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microrna brain

Renata Gruszka, Magdalena Zakrzewska
The fundamental function of ribonucleic acids is to transfer genetic information from DNA to protein during translation process, however, this is not the only way connecting active RNA sequences with essential biological processes. Up until now, many RNA subclasses of different size, structure, and biological function were identified. Among them, there are non-coding single-stranded microRNAs (miRNAs). This subclass comprises RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides in length that modulate the activity of well-defined coding RNAs and play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological processes...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jonas Hönig, Ivana Mižíková, Claudio Nardiello, David Emanuel Surate Solaligue, Maximilian J Daume, István Vadász, Konstantin Mayer, Susanne Herold, Stefan Günther, Werner Seeger, Rory Edward Morty
The emergence of microRNA as regulators of organogenesis and tissue differentiation has stimulated interest in the ablation of microRNA expression and function during discrete periods of development. To this end, inducible, conditional modulation of microRNA expression with doxycycline-based tetracycline-controlled transactivator and tamoxifen-based estrogen receptor systems has found widespread use. However, the induction agents and components of genome recombination systems negatively impact pregnancy, parturition, and post natal development; thereby limiting the use of these technologies between late gestation and the early post-natal period...
March 14, 2018: RNA
Xin-Rui Han, Xin Wen, Yong-Jian Wang, Shan Wang, Min Shen, Zi-Feng Zhang, Shao-Hua Fan, Qun Shan, Liang Wang, Meng-Qiu Li, Bin Hu, Chun-Hui Sun, Dong-Mei Wu, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
Hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) remains a major cause of foetal brain damage presented a scarcity of effective therapeutic approaches. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) and microRNA-140-5p (miR-140-5p) have been highlighted due to its potentially significant role in the treatment of cerebral ischaemia. This study was to investigate the role by which miR-140-5p provides cerebral protection using DEX to treat hypoxic-ischaemic brain damage (HIBD) in neonatal rats via the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. The HIBD rat models were established and allocated into various groups with different treatment plans, and eight SD rats into sham group...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Yuchi Han, Paul R Forfia, Anjali Vaidya, Jeremy A Mazurek, Myung H Park, Gautam Ramani, Stephen Y Chan, Aaron B Waxman
Introduction: A major determining factor on outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is right ventricular (RV) function. Ranolazine, which is currently approved for chronic stable angina, has been shown to improve RV function in an animal model and has been shown to be safe in small human studies with PAH. We aim to study the effect of ranolazine on RV function using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with pulmonary hypertension (non-group 2 patients) and monitor the effect of ranolazine on metabolism using metabolic profiling and changes of microRNA...
2018: Open Heart
Hiroshi Matsuoka, Aki Tamura, Masaki Kinehara, Akiho Shima, Arisa Uda, Hidetoshi Tahara, Akihiro Michihara
The claudin family shows organ- and tissue-specific expression of individual members. Deficiency or aberrant expression of distinct claudins has been reported to be associated with severe pathophysiological consequences. Claudin domain-containing 1 (CLDND1), also known as claudin-25, shows homology to this family of proteins. Furthermore, serum CLDND1-derived peptide antibody levels are elevated in patients with cerebral infarction, as compared with healthy controls. We previously reported that, in the adult murine brain, CLDND1 is abundantly expressed in the cerebellum in common sites of intracerebral hemorrhage, and CLDND1 levels are transiently decreased after hemorrhagic insult...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Subodh Kumar, P Hemachandra Reddy
A non-invasive and early-detectable peripheral biomarker is urgently needed for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study is a step forward to verify the biomarker properties of human microRNA-455-3p (Hsa-miR-455-3p) in AD patients. Our previous findings on mild cognitive impaired subjects, AD patients and AD cells and mouse models unveiled the miR-455-3p as a potential peripheral biomarker for AD. In the current study, we verified the differential expression of miR-455-3p in postmortem AD brains obtained from NIH NeuroBioBank, and fibroblasts and B-lymphocytes from both familial and sporadic AD patients from Coriell Cell Repository of National Institutes on Aging...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Tamara Roitbak
Stroke-induced endothelial cell injury leads to destruction of cerebral microvasculature and significant damage to the brain tissue. A subacute phase of cerebral ischemia is associated with regeneration involving the activation of vascular remodeling, neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation processes. Effective restoration and improvement of blood supply to the damaged brain tissue offers a potential therapy for stroke. microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently identified small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression and significantly influence the essential cellular processes associated with brain repair following stroke...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Roberto De Gregorio, Salvatore Pulcrano, Claudia De Sanctis, Floriana Volpicelli, Ezia Guatteo, Lars von Oerthel, Emanuele Claudio Latagliata, Roberta Esposito, Rosa Maria Piscitelli, Carla Perrone-Capano, Valerio Costa, Dario Greco, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Marten P Smidt, Umberto di Porzio, Massimiliano Caiazzo, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Meng Li, Gian Carlo Bellenchi
The differentiation of dopaminergic neurons requires concerted action of morphogens and transcription factors acting in a precise and well-defined time window. Very little is known about the potential role of microRNA in these events. By performing a microRNA-mRNA paired microarray screening, we identified miR-34b/c among the most upregulated microRNAs during dopaminergic differentiation. Interestingly, miR-34b/c modulates Wnt1 expression, promotes cell cycle exit, and induces dopaminergic differentiation. When combined with transcription factors ASCL1 and NURR1, miR-34b/c doubled the yield of transdifferentiated fibroblasts into dopaminergic neurons...
