human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene (val66met) modulates FASDs severity. This polymorphism disrupts BDNF's intracellular trafficking and activity dependent secretion, and has been linked to increased incidence of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety...
April 24, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691948/lifestyle-factors-and-the-course-of-depression-in-older-adults-a-nesdo-study
#2
REVIEW
Myrthe C Bruin, Hannie C Comijs, Rob M Kok, Roos C Van der Mast, Julia F Van den Berg
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether lifestyle indicators including physical exercise, sleep duration, alcohol use, body mass index, smoking status, and a composite lifestyle index are associated with the depression course in older adults. METHODS: Data of 283 older adults were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons. Depressive disorders at baseline were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The depression course at 2-year follow-up was assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (IDS, score 0-84) every 6 months; physical exercise with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; alcohol use with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; body mass index by anthropometry; and sleep duration and smoking status by interview questions...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691937/testing-associations-between-cannabis-use-and-subcortical-volumes-in-two-large-population-based-samples
#3
Nathan A Gillespie, Michael C Neale, Timothy C Bates, Lisa T Eyler, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Jasmin Vassileva, Michael J Lyons, Elizabeth C Prom-Wormley, Katie L McMahon, Paul M Thompson, Greig de Zubicaray, Ian B Hickie, John J McGrath, Lachlan T Strike, Miguel E Rentería, Matthew S Panizzon, Nicholas G Martin, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen, Margaret J Wright
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Disentangling the putative impact of cannabis on brain morphology from other comorbid substance use is critical. After controlling for the effects of nicotine, alcohol and multi-substance use, this study aimed to determine whether frequent cannabis use is associated with significantly smaller subcortical grey matter volumes. DESIGN: Exploratory analyses using mixed linear models, one per region of interest (ROI), were performed whereby individual differences in volume (outcome) at seven subcortical ROIs were regressed onto cannabis and comorbid substance use (predictors)...
April 24, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691871/a-theoretical-model-of-resilience-capacity-drawn-from-the-words-of-adult-children-of-alcoholics
#4
Sihyun Park, Karen G Schepp
BACKGROUND: Resilience can be defined as exhibiting positive outcomes after serious threats to one's adaptation or development. AIMS: This study aimed to suggest a theoretical model of resilience capacity by validating and extending one of the existing nursing theories of resilience-the society-to-cell model developed by Szanton and Gill. To do so, we conducted a qualitative study exploring the factors and conditions influencing adaptation in children of alcoholics (i...
April 25, 2018: Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691865/does-natural-mentoring-matter-a-multilevel-meta-analysis-on-the-association-between-natural-mentoring-and-youth-outcomes
#5
REVIEW
L Van Dam, D Smit, B Wildschut, S J T Branje, J E Rhodes, M Assink, G J J M Stams
In this meta-analytic review, we examined the relation between natural mentoring and youth outcomes in four domains: academic and vocational functioning, social-emotional development, physical health, and psychosocial problems. Natural mentoring relationships are thought to foster positive youth development and buffer against the risks associated with the tumultuous years of adolescence. Two separate meta-analyses were conducted on the presence of a natural mentor and the quality of the natural mentoring relationship, including thirty studies from 1992 to present...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691685/adherence-and-health-literacy-as-related-to-outcome-of-patients-treated-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-analyses-of-a-large-scale-observational-study
#6
J G Kuipers, M Koller, F Zeman, K Müller, J U Rüffer
BACKGROUND: Disabilities in daily living and quality of life are key endpoints for evaluating the treatment outcome for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Factors possibly contributing to good outcome are adherence and health literacy. METHODS: The survey included a representative nationwide sample of German rheumatologists and their patients with RA. The physician questionnaire included the disease activity score (DAS28) and medical prescriptions. The patient questionnaire included fatigue (EORTC QLQ-FA13), health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), quality of life (SF-12), health literacy (HELP), and patients' listings of their medications...
