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Petar Stupar, Onya Opota, Giovanni Longo, Guy Prod'hom, Giovanni Dietler, Gilbert Greub, Sandor Kasas
OBJECTIVES: The management of bloodstream infection, a life-threatening disease, largely relies on early detection of infecting microorganisms and accurate determination of their antibiotic susceptibility, to reduce both mortality and morbidity. Recently, we developed a new technique based on atomic force microscopy, capable of detecting movements of biological samples at the nanoscale. Such sensor is able to monitor the response of bacteria to antibiotic's pressure, allowing a fast and versatile susceptibility test...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Anita Kovacs-Kasa, Boris A Gorshkov, Kyung-Mi Kim, Sanjiv Kumar, Stephen M Black, David J Fulton, Christiana Dimitropoulou, John D Catravas, Alexander D Verin
The goal of this study was to investigate the role of MLC phosphatase (MLCP) in a LPS model of acute lung injury (ALI). We demonstrate that ectopic expression of a constitutively-active (C/A) MLCP regulatory subunit (MYPT1) attenuates the ability of LPS to increase endothelial (EC) permeability. Down-regulation of MYPT1 exacerbates LPS-induced expression of ICAM1 suggesting an anti-inflammatory role of MLCP. To determine whether MLCP contributes to LPS-induced ALI in vivo, we utilized a nanoparticle DNA delivery method to specifically target lung EC...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chia-En A Chang, Yu-Ming M Huang, Leonard J Mueller, Wanli You
This review discusses the use of molecular modeling tools, together with existing experimental findings, to provide a complete atomic-level description of enzyme dynamics and function. We focus on functionally relevant conformational dynamics of enzymes and the protonation states of substrates. The conformational fluctuations of enzymes usually play a crucial role in substrate recognition and catalysis. Protein dynamics can be altered by a tiny change in a molecular system such as different protonation states of various intermediates or by a significant perturbation such as a ligand association...
June 2016: Catalysts
Naveen Kommineni Kumar, Veera Kishore Kasa Reddy, Prathyusha Padakandla, Harshini Togaru, Swathi Kalagatla, Vinay Chand M Reddy
BACKGROUND: Chemokines are pro-inflammatory cells that can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection. AIM: This study was conducted to detect the presence of chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) and estimate their levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in children with band and loop space maintainers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MIP-1α and MIP-1β levels were estimated in GCF samples from twenty healthy children and twenty children with band and loop space maintainers...
July 2016: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
Juilee Rege, Shigehiro Karashima, Antonio M Lerario, Joshua M Smith, Richard J Auchus, Josephine Z Kasa-Vubu, Hironobu Sasano, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Perrin C White, William E Rainey
CONTEXT: Adrenal production of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) increases throughout childhood owing to expansion of the zona reticularis (ZR). ZR features cells with a steroidogenic phenotype distinct from that of the adjacent zona fasciculata, with higher expression of cytochrome b5 type A (CYB5A) and steroid sulfotransferase type 2A1 but decreased 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD3B2). In addition to DHEA-S, three adrenal Δ5-steroid sulfates could provide additional tools to define adrenal maturation...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ameeruddin Nusrath Unissa, Selvakumar Subbian, Luke Elizabeth Hanna, Nagamiah Selvakumar
Isoniazid (INH) is one of the most active compounds used to treat tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. In addition, INH has been used as a prophylactic drug for individuals with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection to prevent reactivation of disease. Importantly, the definition of multidrug resistance (MDR) in TB is based on the resistance of MTB strains to INH and rifampicin (RIF). Despite its simple chemical structure, the mechanism of action of INH is very complex and involves several different concepts...
