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Bone niche

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441794/reciprocal-interactions-of-leukemic-cells-with-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-promote-enrichment-of-leukemic-stell-cell-compartments-in-response-to-curcumin-and-daunorubicin
#1
Saeed Mohammadi, Mohsen Nikbakht, Seyed Mehdi Sajjadi, Fariba Rad, Bahram Chahardouli, Javid Sabour Takanlu, Shahrbano Rostami, Kamran Alimoghaddam, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh, Seyed H Ghaffari
A predominant challenge in developing curative leukemia therapy is interactions of leukemic cells with the bone marrow stromal microenvironment. We aimed to investigate the role of stromal cells, such as bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and osteoblasts (OBs), in curcumin (CUR) and daunorubicin (DNR) induced apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. We used KG1 and U937 as leukemia cell line models and treated them with CUR and DNR. The cells were then co-cultured with BMSCs or a combination of BMSCs and OBs as feeders...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434032/diabetes-bone-and-glucose-lowering-agents-basic-biology
#2
REVIEW
Beata Lecka-Czernik
Skeletal fragility often accompanies diabetes and does not appear to correlate with low bone mass or trauma severity in individuals with diabetes. Instead (and in contrast to those with osteoporotic bone disease), bone remodelling and bone turnover are compromised in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, contributing to defective bone material quality. This review is one of a pair discussing the relationship between diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents; an accompanying review is provided in this issue of Diabetologia by Ann Schwartz (DOI: 10...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429794/bone-in-culture-array-as-a-platform-to-model-early-stage-bone-metastases-and-discover-anti-metastasis-therapies
#3
Hai Wang, Lin Tian, Amit Goldstein, Jun Liu, Hin-Ching Lo, Kuanwei Sheng, Thomas Welte, Stephen T C Wong, Zbigniew Gugala, Fabio Stossi, Chenghang Zong, Zonghai Li, Michael A Mancini, Xiang H-F Zhang
The majority of breast cancer models for drug discovery are based on orthotopic or subcutaneous tumours. Therapeutic responses of metastases, especially microscopic metastases, are likely to differ from these tumours due to distinct cancer-microenvironment crosstalk in distant organs. Here, to recapitulate such differences, we established an ex vivo bone metastasis model, termed bone-in-culture array or BICA, by fragmenting mouse bones preloaded with breast cancer cells via intra-iliac artery injection. Cancer cells in BICA maintain features of in vivo bone micrometastases regarding the microenvironmental niche, gene expression profile, metastatic growth kinetics and therapeutic responses...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426555/creating-artificial-lymphoid-tissues-to-study-immunity-and-hematological-malignancies
#4
Shivem B Shah, Ankur Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The specialized microenvironments of lymphoid tissue affect immune cell function and progression of disease. However, current animal models are low throughput and a large number of human diseases are difficult to model in animals. Animal models are less amenable to manipulation of tissue niche components, signalling pathways, epigenetics, and genome editing than ex vivo models. On the other hand, conventional 2D cultures lack the physiological relevance to study precise microenvironmental interactions...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421182/tgf-%C3%AE-1-pretreatment-improves-the-function-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-wound-bed
#5
Deepraj Ghosh, Daniel J McGrail, Michelle R Dawson
The wound healing process initiates after injury to a tissue and involves a series of orchestrated events to minimize the invasion of foreign matters such as bacteria and efficiently regenerate the damaged tissue. A variety of cells must be recruited to the tissue during wound healing. However, this process is severely disrupted in patients suffering from chronic illness, including diabetes, leading to impaired healing or non-healing wounds. Current avenues of treatment include negative-pressure therapy, wound debridement, growth factor replacement, and cell-based therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419140/niche-matters-the-comparison-between-bone-marrow-stem-cells-and-endometrial-stem-cells-and-stromal-fibroblasts-reveal-distinct-migration-and-cytokine-profiles-in-response-to-inflammatory-stimulus
#6
Masuma Khatun, Anna Sorjamaa, Marika Kangasniemi, Meeri Sutinen, Tuula Salo, Annikki Liakka, Petri Lehenkari, Juha S Tapanainen, Olli Vuolteenaho, Joseph C Chen, Siri Lehtonen, Terhi T Piltonen
OBJECTIVE: Intrinsic inflammatory characteristics play a pivotal role in stem cell recruitment and homing through migration where the subsequent change in niche has been shown to alter these characteristics. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) have been demonstrated to migrate to the endometrium contributing to the stem cell reservoir and regeneration of endometrial tissue. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the inflammation-driven migration and cytokine secretion profile of human bmMSCs to endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) and endometrial fibroblasts (eSFs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413622/insight-into-skin-cell-based-osteogenesis-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Tingliang Wang, Lian Zhu, Ming Pei
For decades, researchers have been fascinated by the strategy of using cell therapy for bone defects; some progress in the field has been made. Owing to its ample supply and easy access, skin, the largest organ in the body, has gained attention as a potential source of stem cells. Despite extensive applications in skin and nerve regeneration, an increasing number of reports indicate its potential use in bone tissue engineering and regeneration. Unfortunately, few review articles are available to outline current research efforts in skin-based osteogenesis...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413023/a-chemoattractant-guided-walk-through-lymphopoiesis-from-hematopoietic-stem-cells-to-mature-b-lymphocytes
