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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786092/mapping-the-physical-network-of-cellular-interactions
#1
Jean-Charles Boisset, Judith Vivié, Dominic Grün, Mauro J Muraro, Anna Lyubimova, Alexander van Oudenaarden
A cell's function is influenced by the environment, or niche, in which it resides. Studies of niches usually require assumptions about the cell types present, which impedes the discovery of new cell types or interactions. Here we describe ProximID, an approach for building a cellular network based on physical cell interaction and single-cell mRNA sequencing, and show that it can be used to discover new preferential cellular interactions without prior knowledge of component cell types. ProximID found specific interactions between megakaryocytes and mature neutrophils and between plasma cells and myeloblasts and/or promyelocytes (precursors of neutrophils) in mouse bone marrow, and it identified a Tac1+ enteroendocrine cell-Lgr5+ stem cell interaction in small intestine crypts...
May 21, 2018: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785931/first-bone-cracking-dog-coprolites-provide-new-insight-into-bone-consumption-in-borophagus-and-their-unique-ecological-niche
#2
Xiaoming Wang, Stuart C White, Mairin Balisi, Jacob Biewer, Julia Sankey, Dennis Garber, Z Jack Tseng
Borophagine canids have long been hypothesized to be North American ecological 'avatars' of living hyenas in Africa and Asia, but direct fossil evidence of hyena-like bone consumption is hitherto unknown. We report rare coprolites (fossilized feces) of Borophagus parvus from the late Miocene of California and, for the first time, describe unambiguous evidence that these predatory canids ingested large amounts of bone. Surface morphology, micro-CT analyses, and contextual information reveal (1) droppings in concentrations signifying scent-marking behavior, similar to latrines used by living social carnivorans; (2) routine consumption of skeletons; (3) undissolved bones inside coprolites indicating gastrointestinal similarity to modern striped and brown hyenas; (4) B...
May 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783691/old-and-young-actors-playing-novel-roles-in-the-drama-of-multiple-myeloma-bone-marrow-microenvironment-dependent-drug-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Sabrina Manni, Marilena Carrino, Gianpietro Semenzato, Francesco Piazza
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most frequent hematologic cancer. In addition to the deleterious effects of neoplastic plasma cell growth and spreading during the disease evolution, this tumor is characterized by the serious pathological consequences due to the massive secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulins and by the derangement of bone physiology with progressive weakening of the skeleton. Despite significant progresses having been made in the last two decades in the therapeutic management of this plasma cell tumor, MM remains invariably lethal, due to its extremely complex genetic architecture and to the constant protection it receives from the tumor niche, which is represented by the bone marrow microenvironment...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782940/defining-osteoblast-and-adipocyte-lineages-in-the-bone-marrow
#4
J L Pierce, D L Begun, J J Westendorf, M E McGee-Lawrence
Bone is a complex endocrine organ that facilitates structural support, protection to vital organs, sites for hematopoiesis, and calcium homeostasis. The bone marrow microenvironment is a heterogeneous niche consisting of multipotent musculoskeletal and hematopoietic progenitors and their derivative terminal cell types. Amongst these progenitors, bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) may differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, and chondrogenic lineages to support musculoskeletal development as well as tissue homeostasis, regeneration and repair during adulthood...
May 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778716/the-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niche-what-s-so-special-about-bone
#5
REVIEW
Benjamin J Frisch
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) require a supportive microenvironment to regulate their function and produce sufficient hematopoietic cells over the lifetime of an individual. With the exception of fish, all vertebrates, including mammals, maintain HSCs in a complex niche within the bone marrow. Several bone specific cellular populations have been implicated as components of the HSC niche and are part of a complex network that regulates HSC functions. However, the full extent of interactions within the HSC niche, and the role of individual cell populations remain to be fully elucidated...
May 17, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778016/multiscale-reconstruction-of-a-synthetic-biomimetic-micro-niche-for-enhancing-and-monitoring-the-differentiation-of-stem-cells
#6
Rui Li, Jinming Li, Jianbin Xu, Dexter Siu Hong Wong, Xiaoyu Chen, Weihao Yuan, Liming Bian
Stem cells reside in a three-dimensional (3D) niche microenvironment, which provides specific cues, including cell-matrix interactions and soluble factors, that are essential to the differentiation of stem cells in vivo. Herein we demonstrate a general approach to the synthetic reconstruction of 3D biomimetic niche environment of stem cells by the multiscale combination of macroscopic porous hydrogels and a nanoscale upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP)-based nanocomplex. The porous biopolymeric hydrogels emulate the spongy bone microstructure and provide 3D environment conducive to the differentiation of seeded stem cells...
