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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088781/mir-30c-5p-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis-in-leptin-receptor-deficient-db-db-mice-via-down-regulating-fasn
#1
Jiahui Fan, Huaping Li, Xiang Nie, Zhongwei Yin, Yanru Zhao, Chen Chen, Dao Wen Wang
Approximately 15-40% of the general adult population suffers from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide. However, no drug is currently licensed for its treatment. In this study, we observed a significant reduction of miR-30c-5p in the liver of leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice. Remarkably, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated delivery of miR-30c-5p was sufficient to attenuate triglyceride accumulation and hepatic steatosis in db/db mice. Through computational prediction, KEGG analysis and Ago2 co-immunoprecipitation, we identified that miR-30c-5p directly targeted fatty acid synthase, a key enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis...
January 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088750/continuous-minimally-invasive-alcohol-monitoring-using-microneedle-sensor-arrays
#2
A M Vinu Mohan, Joshua Ray Windmiller, Rupesh K Mishra, Joseph Wang
The present work describes an attractive skin-worn microneedle sensing device for the minimally invasive electrochemical monitoring of subcutaneous alcohol. The device consists of an assembly of pyramidal microneedle structures integrated with Pt and Ag wires, each with a microcavity opening. The microneedle aperture was modified by electropolymerizing o-phenylene diamine onto the Pt wire microtransducer, followed by the immobilization of alcohol oxidase (AOx) in an intermediate chitosan layer, along with an outer Nafion layer...
January 10, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088743/socioeconomic-differences-in-adolescent-substance-abuse-treatment-participation-and-long-term-outcomes
#3
Camillia K Lui, Stacy A Sterling, Felicia W Chi, Yun Lu, Cynthia I Campbell
Socioeconomic status (SES) has been consistently linked to poorer access, utilization and outcomes of health care services, but this relationship has been understudied in adolescent substance abuse treatment research. This study examined SES differences in adolescent's treatment participation and long-term outcomes of abstinence and 12-step attendance over five years after treatment. Data are from 358 adolescents (ages 13-18) who were recruited at intake to substance abuse treatment between 2000 and 2002 at four Kaiser Permanente Northern California outpatient treatment programs...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088742/patterns-of-drug-use-and-hiv-infection-among-adults-in-a-nationally-representative-sample
#4
Stephanie Shiau, Stephen M Arpadi, Michael T Yin, Silvia S Martins
BACKGROUND: Little is known about drug use patterns among people living with HIV in comparison to an uninfected group in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between legal and illegal drug use and HIV infection in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. METHODS: Public use data files (2005-2014) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were used. Respondents were asked whether a medical professional had ever told them that they had HIV/AIDS...
January 7, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088618/modelling-possible-causality-in-the-associations-between-unemployment-cannabis-use-and-alcohol-misuse
#5
Joseph M Boden, Jungeun Olivia Lee, L John Horwood, Carolina Villamil Grest, Geraldine F H McLeod
BACKGROUND: There has been considerable interest in the extent to which substance use and unemployment may be related, particularly the causal pathways that may be involved in these associations. It has been argued that these associations may reflect social causation, in which unemployment influences substance use, or that they may reflect social selection, in which substance use increases the risk of becoming and remaining unemployed. The present study sought to test these competing explanations...
January 3, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088543/transformation-of-terrestrial-organic-matter-along-thermokarst-affected-permafrost-coasts-in-the-arctic
#6
George Tanski, Hugues Lantuit, Saskia Ruttor, Christian Knoblauch, Boris Radosavljevic, Jens Strauss, Juliane Wolter, Anna M Irrgang, Justine Ramage, Michael Fritz
The changing climate in the Arctic has a profound impact on permafrost coasts, which are subject to intensified thermokarst formation and erosion. Consequently, terrestrial organic matter (OM) is mobilized and transported into the nearshore zone. Yet, little is known about the fate of mobilized OM before and after entering the ocean. In this study we investigated a retrogressive thaw slump (RTS) on Qikiqtaruk - Herschel Island (Yukon coast, Canada). The RTS was classified into an undisturbed, a disturbed (thermokarst-affected) and a nearshore zone and sampled systematically along transects...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088538/perceived-parental-alcohol-problems-and-drinking-patterns-in-youth-a-cross-sectional-study-of-69-030-secondary-education-students-in-denmark
#7
Veronica S C Pisinger, Charlotte A Holst, Pernille Bendtsen, Ulrik Becker, Janne S Tolstrup
The aim of the study was to examine whether young people with parental alcohol problems have different drinking patterns than those without parental alcohol problems. Further, we examined whether the association between parental alcohol problems and young people's drinking patterns differed depending on the gender of the child and the parent, and whether more severe parental alcohol problems and cohabitation with the parent with alcohol problems was associated with earlier and heavier drinking patterns. Data came from the Danish National Youth Study 2014, a web-based national survey...