#8
REVIEW
Vivian Y Lim, Sandra Zehentmeier, Chris Fistonich, João P Pereira
B lymphocytes develop from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in specialized bone marrow niches composed of rare mesenchymal lineage stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) and sinusoidal endothelial cells. These niches are defined by function and location: MSPCs are mostly perisinusoidal cells that together with a small subset of sinusoidal endothelial cells express stem cell factor, interleukin-7 (IL-7), IL-15, and the highest amounts of CXCL12 in bone marrow. Though rare, MSPCs are morphologically heterogeneous, highly reticular, and form a vast cellular network in the bone marrow parenchyma capable of interacting with large numbers of hematopoietic cells...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406754/spheroid-coculture-of-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells-and-monolayer-expanded-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-in-polydimethylsiloxane-microwells-modestly-improves-in-vitro-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-expansion
#9
Kathryn Futrega, Kerry Atkinson, William B Lott, Michael R Doran
While two-dimensional (2D) monolayers of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to enhance hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in vitro, expanded cells do not engraft long term in human recipients. This outcome is attributed to the failure of 2D culture to recapitulate the bone marrow (BM) niche signal milieu. Herein, we evaluated the capacity of a novel three-dimensional (3D) coculture system to support HSPC expansion in vitro. A high-throughput polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microwell platform was used to manufacture thousands of uniform 3D multicellular coculture spheroids...
April 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401096/regulation-of-the-embryonic-erythropoietic-niche-a-future-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Ayako Yumine, Stuart T Fraser, Daisuke Sugiyama
The production of red blood cells, termed erythropoiesis, occurs in two waves in the developing mouse embryo: first primitive erythropoiesis followed by definitive erythropoiesis. In the mouse embryo, both primitive and definitive erythropoiesis originates in the extra-embryonic yolk sac. The definitive wave then migrates to the fetal liver, fetal spleen and fetal bone marrow as these organs form. The fetal liver serves as the major organ for hematopoietic cell expansion and erythroid maturation after mid-gestation...
March 2017: Blood Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400375/continuous-blockade-of-cxcr4-results-in-dramatic-mobilization-and-expansion-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#11
Darja Karpova, Julie Ritchey, Matthew Holt, Grazia Abou-Ezzi, Darlene Monlish, Lena Batoon, Susan Millard, Gabriele Spohn, Eliza Wiercinska, Ezhil Chendamarai, Will Yang, Stephanie Christ, Leah Gehrs, Laura G Schuettpelz, Klaus Dembowsky, Allison R Pettit, Michael Rettig, Halvard Boenig, John F DiPersio
Interaction between the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its chief ligand CXCL12 plays a critical role in the retention and migration of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. In this study, qualitative and quantitative effects of long-term pharmacologic inhibition of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis on the HSPC compartment were investigated using three structurally unrelated small molecule CXCR4 antagonists. A >10-fold increase in mobilization efficiency was achieved by applying the antagonists as subcutaneous continuous infusion for two weeks compared to single bolus injection...
April 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394883/pdgf-signalling-guides-neural-crest-contribution-to-the-haematopoietic-stem-cell-specification-niche
#12
Erich W Damm, Wilson K Clements
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) support maintenance of the haematopoietic and immune systems throughout the life of vertebrates, and are the therapeutic component of bone marrow transplants. Understanding native specification of HSCs, to uncover key signals that might help improve in vitro directed differentiation protocols, has been a long-standing biomedical goal. The current impossibility of specifying true HSCs in vitro suggests that key signals remain unknown. We speculated that such signals might be presented by surrounding 'niche' cells, but no such cells have been defined...
April 10, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394200/alteration-analysis-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-de-novo-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients-at-diagnosis
#13
Laura Desbourdes, Joaquim Javary, Thomas Charbonnier, Nicole Ishac, Jerome Bourgeais, Aurore Iltis, Jean-Claude Chomel, Ali Turhan, Fabien Guilloton, Karin Tarte, Marie-Veronique Demattei, Elfi Ducrocq, Florence Rouleux-Bonnin, Emmanuel Gyan, Olivier Hérault, Jorge Domenech
Bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) frequently display alterations in several hematologic disorders, such as acute lymphoid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and myelodysplastic syndromes. In acute leukemias, it is not clear whether MSC alterations contribute to the development of the malignant clone or whether they are simply the effect of tumor expansion on the microenvironment. We extensively investigated the characteristics of MSCs isolated from the BM of patients with de novo AML at diagnosis (L-MSCs) in terms of phenotype (gene and protein expression, apoptosis and senescence levels, DNA double-strand break formation) and functions (proliferation and clonogenic potentials, normal and leukemic hematopoiesis-supporting activity)...
