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Bone niche

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145456/regulation-of-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment-by-g-csf-effects-of-g-csf-on-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#1
Jordan Basnett, Vicki Xie, Adam Cisterne, Ken Bradstock, Linda Bendall
It has been suggested that disruption of the lymphoid niche by G-CSF may be of therapeutic benefit to patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. We used a xenograft model to determine the effect of G-CSF on ALL progression in a minimal residual disease setting. Consistent with the effects on normal murine B cell progenitors, G-CSF slowed disease in the majority of ALL xenografts tested, suggesting that G-CSF may provide benefits beyond neutrophil recovery for ALL patients. However, two of eight xenografts demonstrated accelerated disease progression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141868/geographic-clonal-tracking-in-macaques-provides-insights-into-hspc-migration-and-differentiation
#2
Chuanfeng Wu, Diego A Espinoza, Samson J Koelle, E Lake Potter, Rong Lu, Brian Li, Di Yang, Xing Fan, Robert E Donahue, Mario Roederer, Cynthia E Dunbar
The geographic distribution of hematopoiesis at a clonal level is of interest in understanding how hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and their progeny interact with bone marrow (BM) niches during regeneration. We tagged rhesus macaque autologous HSPCs with genetic barcodes, allowing clonal tracking over time and space after transplantation. We found marked geographic segregation of CD34(+) HSPCs for at least 6 mo posttransplantation, followed by very gradual clonal mixing at different BM sites over subsequent months to years...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141657/local-estrogen-axis-in-the-human-bone-microenvironment-regulates-estrogen%C3%A2-receptor-positive%C3%A2-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Derek F Amanatullah, John S Tamaresis, Pauline Chu, Michael H Bachmann, Nhat M Hoang, Deborah Collyar, Aaron T Mayer, Robert B West, William J Maloney, Christopher H Contag, Bonnie L King
BACKGROUND: Approximately 70% of all breast cancers express the estrogen receptor, and are regulated by estrogen. While the ovaries are the primary source of estrogen in premenopausal women, most breast cancer is diagnosed following menopause, when systemic levels of this hormone decline. Estrogen production from androgen precursors is catalyzed by the aromatase enzyme. Although aromatase expression and local estrogen production in breast adipose tissue have been implicated in the development of primary breast cancer, the source of estrogen involved in the regulation of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) metastatic breast cancer progression is less clear...
November 15, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140182/tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-cxcl12-modulate-proliferation-and-chemotherapy-sensitivity-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-co-cultured-with-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#4
Roland Christian Schelker, Sabine Iberl, Gunnar Müller, Christina Hart, Wolfgang Herr, Jochen Grassinger
OBJECTIVES: Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play a central role within the bone marrow (BM) niche, supporting hematopoiesis via soluble factors like cytokines and chemokines. In our study, we sought to investigate the effect of blocking transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) receptor CXCR4 on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in an MSC co-culture system. METHODS: Human MSCs were obtained by BM aspirates and their phenotype and functional properties were confirmed in vitro...
November 15, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132746/diabetes-mellitus-as-a-poor-mobilizer-condition
#5
REVIEW
Gian Paolo Fadini, John F DiPersio
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation in an effective and curative therapy for numerous hematological malignancies. Mobilization of HSCs from bone marrow (BM) to peripheral blood (PB) followed by apheresis is the gold standard for obtaining HSCs for both autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. After administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), up to 30% of patients fail to mobilize "optimal" numbers of HSCs required for engraftment. This review summarizes the current experimental and clinical evidence that diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for poor mobilization...
November 8, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125988/quantification-of-nitrogenous-bases-dna-and-collagen-type-i-for-the-estimation-of-the-postmortem-interval-in-bone-remains
#6
Cristina Pérez-Martínez, María D Pérez-Cárceles, Isabel Legaz, Gemma Prieto-Bonete, Aurelio Luna
Estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) is an important goal in forensic medicine and continues to be one of the most difficult tasks of the forensic investigator. Few accurate methods exist to determine the time since death of skeletonized human remains due to the great number of intrinsic and external factors that may alter the normal course of postmortem change. The purpose of this research was to assess the usefulness of various biochemical parameters, such as nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, purines, cytosine, thymine, pyrimidines, hypoxanthine and xanthine), DNA and Collagen Type I peptides to estimate PMI...
November 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122279/stem-cell-based-bone-regeneration-in-diseased-microenvironments-challenges-and-solutions
#7
Bing-Dong Sui, Cheng-Hu Hu, An-Qi Liu, Chen-Xi Zheng, Kun Xuan, Yan Jin
Restoration of extensive bone loss and defects remain as an unfulfilled challenge in modern medicine. Given the critical contributions to bone homeostasis and diseases, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown great promise to jumpstart and facilitate bone healing, with immense regenerative potential in both pharmacology-based endogenous MSC rescue/mobilization in skeletal diseases and emerging application of MSC transplantation in bone tissue engineering and cytotherapy. However, efficacy of MSC-based bone regeneration was not always achieved; particularly, fulfillment of MSC-mediated bone healing in diseased microenvironments of host comorbidities remains as a major challenge...