November 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Katherine A Abrahams, Chun-Wa Chung, Sonja Ghidelli-Disse, Joaquín Rullas, María José Rebollo-López, Sudagar S Gurcha, Jonathan A G Cox, Alfonso Mendoza, Elena Jiménez-Navarro, María Santos Martínez-Martínez, Margarete Neu, Anthony Shillings, Paul Homes, Argyrides Argyrou, Ruth Casanueva, Nicholas J Loman, Patrick J Moynihan, Joël Lelièvre, Carolyn Selenski, Matthew Axtman, Laurent Kremer, Marcus Bantscheff, Iñigo Angulo-Barturen, Mónica Cacho Izquierdo, Nicholas C Cammack, Gerard Drewes, Lluis Ballell, David Barros, Gurdyal S Besra, Robert H Bates
Phenotypic screens for bactericidal compounds are starting to yield promising hits against tuberculosis. In this regard, whole-genome sequencing of spontaneous resistant mutants generated against an indazole sulfonamide (GSK3011724A) identifies several specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-ketoacyl synthase (kas) A gene. Here, this genomic-based target assignment is confirmed by biochemical assays, chemical proteomics and structural resolution of a KasA-GSK3011724A complex by X-ray crystallography...
September 1, 2016: Nature Communications
Mitchel Alioscha-Perez, Carine Benadiba, Katty Goossens, Sandor Kasas, Giovanni Dietler, Ronnie Willaert, Hichem Sahli
The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput) automated scans...
August 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
L F T Mukwa, A Gillis, V Vanhese, G Romay, S Galzi, N Laboureau, A Kalonji-Mbuyi, M L Iskra-Caruana, C Bragard
Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), belonging to the genus Babuvirus, is the most devastating and widespread banana virus. Banana and plantain are major crops in terms of household income and food security in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Despite the large area under banana and plantain cultivation in the country, before this study, the genetic characterization of BBTV isolates had only been undertaken for two provinces. In the study presented here, genetic variation in BBTV was assessed from 52 BBTV isolates collected in five out of 11 provinces in DRC (Bandundu, Bas-Congo, Katanga, Kinshasa and Kasaï Oriental) and in two provinces using sequences previously described in databases...
December 2016: Virus Genes
Rajeev Bhat, Kasa Ravindra Nadha Reddy
Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins...
January 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Naveen Kommineni Kumar, Veera Kishore Kasa Reddy, Prathyusha Padakandla, Harshini Togaru, Swathi Kalagatla, Sarath N Chandra
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study was conducted to detect the presence of macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and MIP-1β and estimate their levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in children with dental caries and stainless steel crowns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 80 children with primary dentition were selected and categorized into four groups with twenty in each group; Group 1 - healthy subjects, Group 2 - dental caries, Group 3 - dental caries involving the pulp, and Group 4 - stainless steel crowns...
July 2016: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
Araya Gebereyesus Wasihun, Berhe Gebreslassie Kasa
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance is a global health issue. Hence integration of traditional medicine like honey and modern medicine could be a best option in the treatment of patients infected with drug resistant bacteria. Despite the multi floral and huge honey production in the region, there are no studies that evaluate the antibacterial activity of honey against multidrug resistant bacteria. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of honey against multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacterial isolates of wound and ear infections...
2016: SpringerPlus
Eszter Kása, Gergely Bernáth, Tímea Kollár, Daniel Żarski, Jelena Lujić, Zoran Marinović, Zoltán Bokor, Árpád Hegyi, Béla Urbányi, Maria Carmen Vílchez, Marina Morini, David Sanchez Peñaranda, Luz Pérez Igualada, Juan Francisco Asturiano Nemesio, Ákos Horváth
Vitrification was successfully applied to the sperm of two fish species, the freshwater Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and marine European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Sperm was collected, diluted in species-specific non-activating media and cryoprotectants and vitrified by plunging directly into liquid nitrogen without pre-cooling in its vapor. Progressive motility of fresh and vitrified-thawed sperm was evaluated with computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Additional sperm quality parameters such as sperm head morphometry parameters (in case of European eel) and fertilizing capacity (in case of Eurasian perch) were carried out to test the effectiveness of vitrification...
May 9, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Kyohei Kai, Shinsuke Kasa, Masatsugu Sakamoto, Nozomi Aoki, Gaku Watabe, Takashi Yuasa, Mari Iwaya-Inoue, Yushi Ishibashi
NADPH oxidase catalyzes the production of the superoxide anion (O2(-)), a reactive oxygen species (ROS), and regulates the germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) chloride, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, delayed barley germination, and exogenous H2O2 (an ROS) partially rescued it. Six enzymes, ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA20-oxidase (GA20ox) and GA3-oxidase (GA3ox), catalyze the transformation of trans-geranylgeranyl diphosphate to active gibberellin, which promotes germination...