January 11, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088494/the-n-butyl-alcohol-extract-from-hibiscus-rosa-sinensis-l-flowers-enhances-healing-potential-on-rat-excisional-wounds
#8
Hui-Min Shen, Chun Chen, Ji-Yang Jiang, Yi-Lin Zheng, Wen-Feng Cai, Bin Wang, Zhen Ling, Liu Tang, Yuan-Hang Wang, Gang-Gang Shi
ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS), a folk medicine named Zhujin in China, possess anti-tumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, low density lipoprotein oxidation prevention and macrophage death prevention effects. The leaves and red flowers of HRS have been traditionally used to treat with furuncle and ulceration. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the efficacy and possible mechanism of the N-butyl alcohol extract of HRS (NHRS) red flowers in wound healing by analyzing the collagen fiber deposition, angiogenic activity and macrophages action of the NHRS...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088490/microwave-based-treatments-of-wheat-kernels-do-not-abolish-gluten-epitopes-implicated-in-celiac-disease
#9
Carmen Gianfrani, Gianfranco Mamone, Barbara la Gatta, Alessandra Camarca, Luigia Di Stasio, Francesco Maurano, Stefania Picascia, Vito Capozzi, Giuseppe Perna, Gianluca Picariello, Aldo Di Luccia
Microwave based treatment (MWT) of wet wheat kernels induced a striking reduction of gluten, up to <20 ppm as determined by R5-antibodybased ELISA, so that wheat could be labeled as gluten-free. In contrast, analysis of gluten peptides by G12 antibody-based ELISA, mass spectrometry-based proteomics and in vitro assay with T cells of celiac subjects, indicated no difference of antigenicity before and after MWT. SDS-PAGE analysis and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that MWT simply induced conformational modifications, reducing alcohol solubility of gliadins and altering the access of R5-antibody to the gluten epitopes...
January 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088462/activation-of-the-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-alpha-subunit-pathway-in-steatotic-liver-contributes-to-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#10
Yoichiro Asai, Tetsuya Yamada, Sohei Tsukita, Kei Takahashi, Masamitsu Maekawa, Midori Honma, Masanori Ikeda, Keigo Murakami, Yuichiro Munakata, Yuta Shirai, Shinjiro Kodama, Takashi Sugisawa, Yumiko Chiba, Yasuteru Kondo, Keizo Kaneko, Kenji Uno, Shojiro Sawada, Junta Imai, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Hiroaki Yamaguchi, Kozo Tanaka, Hironobu Sasano, Nariyasu Mano, Yoshiyuki Ueno, Tooru Shimosegawa, Hideki Katagiri
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha subunit (HIF1A) is a transcription factor that controls the cellular response to hypoxia and is activated in hepatocytes of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD increases risk for cholesterol gallstone disease by unclear mechanisms. We studied the relationship between HIF1A and gallstone formation associated with liver steatosis. METHODS: We performed studies with mice with inducible disruption of Hif1a in hepatocytes, via a Cre adenoviral vector (iH-HIFKO mice), and mice without disruption of Hif1a (control mice)...
January 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088461/changes-in-the-prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-alcoholic-liver-disease-among-patients-with-cirrhosis-or-liver-failure-on-the-waitlist-for-liver-transplantation
#11
David Goldberg, Ivo C Ditah, Kia Saeian, Mona Lalehzari, Andrew Aronsohn, Emmanuel C Gorospe, Michael Charlton
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Concurrent to development of more effective drugs for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), infection, there has been an increase in the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Data indicate that liver transplantation prolongs survival times of patient with acute hepatitis associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We compared data on disease prevalence in the population with data from liver transplantation waitlists to evaluate changes in the burden of liver disease in the United States...
January 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088388/activation-of-gr-but-not-pxr-by-dexamethasone-attenuated-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicities-via-fgf21-induction
#12
Saurabh G Vispute, Pengli Bu, Yuan Le, Xingguo Cheng
Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling is indispensable for cell growth and development, and plays important roles in drug metabolism. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21, an important regulator of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism, plays a cytoprotective role by attenuating toxicities induced by chemicals such as dioxins, acetaminophen (APAP), and alcohols. The present study investigates the impact of dexamethasone (DEX)-activated GR on Fgf21 expression and how it affects the progression of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity...
January 11, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088371/a-quality-by-design-qbd-study-on-enoxaparin-sodium-loaded-polymeric-microspheres-for-colon-specific-delivery
#13
Dana Hales, Laurian Vlase, Sebastian Alin Porav, Andreea Bodoki, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Marcela Achim, Ioan Tomuță
The aim of this study was to apply quality by design (QbD) for pharmaceutical development of enoxaparin sodium microspheres for colon-specific delivery. The Process Parameters (CPPs) and Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) were identified. A central composite experimental design was used in order to develop the design space of microspheres for colon-specific delivery that have the desired Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP). The CPPs studied were Eudragit® FS-30D/Eudragit® RS-PO ratio, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) concentration and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088358/the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-agonist-fenofibrate-attenuates-alcohol-self-administration-in-rats
#14
Colin N Haile, Therese A Kosten
Fibrates are a class of medications used to treat hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia that target nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Studies have shown the PPARα agonist fenofibrate decreases voluntary EtOH consumption however its impact on the reinforcing and motivational effects of EtOH is unknown. We evaluated the ability of fenofibrate (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg), to alter EtOH (10%, w/v) and sucrose (2%, w/v) operant self-administration in rats under a FR2 schedule of reinforcement over four days and under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule on day five of treatment...