October 30, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118440/native-joint-resident-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cartilage-repair-in-osteoarthritis
#8
REVIEW
Dennis McGonagle, Thomas G Baboolal, Elena Jones
The role of native (not culture-expanded) joint-resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the repair of joint damage in osteoarthritis (OA) is poorly understood. MSCs differ from bone marrow-residing haematopoietic stem cells in that they are present in multiple niches in the joint, including subchondral bone, cartilage, synovial fluid, synovium and adipose tissue. Research in experimental models suggests that the migration of MSCs adjacent to the joint cavity is crucial for chonodrogenesis during embryogenesis, and also shows that synovium-derived MSCs might be the primary drivers of cartilage repair in adulthood...
November 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117898/the-contribution-of-immune-infiltrates-and-the-local-microenvironment-in-the-pathogenesis-of-osteosarcoma
#9
Marie-Françoise Heymann, Frédéric Lézot, Dominique Heymann
Osteosarcoma is a rare primary bone cancer characterized by cancer cells producing calcified osteoid extracellular matrix and inducing lung metastases with a high frequency. The local microenvironment defined several tumor niches controlling the tumor growth and cell extravasation. The immune infiltrate composes one of these niches. The immune environment of osteosarcoma is mainly composed by T-lymphocytes and macrophages but also contains other subpopulations including B-lymphocytes and mast cells. Osteosarcoma cells control the recruitment and differentiation of immune infiltrating cells and establish a local immune tolerant environment favorable to the tumor growth, drug resistance and the occurrence of metastases...
November 2, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116047/factors-that-have-an-influence-on-bone-conduction-thresholds-changes-after-otosurgery-in-the-patients-operated-on-due-to-the-perforation-of-the-tympanic-membrane-with-the-preserved-ossicular-chain
#10
Maciej Wiatr, Agnieszka Wiatr, Sebastian Kocoń, Jacek Składzień
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the middle ear surgery is to eliminate abnormalities from the mucous, ensure the due airing of the postoperative cavity and reconstruct the sound-conducting system in the middle ear. Numerous reports can be found in literature on the changes to bone conduction as a consequence of middle ear surgery. STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the work is to define the factors that affect bone conduction in the patients operated on due to the perforation of the tympanic membrane with the preserved and normal mobile ossicular chain...
August 31, 2017: Otolaryngologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116023/caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-promotes-haematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-homing-and-engraftment
#11
Xiaofang Chen, Yi Han, Bowen Zhang, Yiming Liu, Sihan Wang, Tuling Liao, Ziliang Deng, Zeng Fan, Jing Zhang, Lijuan He, Wen Yue, Yanhua Li, Xuetao Pei
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) can induce the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. We determined whether CAPE has a novel function in improving the homing and engraftment of haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) by regulating HIF-1α gene expression in the bone marrow (BM) niche. METHODS: For survival experiments, lethally irradiated C57BL/6 mice were injected with a low number of BM mononuclear cells (MNCs) and CAPE according to the indicated schedule...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113463/age-related-changes-in-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-a-potential-impact-on-osteoporosis-and-osteoarthritis-development
#12
Payal Ganguly, Jehan J El-Jawhari, Peter V Giannoudis, Agata N Burska, Frederique Ponchel, Elena A Jones
Aging at the cellular level is a complex process resulting from accumulation of various damages leading to functional impairment and a reduced quality of life at the level of the organism. With a rise in the elderly population, the worldwide incidence of osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) has increased in the past few decades. A decline in the number and "fitness" of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow (BM) niche has been suggested as one of the factors contributing to bone abnormalities in OP and OA...
September 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113449/where-hematopoietic-stem-cells-live-the-bone-marrow-niche
#13
Krzysztof Tomasz Szade, Gunsagar Singh Gulati, Charles K F Chan, Kevin S Kao, Masanori Miyanishi, Kristopher Marjon, Rahul Sinha, Benson George, James Y Chen, Irving Weissman
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can sustain the production of blood throughout one's lifetime. However, for proper self-renewal of its own population and differentiation to blood, the HSC requires a specialized microenvironment called the "niche". Recent Advances: Recent studies using novel mouse models have shed new light on the cellular architecture and function of the HSC niche. Here, we review the different cells that constitute the HSC niche and the molecular mechanisms that underlie HSC and niche interaction...