May 4, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775645/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-induce-a-permissive-state-in-the-bone-marrow-that-enhances-g-csf-induced-hematopoietic-stem-cell-mobilization-in-mice
#7
Evert-Jan F M de Kruijf, Rob Zuijderduijn, Marjolein C Stip, Willem E Fibbe, Melissa van Pel
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) support hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in vivo and enhance HSC engraftment and hematopoietic recovery upon co-transplantation with HSC. These data have led to the hypothesis that MSC may impact the HSC niche, leading to changes in HSC retention and trafficking. We studied the effect of MSC administration on the HSC compartment in the bone marrow (BM) in mice. Following injection of MSC, HSC numbers in the BM were decreased coinciding with an increased cell cycle activity compared to PBS-injected controls...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767474/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-shwachman-diamond-syndrome-patients-fail-to-recreate-a-bone-marrow-niche-in-vivo-and-exhibit-impaired-angiogenesis
#8
Donatella Bardelli, Erica Dander, Cristina Bugarin, Claudia Cappuzzello, Alice Pievani, Grazia Fazio, Paolo Pierani, Paola Corti, Piero Farruggia, Carlo Dufour, Simone Cesaro, Marco Cipolli, Andrea Biondi, Giovanna D'Amico
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is a rare multi-organ recessive disease mainly characterised by pancreatic insufficiency, skeletal defects, short stature and bone marrow failure (BMF). As in many other BMF syndromes, SDS patients are predisposed to develop a number of haematopoietic malignancies, particularly myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukaemia. However, the mechanism of cancer predisposition in SDS patients is only partially understood. In light of the emerging role of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the regulation of bone marrow homeostasis, we assessed the ability of MSCs derived from SDS patients (SDS-MSCs) to recreate a functional bone marrow niche, taking advantage of a murine heterotopic MSC transplant model...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765418/isolation-and-characterisation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-rat-bone-marrow-and-the-endosteal-niche-a-comparative-study
#9
Norhayati Yusop, Paul Battersby, Amr Alraies, Alastair J Sloan, Ryan Moseley, Rachel J Waddington
Within bone, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) exist within the bone marrow stroma (BM-MSC) and the endosteal niche, as cells lining compact bone (CB-MSCs). This study isolated and characterised heterogeneous MSC populations from each niche and subsequently investigated the effects of extensive cell expansion, analysing population doublings (PDs)/cellular senescence, colony-forming efficiencies (CFEs), MSC cell marker expression, and osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation. CB-MSCs and BM-MSCs demonstrated similar morphologies and PDs, reaching 100 PDs...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765406/the-differentiation-balance-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-crucial-to-hematopoiesis
#10
REVIEW
Jiang Wu, Weiwei Zhang, Qian Ran, Yang Xiang, Jiang F Zhong, Shengwen Calvin Li, Zhongjun Li
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), the important component and regulator of bone marrow microenvironment, give rise to hematopoietic-supporting stromal cells and form hematopoietic niches for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, how BMSC differentiation affects hematopoiesis is poorly understood. In this review, we focus on the role of BMSC differentiation in hematopoiesis. We discussed the role of BMSCs and their progeny in hematopoiesis. We also examine the mechanisms that cause differentiation bias of BMSCs in stress conditions including aging, irradiation, and chemotherapy...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761390/isolation-and-phenotyping-of-bone-marrow-macrophages
#11
Marion Chalot
Macrophages are present in most of the tissues in the organism. They are basically separated into two categories: the resident macrophages, specific of the tissue and capable of proliferation, and the macrophages deriving from the monocyte differentiation. In the bone marrow, the "resident" macrophages are part of the hematopoietic stem cell niche.Those macrophages are known to have a role in the support of erythropoiesis (Chow, Nat Med 19:429-436, 2013), the maintenance of stem cell in their niches (Chow, J Exp Med 208:261-271, 2011), and are an independent self-renewing population (Hashimoto, Immunity 38:792-804, 2013)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761075/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-plays-a-pivotal-role-in-the-interplay-between-osteosarcoma-cells-and-their-microenvironment
#12
REVIEW
Franck Verrecchia, Françoise Rédini
Osteosarcomas are the most frequent form of primary bone tumors and mainly affect children, adolescents, and young adults. Despite encouraging progress in therapeutic management, including the advent of multidrug chemotherapy, the survival rates have remained unchanged for more than four decades: 75% at 5 years for localized disease, but two groups of patients are still at high risk: metastatic at diagnosis (overall survival around 40% at 5 years) and/or poor responders to chemotherapy (20% at 5 years)...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760731/recovery-of-donor-hematopoiesis-after-graft-failure-and-second-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-with-intraosseous-administration-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#13
Nataliya Petinati, Nina Drize, Natalia Sats, Natalya Risinskaya, Andrey Sudarikov, Michail Drokov, Daria Dubniak, Alina Kraizman, Maria Nareyko, Natalia Popova, Maya Firsova, Larisa Kuzmina, Elena Parovichnikova, Valeriy Savchenko
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) participate in the formation of bone marrow niches for hematopoietic stem cells. Donor MSCs can serve as a source of recovery for niches in patients with graft failure (GF) after allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation. Since only few MSCs reach the BM after intravenous injection, MSCs were implanted into the iliac spine. For 8 patients with GF after allo-BMT, another hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with simultaneous implantation of MSCs from their respective donors into cancellous bone was performed...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760725/the-effects-of-hyperacute-serum-on-the-elements-of-the-human-subchondral-bone-marrow-niche
#14
Melinda Simon, Bálint Major, Gabriella Vácz, Olga Kuten, István Hornyák, Adél Hinsenkamp, Dorottya Kardos, Marcell Bagó, Domonkos Cseh, Adrienn Sárközi, Denes Horvathy, Stefan Nehrer, Zsombor Lacza
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in laboratory experiments as well as in human cell therapy. Their culture requires animal sera like fetal calf serum (FCS) as essential supplementation; however, animal sera pose a risk for clinical applications. Human blood derivatives, for example, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) releasates, are potential replacements of FCS; however, it is unclear which serum variant has the best effect on the given cell or tissue type. Additionally, blood derivatives are commonly used in musculoskeletal diseases like osteoarthritis (OA) or osteonecrosis as "proliferative agents" for the topical MSC pool...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760166/the-role-of-il-1b-in-breast-cancer-bone-metastasis
#15
Claudia Tulotta, Penelope Dawn Ottewell
Approximately 75% of patients with late stage breast cancer will develop bone metastasis. This condition is currently considered incurable and patients' life expectancy is limited to 2-3 years following diagnosis of bone involvement. IL-1B is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose expression in primary tumours has been identified as a potential biomarker for predicting breast cancer patients at increased risk for developing bone metastasis. In this Review, we discuss how IL-1B from both the tumour cells and the tumour microenvironment influence growth of primary breast tumours, dissemination into the bone metastatic niche and proliferation into overt metastases...
