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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742208/effects-of-microrna-21-targeting-pitx2-on-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-pituitary-tumor-cells
#1
M Cui, M Zhang, H-F Liu, J-P Wang
OBJECTIVE: Expression of pituitary homeobox 2 (PITX2) is significantly elevated in pituitary adenoma tissues, which also has lower microRNA (miR)-21 expression, indicating possible tumor-suppression role of miR-21. Bio-informatics analysis revealed targeting onto 3'-UTR of PITX2 by miR-21. This study aims to investigate the role of miR-21/PITX2 expression in proliferation and apoptosis of pituitary adenoma cells and pathogenesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 48 pituitary adenoma samples were collected in parallel with 12 normal brain tissues and were recruited in this study...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739740/global-analysis-of-mirna-mrna-interaction-network-in-breast-cancer-with-brain-metastasis
#2
Zhixin Li, Zhiqiang Peng, Siyu Gu, Junfang Zheng, Duiping Feng, Qiong Qin, Junqi He
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been linked to a number of cancer types including breast cancer. The rate of brain metastases is 10-30% in patients with advanced breast cancer which is associated with poor prognosis. The potential application of miRNAs in the diagnostics and therapeutics of breast cancer with brain metastasis is an area of intense interest. In an initial effort to systematically address the differential expression of miRNAs and mRNAs in primary breast cancer which may provide clues for early detection of brain metastasis, we analyzed the consequent changes in global patterns of gene expression in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data set obtained by microarray from patients with in situ carcinoma and patients with brain metastasis...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729919/toward-understanding-non-coding-rna-roles-in-intracranial-aneurysms-and-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#3
Fengzhen Huang, Jiping Yi, Tieqiao Zhou, Xiaoxiang Gong, Hong Jiang, Xiaoxi Yao
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common and frequently life-threatening cerebrovascular disease, which is mostly related with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Its complications include rebleeding, early brain injury, cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, chronic hydrocephalus, and also non neurological problems. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), comprising of microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), play an important role in intracranial aneurysms and SAH. Here, we review the non-coding RNAs expression profile and their related mechanisms in intracranial aneurysms and SAH...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729628/a-new-approach-for-ratiometric-in-vivo-calcium-imaging-of-microglia
#4
Bianca Brawek, Yajie Liang, Daria Savitska, Kaizhen Li, Natalie Fomin-Thunemann, Yury Kovalchuk, Elizabeta Zirdum, Johan Jakobsson, Olga Garaschuk
Microglia, resident immune cells of the brain, react to the presence of pathogens/danger signals with a large repertoire of functional responses including morphological changes, proliferation, chemotaxis, production/release of cytokines, and phagocytosis. In vitro studies suggest that many of these effector functions are Ca(2+)-dependent, but our knowledge about in vivo Ca(2+) signalling in microglia is rudimentary. This is mostly due to technical reasons, as microglia largely resisted all attempts of in vivo labelling with Ca(2+) indicators...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729027/micrornas-as-multifaceted-players-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#5
Neri Mercatelli, Silvia Galardi, Silvia Anna Ciafrè
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and inevitably lethal primary brain tumor, with a median survival rate of only 15 months from diagnosis. The current standard treatment involves maximal surgical resection flanked by radiotherapy and chemotherapy with the alkylating agent temozolomide. However, even such aggressive treatment is never curative, and recurrent tumors always arise, commonly in more aggressive, chemo- and radio-resistant forms, leading to untreatable and deadly tumors. MicroRNAs, recognized major players in cancer, are deeply involved in GBM, as shown by more than a decade of studies...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717417/analysis-of-extracellular-rna-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#6
Julie A Saugstad, Theresa A Lusardi, Kendall R Van Keuren-Jensen, Jay I Phillips, Babett Lind, Christina A Harrington, Trevor J McFarland, Amanda L Courtright, Rebecca A Reiman, Ashish S Yeri, M Yashar S Kalani, P David Adelson, Jorge Arango, John P Nolan, Erika Duggan, Karen Messer, Johnny C Akers, Douglas R Galasko, Joseph F Quinn, Bob S Carter, Fred H Hochberg
We examined the extracellular vesicle (EV) and RNA composition of pooled normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and CSF from five major neurological disorders: Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), low-grade glioma (LGG), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), representing neurodegenerative disease, cancer, and severe acute brain injury. We evaluated: (I) size and quantity of EVs by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and vesicle flow cytometry (VFC), (II) RNA yield and purity using four RNA isolation kits, (III) replication of RNA yields within and between laboratories, and (IV) composition of total and EV RNAs by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and RNA sequencing (RNASeq)...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714388/the-prospective-role-of-micrornas-in-depression
#7
Zhiying Hu, Yuting Jiang, Xue Huo, Yang Yang, Henry Davies, Benson O A Botchway, Marong Fang
Depression is a debilitating disease that is affecting a growing number of patients both physically and mentally. In addition to the mood changes, depression causes cognitive impairment, including learning and memory dysfunction. Although depression studies have been going on for decades, the underlying mechanism still remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a type of small non-coding RNAs, predominantly control the expression of their target mRNAs to exert their functions. Some evidence has revealed the importance of miRNAs in the mechanism of depression though the studies are still in their infancy...