November 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113211/aberrant-expression-of-cd133-and-cd82-in-patients-with-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-and-the-clinical-significance
#14
Hongyan Ji, Li Chen, Yunpeng Dai, Xiaojun Sun, Xiuli Li, Qi Wang, Daoxin Ma, Dongdong Du, Ping Zhao, Yulin Wang
Cluster of differentiation (CD)133 is considered to be a marker of leukemia stem cells (LSCs), which are one of the primary causes of occurrence, drug resistance and relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). CD82, an adhesion molecule, performs an important role in the interaction between LSCs and their niche. The purpose of the present study was to assess CD133 and CD82 expression in patients with pediatric ALL, and to evaluate the association with the clinical data. Using flow cytometric assessment and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, CD133 and CD82 expression levels were measured in the bone marrow (BM) of 37 patients with newly diagnosed (ND) pediatric ALL [ALL-ND; 30 B-cell-ALL (B-ALL) and 7 T-cell-ALL (T-ALL)], in 22 patients with complete remission pediatric ALL (ALL-CR) and in 16 age-matched children without BM disease...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105864/study-of-bone-metabolism-and-angiogenesis-in-patients-undergoing-high-dose-chemotherapy-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#15
Georgios Boutsikas, Evangelos Terpos, Athanasios Papatheodorou, Pantelis Tsirkinidis, Panayiotis Tsirigotis, Anastasia Meletiou, Eleni Lalou, Vasileios Telonis, Anna Zannou, Alexander Kanellopoulos, Zacharoula Galani, Angeliki Stefanou, Panayiotis Tsaftaridis, Nora-Athina Viniou, Panayiotis Panayiotidis, Marie-Christine Kyrtsonis, John Meletis, Theodoros P Vassilakopoulos, Maria K Angelopoulou
OBJECTIVES: Since the interaction between Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) and endosteal and endothelial niches in HSCs homing is essential, we aimed to study bone turnover and angiogenesis in 29 patients with lymphoma/multiple myeloma undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: Serum samples were collected before High Dose Chemotherapy (HDT), at the end of HDT, after HSC infusion, at the nadir of myelotoxicity and at engraftment. Bone metabolism (CTX, TRACP-5b, bALP, OC, DKK1, RANKL, OPG) and angiogenesis (Ang1, Ang2) markers were measured...
November 6, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105655/pre-metastatic-cancer-exosomes-induce-immune-surveillance-by-patrolling-monocytes-at-the-metastatic-niche
#16
Michael P Plebanek, Nicholas L Angeloni, Elena Vinokour, Jia Li, Anna Henkin, Dalia Martinez-Marin, Stephanie Filleur, Reshma Bhowmick, Jack Henkin, Stephen D Miller, Igal Ifergan, Yesung Lee, Iman Osman, C Shad Thaxton, Olga V Volpert
Metastatic cancers produce exosomes that condition pre-metastatic niches in remote microenvironments to favor metastasis. In contrast, here we show that exosomes from poorly metastatic melanoma cells can potently inhibit metastasis to the lung. These "non-metastatic" exosomes stimulate an innate immune response through the expansion of Ly6C(low) patrolling monocytes (PMo) in the bone marrow, which then cause cancer cell clearance at the pre-metastatic niche, via the recruitment of NK cells and TRAIL-dependent killing of melanoma cells by macrophages...
November 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104595/structure-and-functions-of-blood-vessels-and-vascular-niches-in-bone
#17
REVIEW
Saravana K Ramasamy
Bone provides nurturing microenvironments for an array of cell types that coordinate important physiological functions of the skeleton, such as energy metabolism, mineral homeostasis, osteogenesis, and haematopoiesis. Endothelial cells form an intricate network of blood vessels that organises and sustains various microenvironments in bone. The recent identification of heterogeneity in the bone vasculature supports the existence of multiple vascular niches within the bone marrow compartment. A unique combination of cells and factors defining a particular microenvironment, supply regulatory signals to mediate a specific function...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103952/osteoblast-production-by-reserved-progenitor-cells-in-zebrafish-bone-regeneration-and-maintenance
#18
Kazunori Ando, Eri Shibata, Stefan Hans, Michael Brand, Atsushi Kawakami
Mammals cannot re-form heavily damaged bones as in large fracture gaps, whereas zebrafish efficiently regenerate bones even after amputation of appendages. However, the source of osteoblasts that mediate appendage regeneration is controversial. Several studies in zebrafish have shown that osteoblasts are generated by dedifferentiation of existing osteoblasts at injured sites, but other observations suggest that de novo production of osteoblasts also occurs. In this study, we found from cell-lineage tracing and ablation experiments that a group of cells reserved in niches serves as osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) and has a significant role in fin ray regeneration...
October 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101431/the-emerging-role-of-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue-in-bone-health-and-dysfunction
#19
REVIEW
Thomas H Ambrosi, Tim J Schulz
Replacement of red hematopoietic bone marrow with yellow adipocyte-rich marrow is a conserved physiological process among mammals. The extent of this conversion is influenced by a wide array of pathological and non-pathological conditions. Of particular interest is the observation that some marrow adipocyte-inducing factors seem to oppose each other, for instance obesity and caloric restriction. Intriguingly, several important molecular characteristics of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) are distinct from the classical depots of white and brown fat tissue...
December 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101110/the-biology-of-bone-metastasis
#20
Mark Esposito, Theresa Guise, Yibin Kang
Bone metastasis, or the development of secondary tumors within the bone of cancer patients, is a debilitating and incurable disease. Despite its morbidity, the biology of bone metastasis represents one of the most complex and intriguing of all oncogenic processes. This complexity derives from the intricately organized bone microenvironment in which the various stages of hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and osteolysis are jointly regulated but spatially restricted. Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) from various common malignancies such as breast, prostate, lung, and kidney cancers or myeloma are uniquely primed to subvert these endogenous bone stromal elements to grow into pathological osteolytic or osteoblastic lesions...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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