April 24, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691385/deep-whole-genome-sequencing-reveals-recent-selection-signatures-linked-to-evolution-and-disease-risk-of-japanese
#7
Yukinori Okada, Yukihide Momozawa, Saori Sakaue, Masahiro Kanai, Kazuyoshi Ishigaki, Masato Akiyama, Toshihiro Kishikawa, Yasumichi Arai, Takashi Sasaki, Kenjiro Kosaki, Makoto Suematsu, Koichi Matsuda, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Michiaki Kubo, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Yoichiro Kamatani
Understanding natural selection is crucial to unveiling evolution of modern humans. Here, we report natural selection signatures in the Japanese population using 2234 high-depth whole-genome sequence (WGS) data (25.9×). Using rare singletons, we identify signals of very recent selection for the past 2000-3000 years in multiple loci (ADH cluster, MHC region, BRAP-ALDH2, SERHL2). In large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) dataset (n = 171,176), variants with selection signatures show enrichment in heterogeneity of derived allele frequency spectra among the geographic regions of Japan, highlighted by two major regional clusters (Hondo and Ryukyu)...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691286/cognitive-function-trajectories-and-their-determinants-in-older-people-8-years-of-follow-up-in-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#8
Paola Zaninotto, G David Batty, Michael Allerhand, Ian J Deary
BACKGROUND: Maintaining cognitive function is an important aspect of healthy ageing. In this study, we examined age trajectories of cognitive decline in a large nationally representative sample of older people in England. We explored the factors that influence such decline and whether these differed by gender. METHODS: Latent growth curve modelling was used to explore age-specific changes, and influences on them, in an 8-year period in memory, executive function, processing speed and global cognitive function among 10 626 participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691019/magnetically-responsive-and-flexible-bacterial-cellulose-membranes
#9
Nipaporn Sriplai, Wiyada Mongkolthanaruk, Stephen J Eichhorn, Supree Pinitsoontorn
Magnetically responsive and flexible bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes were successfully fabricated using a simple diffusion of a ferrofluid solution. BC hydrogels were either water-substituted by alcohol (BC-N) or freeze dried (BC-F) prior to their immersion in the ferrofluid. The presence of both crystalline BC and Fe3 O4 phases, and the homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles (NPs) in BC nanofibrils were observed. Higher concentrations of Fe3 O4 NPs were found in the BC-N samples than for the BC-F samples...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690903/ccl20-is-up-regulated-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-fibrosis-and-is-produced-by-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-response-to-fatty-acid-loading
#10
Xin Chu, Qunyan Jin, Hui Chen, G Craig Wood, Anthony Petrick, William Strodel, Jon Gabrielsen, Peter Benotti, Tooraj Mirshahi, David J Carey, Christopher D Still, Johanna K DiStefano, Glenn S Gerhard
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent complication of extreme obesity. Loading of the liver with fat can progress to inflammation and fibrosis including cirrhosis. The molecular factors involved in the progression from simple steatosis to fibrosis remain poorly understood. METHODS: Gene expression profiling using microarray, PCR array, and RNA sequencing was performed on RNA from liver biopsy tissue from patients with extreme obesity...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690696/-expression-and-potential-clinical-significance-of-cytidine-triphosphate-phosphocholine-cytidylyltransferase-%C3%AE-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#11
F C Lu, X Y Xie, X M Yin, Y J Gao
Objective: To examine the expression and potential clinical significance of CCT (cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase)-α in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: Fifty-eight OSCC and paired adjacent non-malignant epithelia samples (between May 2016 and July 2016) were obtained from dental center, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University. CCT-α expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between CCT-α and clinicopathological features of OSCC patients was analyzed...
April 9, 2018: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690638/neurotensin-is-a-lipid-induced-gastrointestinal-peptide-associated-with-visceral-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-obesity
#12
Ilaria Barchetta, Flavia Agata Cimini, Danila Capoccia, Laura Bertoccini, Valentina Ceccarelli, Caterina Chiappetta, Frida Leonetti, Claudio Di Cristofano, Gianfranco Silecchia, Marju Orho-Melander, Olle Melander, Maria Gisella Cavallo
Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide localized in the neuroendocrine cells of the small intestine, which promotes fat absorption and fatty acids translocation in response to lipid ingestion. NT-knock-out mice fed with a high-fat diet are protected from obesity, fatty liver, and the development of insulin-resistance. In humans, higher plasma levels of pro-NT, which is the stable circulating precursor of NT, predict obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease. In obesity, the presence of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation leads to unfavorable metabolic outcomes and is associated with the development of T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
April 23, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690618/design-and-reproducibility-of-a-mini-survey-to-evaluate-the-quality-of-food-intake-mini-ecca-in-a-mexican-population
#13
María Fernanda Bernal-Orozco, Nayeli Badillo-Camacho, Gabriela Macedo-Ojeda, Montserrat González-Gómez, Jaime Fernando Orozco-Gutiérrez, Ruth Jackelyne Prado-Arriaga, Fabiola Márquez-Sandoval, Martha Betzaida Altamirano-Martínez, Barbara Vizmanos
Evaluating food intake quality may contribute to the development of nutrition programs. In Mexico, there are no screening tools that can be administered quickly for the evaluation of this variable. The aim was to determine the reproducibility of a mini-survey designed to evaluate the quality of food intake (Mini-ECCA) in a Mexican population. Mini-ECCA consists of 12 questions that are based on Mexican and international recommendations for food and non-alcoholic beverage intake, with the support of photographs for food quantity estimation...