July 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714009/microrna-202-inhibits-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-glioma-by-directly-targeting-metadherin
#8
Jinsheng Yang, Bo Fan, Yachao Zhao, Junchao Fang
Glioma is the most common and aggressive type of primary malignant brain tumour. Increasing evidence has revealed that microRNAs play important roles in multiple biological processes related to glioma occurrence, development, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. MicroRNA-202 (miR-202) has been studied in several types of human cancer, whereas the biological roles of miR-202 in glioma remain unknown. The present study, aimed to investigate the expression, clinical significance and biological roles of miR-202 in glioma, as well as its underlying molecular mechanism...
July 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713158/amyloid-beta-structure-biology-and-structure-based-therapeutic-development
#9
REVIEW
Guo-Fang Chen, Ting-Hai Xu, Yan Yan, Yu-Ren Zhou, Yi Jiang, Karsten Melcher, H Eric Xu
Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) is produced through the proteolytic processing of a transmembrane protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP), by β- and γ-secretases. Aβ accumulation in the brain is proposed to be an early toxic event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, which is the most common form of dementia associated with plaques and tangles in the brain. Currently, it is unclear what the physiological and pathological forms of Aβ are and by what mechanism Aβ causes dementia. Moreover, there are no efficient drugs to stop or reverse the progression of Alzheimer's disease...
July 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710037/rna-editing-independently-occurs-at-three-mir-376a-1-sites-and-may-compromise-the-stability-of-the-microrna-hairpin
#10
Alicia Gallego, Diego A Hartasánchez, Marina Brasó-Vives, Eva Garcia-Ramallo, Maria Lopez-Valenzuela, Neus Baena, Miriam Guitart, Hugo Fernández-Bellon, Ivanela Kondova, Ronald Bontrop, Yukio Kawahara, Yolanda Espinosa-Parrilla
RNA editing is being recognized as an important post-transcriptional mechanism that may have crucial roles in introducing genetic variation and phenotypic diversity. Despite microRNA editing recurrence, defining its biological relevance is still under extended debate. To better understand microRNA editing function and regulation we performed an exhaustive characterization of the A-to-I site-specific patterns in mir-376a-1, a mammalian microRNA which RNA editing is involved in the regulation of development and in disease...
July 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709951/microrna-basic-concepts-and-implications-for-regeneration-and-repair-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Cláudia Saraiva, Marta Esteves, Liliana Bernardino
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding molecules that revolutionized our knowledge about the regulation of gene expression. Capable to target a large number of mRNA, miRNA are thought to regulate around 30% of the entire human genome. Therefore, these molecules are able to regulate several biological processes, including neuronal survival, differentiation and regeneration. Additionally, miRNA might act as valuable clinical agents in brain pathological conditions: their specific expression patterns in the brain parenchyma and/or in circulating fluids have been highlighted as potential biomarkers while the modulation of their activity may have therapeutic value for several neurodegenerative diseases...
July 11, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701578/circular-rna-expression-profiles-alter-significantly-in-mouse-brain-after-transient-focal-ischemia
#12
Suresh L Mehta, Gopal Pandi, Raghu Vemuganti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of noncoding RNAs formed from many protein-coding genes by backsplicing. Although their physiological functions are not yet completely defined, they are thought to control transcription, translation, and microRNA levels. We investigated whether stroke changes the circRNAs expression profile in the mouse brain. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, and circRNA expression profile was evaluated in the penumbral cortex at 6, 12, and 24 hours of reperfusion using circRNA microarrays and real-time PCR...
July 12, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696366/role-and-therapeutic-targeting-of-the-hgf-met-pathway-in-glioblastoma
#13
REVIEW
Nichola Cruickshanks, Ying Zhang, Fang Yuan, Mary Pahuski, Myron Gibert, Roger Abounader
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor with dismal prognosis. Current therapeutic options, consisting of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, have only served to marginally increase patient survival. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are dysregulated in approximately 90% of GBM; attributed to this, research has focused on inhibiting RTKs as a novel and effective therapy for GBM. Overexpression of RTK mesenchymal epithelial transition (MET), and its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), in GBM highlights a promising new therapeutic target...