April 10, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381439/tumor-stroma-interactions-in-bone-metastasis-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-implications
#14
Hanqiu Zheng, Wenyang Li, Yibin Kang
Metastasis and associated complications are the major cause of death for cancer patients. The incidence of bone metastasis is among the highest in cancers arising from breast, prostate, and lung. Common skeletal-related events caused by bone metastasis include aberrant bone remodeling (osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed), bone pain, fracture, spinal cord compression, and life-threatening hypercalcemia. It is now known that interactions between tumor cells and bone stroma lie at the core of major steps of bone-metastasis progression...
April 5, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375987/hematopoietic-stem-cells-under-pressure
#15
Miguel Ganuza, Shannon McKinney-Freeman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors are tasked with maintaining hematopoietic homeostasis in the face of numerous insults and challenges, including infection, inflammation, and exsanguination. HSCs possess the remarkable ability to reconstitute the entire hematopoietic system of an organism whose own hematopoietic system has been ablated. This ability is exploited routinely in the clinic via HSC transplantation (HSCT). Here, we focus on the physiological and molecular bottlenecks overcome by HSCs during transplantation...
April 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374486/a-novel-cxcr4-antagonist-enhances-angiogenesis-via-modifying-the-ischaemic-tissue-environment
#16
Xiaoqing Yan, Xiaozhen Dai, Luqing He, Xiao Ling, Minglong Shao, Chi Zhang, Yuehui Wang, Jian Xiao, Lu Cai, Xiaokun Li, Yi Tan
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a capital role in angiogenesis via directly participating in neo-vessel formation and secreting pro-angiogenic factors. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4 play a critical role in the retention and quiescence of EPCs within its niche in the bone marrow. Disturbing the interaction between SDF-1 and CXCR4 is an effective strategy for EPC mobilization. We developed a novel CXCR4 antagonist P2G, a mutant protein of SDF-1β with high antagonistic activity against CXCR4 and high potency in enhancing ischaemic angiogenesis and blood perfusion...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373875/roles-and-modalities-of-ectonucleotidases-in-remodeling-the-multiple-myeloma-niche
#17
Antonella Chillemi, Valeria Quarona, Luca Antonioli, Davide Ferrari, Alberto L Horenstein, Fabio Malavasi
Ectoenzymes are cell surface molecules, which represent functional bridges between the environment and the cytoplasm. One set of ectoenzymes-CD39, CD38, CD203a, and CD73-leads to the generation of adenosine (ADO) by metabolizing ATP and NAD(+). While ADO is known to control inflammation and suppress immune responses, other aspects of ADO function are still obscure, mainly due to its short half-life in biological fluids. Human multiple myeloma (MM) grows in the closed system of the bone marrow (BM) niche representing an ideal setting for studying ectoenzymes and their products...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366454/postnatal-calvarial-skeletal-stem-cells-expressing-prx1-reside-exclusively-in%C3%A2-the-calvarial-sutures-and-are-required-for-bone-regeneration
#18
Katarzyna Wilk, Shu-Chi A Yeh, Luke J Mortensen, Sasan Ghaffarigarakani, Courtney M Lombardo, Seyed Hossein Bassir, Zahra A Aldawood, Charles P Lin, Giuseppe Intini
Post-natal skeletal stem cells expressing PRX1 (pnPRX1+) have been identified in the calvaria and in the axial skeleton. Here we characterize the location and functional capacity of the calvarial pnPRX1(+) cells. We found that pnPRX1(+) reside exclusively in the calvarial suture niche and decrease in number with age. They are distinct from preosteoblasts and osteoblasts of the sutures, respond to WNT signaling in vitro and in vivo by differentiating into osteoblasts, and, upon heterotopic transplantation, are able to regenerate bone...
April 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363872/novel-therapeutic-strategies-to-target-leukemic-cells-that-hijack-compartmentalized-continuous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niches
#19
REVIEW
Vashendriya V V Hira, Cornelis J F Van Noorden, Hetty E Carraway, Jaroslaw P Maciejewski, Remco J Molenaar
Acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells hijack hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niches in the bone marrow and become leukemic stem cells (LSCs) at the expense of normal HSCs. LSCs are quiescent and resistant to chemotherapy and can cause relapse of the disease. HSCs in niches are needed to generate blood cell precursors that are committed to unilineage differentiation and eventually production of mature blood cells, including red blood cells, megakaryocytes, myeloid cells and lymphocytes...
March 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362378/combining-intravital-fluorescent-microscopy-ivfm-with-genetic-models-to-study-engraftment-dynamics-of-hematopoietic-cells-to-bone-marrow-niches
#20
Lin Wang, Malgorzata M Kamocka, Amy Zollman, Nadia Carlesso
Increasing evidence indicates that normal hematopoiesis is regulated by distinct microenvironmental cues in the BM, which include specialized cellular niches modulating critical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) functions(1)(,)(2). Indeed, a more detailed picture of the hematopoietic microenvironment is now emerging, in which the endosteal and the endothelial niches form functional units for the regulation of normal HSC and their progeny(3)(,)(4)(,)(5). New studies have revealed the importance of perivascular cells, adipocytes and neuronal cells in maintaining and regulating HSC function(6)(,)(7)(,)(8)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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