April 23, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690611/the-role-of-ppar-and-its-cross-talk-with-car-and-lxr-in-obesity-and-atherosclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Pengfei Xu, Yonggong Zhai, Jing Wang
The prevalence of obesity and atherosclerosis has substantially increased worldwide over the past several decades. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), as fatty acids sensors, have been therapeutic targets in several human lipid metabolic diseases, such as obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and liver X receptors (LXRs) were also reported as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity and atherosclerosis, respectively...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690521/the-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-2-subunit-activates-a-neuronal-tlr4-signal-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-that-regulates-alcohol-and-nicotine-abuse
#15
Irina Balan, Kaitlin T Warnock, Adam Puche, Marjorie C Gondre-Lewis, Harry June, Laure Aurelian
Alcoholism initiates with episodes of excessive alcohol drinking, known as binge drinking, which is one form of excessive drinking (NIAAA Newsletter, 2004) that is related to impulsivity and anxiety (Ducci et al., 2007; Edenberg et al., 2004) and is also predictive of smoking status. The predisposition of non-alcohol exposed subjects to initiate binge drinking is controlled by neuroimmune signaling that includes an innately activated neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal. This signal also regulates cognitive impulsivity, a heritable trait that defines drug abuse initiation...
April 21, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690517/fine-particulate-matter-pollution-and-risk-of-community-acquired-sepsis
#16
Elisa J Sarmiento, Justin Xavier Moore, Leslie A McClure, Russell Griffin, Mohammad Z Al-Hamdan, Henry E Wang
While air pollution has been associated with health complications, its effect on sepsis risk is unknown. We examined the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) air pollution and risk of sepsis hospitalization. We analyzed data from the 30,239 community-dwelling adults in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort linked with satellite-derived measures of PM2.5 data. We defined sepsis as a hospital admission for a serious infection with ≥2 systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) criteria...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690506/polyvinyl-alcohol-microspheres-reinforced-thermoplastic-starch-composites
#17
Bin Guo, Dongdong Zha, Bengang Li, Peng Yin, Panxin Li
We reported a new method to prepare polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/thermoplastic starch (TPS) composites by using polyvinyl alcohol microspheres (PVAMS). The PVAMS/TPS composites were characterized using tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results exhibited that adding small amounts of PVAMSs can effectively improve the mechanical strength and toughness of the composites, especially for the 1 wt %PVAMS in TPS matrix, with a tensile strength of 3...
April 21, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689749/the-association-between-alcohol-outlet-accessibility-and-adverse-birth-outcomes-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
J A Seabrook, N Woods, A Clark, B de Vrijer, D Penava, J Gilliland
BACKGROUND: Alcohol outlet accessibility is positively associated with alcohol consumption, although this relationship has not been thoroughly examined in pregnant women. The present study examines the relationship between proximity and density of alcohol outlets and risk for low birth weight (LBW: <2,500 grams) and preterm birth (PTB: <37 weeks gestational age), and is the first Canadian study to investigate this association. METHODS: Maternal accessibility to alcohol outlets was specified using a gravity-type measure of accessibility, which provides the amount of accessibility that a given household has to liquor stores within 30-minutes of their home...
2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689486/concurrent-use-of-alcohol-with-other-drugs-and-dsm-5-alcohol-use-disorder-comorbid-with-other-drug-use-disorders-sociodemographic-characteristics-severity-and-psychopathology
#19
Tulshi D Saha, Bridget F Grant, S Patricia Chou, Bradley T Kerridge, Roger P Pickering, W June Ruan
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the sociodemographic profiles, the intensity of drinking, the severity of alcohol use disorder (AUD), and psychopathology among individuals with specific patterns of concurrent alcohol and drug use and AUD and other drug use disorders (DUDs) comorbidity. METHODS: Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. We examined sociodemographic correlates and psychopathology among individuals with specific patterns of concurrent use of alcohol and drug and AUD-DUD comorbidity relative to alcohol use or AUD only, respectively, using multinomial logistic regression...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689319/experiences-of-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-while-using-alcohol-and-recreational-drugs-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis-ipa-of-semi-structured-interviews
#20
Adam Pastor, Casey L O'Brien, Jessie Teng, Jennifer Conn, Margaret Loh, Lisa Collins, Richard MacIsaac, Yvonne Bonomo
AIMS: Alcohol and recreational drug use is common in young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and may account for increased morbidity and mortality. This study explores the motivations and experiences unique to this population while using alcohol and recreational drugs. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews focusing on substance use were performed with 16 young adults aged 18-35 with T1DM who drink alcohol (at least 50 grams, 5 Australian standard drinks, in a single session) and/or used recreational drugs...
April 21, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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