March 2, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Natascia Guida, Valeria Valsecchi, Giusy Laudati, Angelo Serani, Luigi Mascolo, Pasquale Molinaro, Paolo Montuori, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lorella M T Canzoniero, Luigi Formisano
Methylmercury (MeHg) causes neuronal death through different pathways. Particularly, we found that in cortical neurons it increased the expression of Repressor Element-1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST), Histone Deacetylase (HDAC)4, Specificity Protein (Sp)1, Sp4 and reduced the levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). Herein, in rat cortical neurons we investigated whether microRNA (miR)206 can modulate MeHg-induced cell death by regulating REST/HDAC4/Sp1/Sp4/BDNF axis. MeHg (1µM) reduced miR206 expression after both 12 and 24 hours and miR206 transfection prevented MeHg-induced neuronal death...
March 7, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Ryota Kurogi, Akira Nakamizo, Satoshi O Suzuki, Masahiro Mizoguchi, Koji Yoshimoto, Toshiyuki Amano, Takeo Amemiya, So Takagishi, Koji Iihara
OBJECTIVE Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) show tropism for brain tumors and may be a useful vehicle for drug or gene delivery to malignant gliomas. Recently, some microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to suppress the invasiveness of malignant gliomas. METHODS To test their potential to become vehicles for the delivery of miRNA to malignant gliomas, hMSCs were engineered so that hMSC secretion of miRNAs that inhibit glioma cell invasion was enabled without altering the hMSC tropism for glioma cells...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Yu Shuang Tian, Di Zhong, Qing Qing Liu, Xiu Li Zhao, Hong Xue Sun, Jing Jin, Hai Ning Wang, Guo Zhong Li
OBJECTIVE Ischemic stroke remains a significant cause of death and disability in industrialized nations. Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway play important roles in the downstream signal pathway regulation of ischemic stroke-related inflammatory neuronal damage. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as major regulators in cerebral ischemic injury; therefore, the authors aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism between miRNAs and ischemic stroke, which may provide potential therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Juan Liu, Kun-Shan Zhang, Bin Hu, Si-Guang Li, Qing Li, Yu-Ping Luo, Yang Wang, Zhi-Feng Deng
Although extensive studies have identified large number of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in ischemic stroke, the RNA regulation network response to focal ischemia remains poorly understood. In this study, we simultaneously interrogate the expression profiles of lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs changes during focal ischemia induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. A set of 1924 novel lncRNAs were identified and may involve brain injury and DNA repair as revealed by coexpression network analysis...