July 11, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696314/loss-of-function-mutation-in-mirta22-emc10-rescues-specific-schizophrenia-related-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-the-22q11-2-deletion
#14
Anastasia Diamantopoulou, Ziyi Sun, Jun Mukai, Bin Xu, Karine Fenelon, Maria Karayiorgou, Joseph A Gogos
Identification of protective loss-of-function (LoF) mutations holds great promise for devising novel therapeutic interventions, although it faces challenges due to the scarcity of protective LoF alleles in the human genome. Exploiting the detailed mechanistic characterization of animal models of validated disease mutations offers an alternative. Here, we provide insights into protective-variant biology based on our characterization of a model of the 22q11.2 deletion, a strong genetic risk factor for schizophrenia (SCZ)...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688608/down-regulated-microrna-375-expression-as-a-predictive-biomarker-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-brain-metastasis-and-its-prognostic-significance
#15
Li-Juan Chen, Xing-Ya Li, Yan-Qiu Zhao, Wen-Jing Liu, Hui-Juan Wu, Jie Liu, Xiao-Qian Mu, Hong-Bo Wu
Brain metastases (BM) are common among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and have been associated with significant morbidity and limited survival. Early and sensitive detection of BM is essential for improving prognosis. Recently, microRNA-375(miR-375) which is specifically expressed in the brain has been found significantly dysregulated in many human cancers. However, there is still no data whether miR-375 is associated with higher risk of BM development in NSCLC. In this study, we detected the miR-375 expression using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and assessed its predictive and prognostic significance...
August 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683457/mir-9-regulates-the-expression-of-bace1-in-dementia-induced-by-chronic-brain-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#16
Hailong Xie, Ying Zhao, You Zhou, Lin Liu, Yueting Liu, Dongxue Wang, Shuang Zhang, Mingyan Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) plays important roles in nervous system diseases such as glioblastoma and neurodegenerative disorders. However, how miR-9 contributes to dementia requires further study. In this study, we evaluated the role of miR-9 in dementia and the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects. METHODS: A rat model of dementia was created by occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery (2VO) for 8 weeks. Learning and memory were assessed using the Morris Water Maze (MWM)...
July 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681200/microrna-expression-signature-of-methamphetamine-use-and-addiction-in-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens
#17
Maw Shin Sim, Tomoko Soga, Vijayapandi Pandy, Yuan Seng Wu, Ishwar S Parhar, Zahurin Mohamed
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psycho-stimulant that induces behavioral changes due to high level of METH-induced dopamine in the brain. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in these changes, especially in drug addiction. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms of METH-induced addiction. The objective of this study was to establish a behavioral model of METH use and addiction using escalating doses of METH over 15 days and to determine the global miRNA expression profiling in NAc of METH-addicted rats...
July 5, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680530/mir-let7a-controls-the-cell-death-and-tight-junction-density-of-brain-endothelial-cells-under-high-glucose-condition
#18
Juhyun Song, So Ra Yoon, Oh Yoen Kim
Hyperglycemia-induced stress in the brain of patients with diabetes triggers the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), leading to diverse neurological diseases including stroke and dementia. Recently, the role of microRNA becomes an interest in the research for deciphering the mechanism of brain endothelial cell damage under hyperglycemia. Therefore, we investigated whether mircoRNA Let7A (miR-Let7A) controls the damage of brain endothelial (bEnd.3) cells against high glucose condition. Cell viability, cell death marker expressions (p-53, Bax, and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase), the loss of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and claudin-5), proinflammatory response (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nitrite production were confirmed using MTT, reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and Griess reagent assay...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677773/microrna-342-inhibits-the-progression-of-glioma-by-directly-targeting-pak4
#19
Xianghe Lu, Haowen Wang, Zhipeng Su, Lin Cai, Wenfeng Li
Glioma is an extremely aggressive and lethal type of brain tumour that originates from glial cells. MicroRNA (miRNA) dysregulation has been implicated in the occurrence and progression of many human cancers, including glioma. Thus, some specific miRNAs are potential therapeutic targets for glioma diagnosis, therapy and prognosis. MicroRNA-342 (miR‑342) has been reported to be abnormally expressed in various types of cancer. However, the precise roles of miR‑342 in glioma remain unknown. The present study showed that miR‑342 is relatively downregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines compared with that in adjacent normal tissues and normal human astrocytes...
July 3, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676013/the-challenge-of-microrna-as-a-biomarker-of-epilepsy
#20
Yihong Ma
Epilepsy is one of chronic severe neurological disorders possess to recurring seizures which product abnormal and synchronous in the brain neurons other characteristic is including upregulate mortality rate, and decreased social participation and quality of life. Epilepsy as well as ictogenesis included treatments. But anti-epileptic drugs are only effective in less than one third of epilepsy patients, and biomarkers predicting are not available when the specific antiepileptic drugs treated. Advanced studies have showed that miRNA may be a key in the pathogenesis of epilepsy beginning in the early 2000 years...
July 3, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
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