May 14, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759935/applied-anatomy-of-round-window-and-adjacent-structures-of-tympanum-related-to-cochlear-implantation
#16
Shraddha Jain, Sagar Gaurkar, Prasad T Deshmukh, Mohnish Khatri, Sanika Kalambe, Pooja Lakhotia, Deepshikha Chandravanshi, Ashish Disawal
INTRODUCTION: Various aspects of the round window anatomy and anatomy of posterior tympanum have relevant implications for designing cochlear implant electrodes and visualizing the round window through facial recess. Preoperative information about possible anatomical variations of the round window and its relationships to the adjacent neurovascular structures can help reduce complications in cochlear implant surgery. OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to assess the common variations in round window anatomy and the relationships to structures of the tympanum that may be relevant for cochlear implant surgery...
April 19, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756272/harnessing-human-decellularized-blood-vessel-matrices-and-cellular-construct-implants-to-promote-bone-healing-in-an-ex-vivo-organotypic-bone-defect-model
#17
Stefanie Inglis, Karl Heinrich Schneider, Janos M Kanczler, Heinz Redl, Richard O C Oreffo
Decellularized matrices offer a beneficial substitute for biomimetic scaffolds in tissue engineering. The current study examines the potential of decellularized placental vessel sleeves (PVS) as a periosteal protective sleeve to enhance bone regeneration in embryonic day 18 chick femurs contained within the PVS and cultured organotypically over a 10 day period. The femurs are inserted into decellularized biocompatibility-tested PVS and maintained in an organotypic culture for a period of 10 days. In femurs containing decellularized PVS, a significant increase in bone volume (p < 0...
May 14, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756133/biology-of-teeth-and-implants-host-factors-pathology-regeneration-and-the-role-of-stem-cells
#18
F-Michael Eggert, Liran Levin
In chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis, cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems are involved directly in the lesions within the tissues of the patient. Absence of a periodontal ligament around implants does not prevent a biologic process similar to that of periodontitis from affecting osseointegration. Our first focus is on factors in the biology of individuals that are responsible for the susceptibility of such individuals to chronic periodontitis and to peri-implantitis. Genetic factors are of significant importance in susceptibility to these diseases...
2018: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755367/the-transcription-factor-hif-1-enhances-the-radio-resistance-of-mouse-mscs
#19
Irene Calvo-Asensio, Eugène T Dillon, Noel F Lowndes, Rhodri Ceredig
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors supporting bone marrow hematopoiesis. MSCs have an efficient DNA damage response (DDR) and are consequently relatively radio-resistant cells. Therefore, MSCs are key to hematopoietic reconstitution following total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The bone marrow niche is hypoxic and via the heterodimeric transcription factor Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (Hif-1), hypoxia enhances the DDR. Using gene knock-down, we have previously shown that the Hif-1α subunit of Hif-1 is involved in mouse MSC radio-resistance, however its exact mechanism of action remains unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752716/low-dose-irradiated-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-break-tumor-defensive-properties-in-vivo
#20
Francesca Romana Stefani, Sofia Eberstål, Stefano Vergani, Trine A Kristiansen, Johan Bengzon
Solid tumors, including gliomas, still represent a challenge to clinicians and first line treatments often fail, calling for new paradigms in cancer therapy. Novel strategies to overcome tumor resistance are mainly represented by multi-targeted approaches, and cell vector-based therapy is one of the most promising treatment modalities under development. Here, we show that mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), when primed with low-dose irradiation (irMSCs), undergo changes in their immunogenic and angiogenic capacity and acquire anti-tumoral properties in a mouse model of glioblastoma (GBM)...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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