January 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088222/clinical-importance-of-personality-difficulties-diagnostically-sub-threshold-personality-disorders
#15
Max Karukivi, Tero Vahlberg, Kalle Horjamo, Minna Nevalainen, Jyrki Korkeila
BACKGROUND: Current categorical classification of personality disorders has been criticized for overlooking the dimensional nature of personality and that it may miss some sub-threshold personality disturbances of clinical significance. We aimed to evaluate the clinical importance of these conditions. For this, we used a simple four-level dimensional categorization based on the severity of personality disturbance. METHODS: The sample consisted of 352 patients admitted to mental health services...
January 14, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088126/severe-hypoalbuminemia-and-steatohepatitis-leading-to-death-in-a-young-vegetarian-female-8-months-after-mini-gastric-bypass-a-case-report
#16
Mohammad Kermansaravi, Mohammad Reza Abdolhosseini, Ali Kabir, Abdolreza Pazouki
BACKGROUND: Hypoalbuminemia is an important complication after Mini Gastric Bypass (MGB) and is more frequent in vegetarians, diabetic nephropathy, and alcoholic and liver disease patients. The patients must be followed in regular intervals and serum albumin must be checked in every visit after MGB. Hypoalbuminemia must be prevented by good protein regimes. CASE SUMMARY: A 29 years old female was admitted 8 month after Laparoscopic Mini Gastric Bypass with malaise, dyspnea, icter, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and edema of extremities from 2 weeks before admission...
December 11, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088111/psychometric-evaluation-of-the-generalized-anxiety-disorder-screener-gad-7-based-on-a-large-german-general-population-sample
#17
Andreas Hinz, Annette M Klein, Elmar Brähler, Heide Glaesmer, Tobias Luck, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Kerstin Wirkner, Anja Hilbert
BACKGROUND: The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scales GAD-7 and GAD-2 are instruments for the assessment of anxiety. The aims of this study are to test psychometric properties of these questionnaires, to provide normative values, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic factors, quality of life, psychological variables, and behavioral factors. METHODS: A German community sample (n=9721) with an age range of 18-80 years was surveyed using the GAD-7 and several other questionnaires...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088105/tectona-grandis-leaf-extract-free-and-associated-with-nanoemulsions-as-a-possible-photosensitizer-of-mouse-melanoma-b16-cell
#18
Cydia de Menezes Furtado, Fernando Sergio Escocio Drumond Viana de Faria, Ricardo Bentes Azevedo, Karen Py-Daniel, Ana Lygia Dos Santos Camara, Jaqueline Rodriguez da Silva, Everton de Holanda Oliveira, Anselmo Fortunato Ruiz Rodriguez, Igor Anatolievich Degterev
Over the past six years we have been studying extracts from tropical, specially Amazon, plants, to search for new sensitizers for photodynamic therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. Tectona grandis is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the mint family, Lamiaceae. That is native to south and southeast Asia, but since the end of the 20th century is also gaining ground in the Amazon. The present work aims to evaluate the photodynamic potential of hydro-alcoholic extract from Tectona grandis LF leaves (TGE) and the same extract prepared as the oil-water nanoemulsion (TGE-NE) against melanoma B16 F10 cells...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088102/effects-of-photoperiod-regimes-and-ultraviolet-c-radiations-on-biosynthesis-of-industrially-important-lignans-and-neolignans-in-cell-cultures-of-linum-usitatissimum-l-flax
#19
Sumaira Anjum, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Joël Doussot, Alain Favre-Réguillon, Christophe Hano
Lignans and neolignans are principal bioactive components of Linum usitatissimum L. (Flax), having multiple pharmacological activities. In present study, we are reporting an authoritative abiotic elicitation strategy of photoperiod regimes along with UV-C radiations. Cell cultures were grown in different photoperiod regimes (24h-dark, 24h-light and 16L/8D h photoperiod) either alone or in combination with various doses (1.8-10.8kJ/m(2)) of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiations. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), lariciresinol diglucoside (LDG), dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DCG), and guaiacylglycerol-β-coniferyl alcohol ether glucoside (GGCG) were quantified by using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088091/solar-to-chemical-and-solar-to-fuel-production-from-co2-by-metabolically-engineered-microorganisms
#20
REVIEW
Han Min Woo
Recent development of carbon capture utilization (CCU) for reduction of greenhouse gas emission are reviewed. In the case of CO2 utilization, I describe development of solar-to-chemical and solar-to-fuel technology that refers to the use of solar energy to convert CO2 to desired chemicals and fuels. Photoautotrophic cyanobacterial platforms have been extensively developed on this principle, producing a diverse range of alcohols, organic acids, and isoprenoids directly from CO2. Recent breakthroughs in the metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria were reviewed...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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