2018: BioMed Research International
Qingqing Feng, Wei-Dong Chen, Yan-Dong Wang
The gut microbiota, as the main member in gut microecology, is an essential mediator in health and disease. The gut microbiota interacts with various organs and systems in the body, including brain, lung, liver, bone, cardiovascular system, and others. Microbiota-derived metabolites such as the short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate are primary signals, which link the gut microbiota and physiology. Recently, the gut microbiota has been identified as the origin of a number of diseases by influencing the related cell signaling pathways such as WNT/beta-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer and T cell receptor signaling in the central nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Haijun Zhang, Longbin Zhang, Tao Sun
Proper proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors (NPs) in the developing cerebral cortex are critical for normal brain formation and function. Emerging evidence has shown the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating cortical development and the etiology of neurological disorders. Here we show that miR-26 is co-expressed with its host gene Ctdsp in the mouse embryonic cortex. We demonstrate that similar to its host gene Ctdsp2, miR-26 positively regulates proliferation of NPs through controlling the cell-cycle progression, by using miR-26 overexpression and sponge approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Beiyun Wang, Jing Huang, Jingbo Li, Yuan Zhong
The molecular development of diabetic encephalopathy remains ill-defined. Recently, we reported that elimination of inflammatory macrophages alleviated the progress and severity of diabetic encephalopathy. Here, we studied the underlying mechanism. Inflammatory macrophages were isolated from the brain of the mice that received i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ) to develop diabetes 6 weeks before, and showed enhanced autophagy activity, seemingly through augmentation of Beclin-1 levels. However, the increases in Beclin-1 levels did not result from enhanced gene transcription, but appeared to result from suppression of a Beclin-1-inhibitory microRNA, miR-384-5p...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
P Scott Pine, Steven P Lund, Jerod R Parsons, Lindsay K Vang, Ashish A Mahabal, Luca Cinquini, Sean C Kelly, Heather Kincaid, Daniel J Crichton, Avrum Spira, Gang Liu, Adam C Gower, Harvey I Pass, Chandra Goparaju, Steven M Dubinett, Kostyantyn Krysan, Sanford A Stass, Debra Kukuruga, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen, Amanda Courtright-Lim, Karol L Thompson, Barry A Rosenzweig, Lynn Sorbara, Sudhir Srivastava, Marc L Salit
BACKGROUND: The potential utility of microRNA as biomarkers for early detection of cancer and other diseases is being investigated with genome-scale profiling of differentially expressed microRNA. Processes for measurement assurance are critical components of genome-scale measurements. Here, we evaluated the utility of a set of total RNA samples, designed with between-sample differences in the relative abundance of miRNAs, as process controls. RESULTS: Three pure total human RNA samples (brain, liver, and placenta) and two different mixtures of these components were evaluated as measurement assurance control samples on multiple measurement systems at multiple sites and over multiple rounds...
March 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
Barbara Ogórek, Hilaire C Lam, Damir Khabibullin, Heng-Jia Liu, Julie Nijmeh, Robinson Triboulet, David J Kwiatkowski, Richard I Gregory, Elizabeth P Henske
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by germline inactivating mutations of TSC1 or TSC2. In TSC-associated tumors of the brain, heart, skin, kidney, and lung, inactivation of both alleles of TSC1 or TSC2 leads to hyperactivation of the mTORC1 pathway. The TSC/mTORC1 pathway is a key regulator of cellular processes related to growth, proliferation and autophagy. We and others have previously found that mTORC1 regulates microRNA biogenesis, but the mechanisms are not fully understood...
March 2, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
J-Q Wang, W-P Gu, Q-Q Deng, Q Huang, A-M Wang, S-X Liu, H-Y Tang, Y Liang, J-H Yan, S Ouyang
OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of microRNA-126 (miR-126) on the migration and homing of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) within arterial thrombus of cerebral infarction patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EPCs from rat bone marrow were isolated, and miR-126 overexpressed EPCs were constructed by lentiviral transfection. Then, the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was established by the method of thread ligation. Successfully established model rats were randomly divided into miR-126 overexpression EPC group, miR-126 wild type EPC group, and normal saline group...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Thiago Verano-Braga, Vladimir Gorshkov, Sune Munthe, Mia D Sørensen, Bjarne W Kristensen, Frank Kjeldsen
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain cancer with poor prognosis and low survival rate. Invasive cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor recurrence because they escape current treatments. Our main goal was to study the proteome of three GBM subpopulations to identify key molecules behind GBM cell phenotypes and potential cell markers for migrating cells. We used SuperQuant-an enhanced quantitative proteome approach-to increase proteome coverage. We found 148 proteins differentially regulated in migrating CSCs and 199 proteins differentially regulated in differentiated cells...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Zi Wang, Xiaoye Li, Jinqiang Shen, Dan Tian, Qiuyi Ji, Limin Xia, Qianzhou Lv
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (miRs) may act as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cardiovascular events in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. This study measured changes in cardiac- and muscle-related miRs and cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing CABG surgery as well as investigated the correlations between these indicators. METHODS: Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the plasma levels of miR-1, miR-133a, miR-208a, and miR-499 before and after surgery in 27 acute coronary syndrome patients...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
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