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developmental origins of health and disease

Mirembe Mandy, Moffat Nyirenda
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa, are experiencing rapid increases in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which may not be fully explained by urbanization and associated traditional risk factors such as tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet or physical inactivity. In this commentary, we draw attention to the concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), where environmental insults in early life can contribute to long-term risk of NCDs, the impact of which would be particularly important in LMICs where poverty, malnutrition, poor sanitation and infections are still prevalent...
March 8, 2018: International Health
Leah T Stiemsma, Karin B Michels
Although the prominent role of the microbiome in human health has been established, the early-life microbiome is now being recognized as a major influence on long-term human health and development. Variations in the composition and functional potential of the early-life microbiome are the result of lifestyle factors, such as mode of birth, breastfeeding, diet, and antibiotic usage. In addition, variations in the composition of the early-life microbiome have been associated with specific disease outcomes, such as asthma, obesity, and neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Catherine E Lipovsky, Brittany D Brumback, Aditi Khandekar, Stacey L Rentschler
The left and right ventricles of the four-chambered heart have distinct developmental origins and functions. Chamber-specific developmental programming underlies the differential gene expression of ion channel subunits regulating cardiac electrophysiology that persists into adulthood. Here, we discuss regional specific electrical responses to genetic mutations and cardiac stressors, their clinical correlations, and describe many of the multi-scale techniques commonly used to analyze electrophysiological regional heterogeneity...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Sloane K Tilley, Elizabeth M Martin, Lisa Smeester, Robert M Joseph, Karl C K Kuban, Tim C Heeren, Olaf U Dammann, T Michael O'Shea, Rebecca C Fry
BACKGROUND: The placenta is the central regulator of maternal and fetal interactions. Perturbations of placental structure and function have been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes later in life. Placental CpG methylation represents an epigenetic modification with the potential to impact placental function, fetal development and child health later in life. STUDY DESIGN: Genome-wide placental CpG methylation levels were compared between spontaneous versus indicated deliveries from extremely preterm births (EPTBs) (n = 84)...
2018: PloS One
Frank T Spradley, Jillian A Smith, Barbara T Alexander, Christopher D Anderson
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is linked to increased risk for chronic disease. Placental ischemia and insufficiency in the mother are implicated in predisposing IUGR offspring to metabolic dysfunction, including hypertension, insulin resistance, abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether these metabolic disturbances contribute to the developmental origins of exaggerated cardiovascular-renal disease (CVRD) risk accompanying IUGR is unclear. IUGR impacts the pancreas, adipose tissue, and liver, which are hypothesized to program for hepatic insulin resistance and subsequent NAFLD...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
R Barouki, E Melén, Z Herceg, J Beckers, J Chen, M Karagas, A Puga, Y Xia, L Chadwick, W Yan, K Audouze, R Slama, J Heindel, P Grandjean, T Kawamoto, K Nohara
A variety of experimental and epidemiological studies lend support to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept. Yet, the actual mechanisms accounting for mid- and long-term effects of early-life exposures remain unclear. Epigenetic alterations such as changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and the expression of certain RNAs have been suggested as possible mediators of long-term health effects of environmental stressors. This report captures discussions and conclusions debated during the last Prenatal Programming and Toxicity meeting held in Japan...
February 27, 2018: Environment International
Amy J Osborne, Peter K Dearden
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis predicts that early-life environmental exposures can be detrimental to later-life health and that mismatch between the pre- and post-natal environment may contribute to the growing non-communicable disease epidemic. Within this is an increasingly recognized role for epigenetic mechanisms; for example, epigenetic modifications can be influenced by nutrition and can alter gene expression in mothers and offspring. Currently, there are few whole-genome transcriptional studies of response to nutritional alteration...
October 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Pamela Scorza, Cristiane S Duarte, Alison E Hipwell, Jonathan Posner, Ana Ortin, Glorisa Canino, Catherine Monk
BACKGROUND: For decades, economists and sociologists have documented intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic disadvantage, demonstrating that economic, political, and social factors contribute to 'inherited hardship'. Drawing on biological factors, the developmental origins of adult health and disease model posits that fetal exposure to maternal prenatal distress associated with socioeconomic disadvantage compromises offspring's neurodevelopment, affecting short- and long-term physical and mental health, and thereby psychosocial standing and resources...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Katharine A Horzmann, Jennifer L Freeman
The laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio) is now an accepted model in toxicologic research. The zebrafish model fills a niche between in vitro models and mammalian biomedical models. The developmental characteristics of the small fish are strategically being used by scientists to study topics ranging from high-throughput toxicity screens to toxicity in multi- and transgenerational studies. High-throughput technology has increased the utility of zebrafish embryonic toxicity assays in screening of chemicals and drugs for toxicity or effect...