May 3, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
M Pule Addison, Thakur Uttam Singh, Subhashree Parida, Soumen Choudhury, Jaya Kiran Kasa, Susanth V Sukumaran, Sajad Ahmad Darzi, Kannan Kandasamy, Vishakha Singh, Dinesh Kumar, Santosh Kumar Mishra
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to observe the concomitant activation of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) pathways by TRPV4 channel agonist GSK1016790A in the rat pulmonary artery and explore the mechanism by which NO synthase inhibition attenuates EDHF-mediated relaxation in endothelium-intact rat pulmonary artery. METHODS: Tension experiments were conducted on the pulmonary artery from male Wistar rats. RESULTS: TRPV4 channel agonist GSK1016790A (GSK) caused concentration-dependent relaxation (Emax 86...
June 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
S Dinarelli, M Girasole, S Kasas, G Longo
Reducing the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is one of the major healthcare issues of our century. In addition to the increased mortality, infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria drastically enhance the healthcare costs, mainly because of the longer duration of illness and treatment. While in the last 20years, bacterial identification has been revolutionized by the introduction of new molecular techniques, the current phenotypic techniques to determine the susceptibilities of common Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria require at least two days from collection of clinical samples...
January 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Urska Arnautovska, Sofia Robleda, Jeanette Jackson, Nancy A Pachana
BACKGROUND: As the global population ages, it is important that the professional care workforce is well prepared to support the needs of people with dementia. In Australia, the Dementia Behaviour Management Advisory Service (DBMAS) supports people with dementia and their carers through an interdisciplinary team approach. To provide DBMAS Behaviour Consultants with a tool to guide them in their professional development, this project aimed to develop a self-assessment tool to enable self-reflection on clinical competencies required for working in the service and identification of areas where further development would be required...
May 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Jaiprakash Ram, Madhav Singh Baghel
INTRODUCTION: Vyaghriharitaki Avaleha (VHA), a polyherbal classical Ayurvedic formulation has been used in Kasa (cough), Swasa (asthma), Rajayakshma (tuberculosis) etc., conditions. AIM: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of VHA in the management of chronic bronchitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients of chronic bronchitis were given 10 g of VHA twice a day with lukewarm water before meals for 12 weeks. Improvement in clinical symptoms of chronic bronchitis as the primary outcome measures and St...
January 2015: Ayu
Yushi Ishibashi, Shinsuke Kasa, Masatsugu Sakamoto, Nozomi Aoki, Kyohei Kai, Takashi Yuasa, Atsushi Hanada, Shinjiro Yamaguchi, Mari Iwaya-Inoue
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote the germination of several seeds, and antioxidants suppress it. However, questions remain regarding the role and production mechanism of ROS in seed germination. Here, we focused on NADPH oxidases, which produce ROS. After imbibition, NADPH oxidase mRNAs were expressed in the embryo and in aleurone cells of barley seed; these expression sites were consistent with the sites of ROS production in the seed after imbibition. To clarify the role of NADPH oxidases in barley seed germination, we examined gibberellic acid (GA) / abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and signaling in barley seeds treated with diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor...
2015: PloS One
Kitti Papós, Péter Kása, Ilija Ilič, Sandra Blatnik-Urek, Géza Regdon, Stane Srčič, Klára Pintye-Hódi, Tamás Sovány
Dosage forms with fixed dose combinations of drugs is a frequent and advantageous mode of administration, but their production involves a number of technological problems. Numerous interactions in a homogeneous vehicle may be avoided through the use of layered tablets. The mechanical properties of these dosage forms depend on numerous process parameters and material characteristics. The aim of the present study was a detailed investigation of the relationships between the surface characteristics and deformation properties of tableting materials and the tendency of bilayer tablets to undergo lamination...
December 30, 2015: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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