February 19, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Staffan Hildebrand, Jasmin Stümer, Alexander Pfeifer
Adipose tissue is commonly categorized into three types with distinct functions, phenotypes, and anatomical localizations. White adipose tissue (WAT) is the major energy store; the largest depots of WAT are found in subcutaneous or intravisceral sites. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for energy dissipation during cold-exposure (i.e., non-shivering thermogenesis) and is primarily located in the interscapular region. Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipose tissue can be found interspersed in WAT and can attain a brown-like phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
V Duranthon, P Chavatte-Palmer
Early stages of mammalian embryonic development are now known to be very sensitive to their microenvironment, with long term effects on fetal, postnatal and adult health, thus extending to these early stages the concept of Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DoHaD). In this scientific context, and with 3% of births in developed countries, safety of Assisted Reproductive Techniques procedures becomes a matter of concern. Besides, embryo technologies in domestic mammals, using huge number of embryos, do not seem to evidence heavy impacts on adult phenotypes...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Julie Deckers, Hamida Hammad, Esther Hoste
In the last few decades, our understanding of Langerhans cells (LCs) has drastically changed based on novel findings regarding the developmental origin and biological functions of these epidermis-specific resident immune cells. It has become clear that LCs not only exert pivotal roles in immune surveillance and homeostasis but also impact on pathology by either inducing tolerance or mediating inflammation. Their unique capabilities to self-renew within the epidermis, while also being able to migrate to lymph nodes in order to present antigen, place LCs in a key position to sample the local environment and decide on the appropriate cutaneous immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Justine Ina Davies, Andrew John Macnab, Peter Byass, Shane A Norris, Moffat Nyirenda, Atul Singhal, Eugene Sobngwi, Abdallah S Daar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Lancet Global Health
Roberto G Lucchini, Michael Aschner, Philip J Landrigan, Joan M Cranmer
Manganese is an essential trace element, but also at high levels a neurotoxicant. Manganese neurotoxicity has been extensively studied since its discovery in highly exposed workers. The International conference MANGANESE2016 held at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York provided relevant updates on manganese research in relation to both occupational and environmental exposures. Epidemiological, toxicological and cellular studies reported at the conference have yielded new insights on mechanisms of manganese toxicity and on opportunities for preventive intervention...
January 2018: Neurotoxicology
Karilyn E Sant, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Developmental toxicity assessments often focus on structural outcomes and overlook subtle metabolic differences which occur during the early embryonic period. Deviant embryonic nutrition can result in later-life disease, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Prior to placenta-mediated nutrient exchange, the human embryo requires maternally supplied nutritional substrates for growth, called yolk. Here, we compare the biology of the human and zebrafish yolk and review examples of toxicant-mediated perturbation of yolk defects, composition, and utilization...
February 7, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Amita Bansal, Rebecca A Simmons
The incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity continue to increase. While it is evident that the increasing incidence of diabetes confers a global societal and economic burden, the mechanisms responsible for the increased incidence of T2D are not well understood. Extensive efforts to understand the association of early life perturbations with later onset of metabolic diseases, the founding principle of DOHaD, have been crucial in determining the mechanisms that may be driving the pathogenesis of T2D...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jean-François Ghersi-Egea, Nathalie Strazielle, Martin Catala, Violeta Silva-Vargas, Fiona Doetsch, Britta Engelhardt
The barrier between the blood and the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is located at the choroid plexuses. At the interface between two circulating fluids, these richly vascularized veil-like structures display a peculiar morphology explained by their developmental origin, and fulfill several functions essential for CNS homeostasis. They form a neuroprotective barrier preventing the accumulation of noxious compounds into the CSF and brain, and secrete CSF, which participates in the maintenance of a stable CNS internal environment...
January 24, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Zachary M Laubach, Wei Perng, Dana C Dolinoy, Christopher D Faulk, Kay E Holekamp, Thomas Getty
Developmental plasticity, a phenomenon of importance in both evolutionary biology and human studies of the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD), enables organisms to respond to their environment based on previous experience without changes to the underlying nucleotide sequence. Although such phenotypic responses should theoretically improve an organism's fitness and performance in its future environment, this is not always the case. Herein, we first discuss epigenetics as an adaptive mechanism of developmental plasticity and use signaling theory to provide an evolutionary context for DOHaD phenomena within a generation...
January 21, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Saleha Shah
Pediatric dentistry provides primary and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic oral health care for infants and children through adolescence, together with special health care needs. This specialty encompasses a variety of skills, disciplines, procedures and techniques that share a common origin with other dental specialties however these have been modified and reformed to the distinctive requirements of infants, children, adolescents and special health care needs. Disciplines comprise of behavior guidance, care of the medically and developmentally compromised and disabled patient, supervision of orofacial growth and development, caries prevention, sedation, pharmacological management, and hospital dentistry including other traditional fields of dentistry...
January 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Joshua D Preston, Leryn J Reynolds, Kevin J Pearson
BACKGROUND: A vast body of research has demonstrated that disease susceptibility and offspring health can be influenced by perinatal factors, which include both paternal and maternal behavior and environment. Offspring disease risk has the potential to affect the health span and life span of offspring. KEY FINDINGS: Various maternal factors, such as environmental toxicant exposure, diet, stress, exercise, age at conception, and longevity have the potential to influence age-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, and cancer risk in offspring...
January 12, 2018: Gerontology
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