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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526930/micrornas-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Abhishek Singh, Dwaipayan Sen
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease commonly affecting the older population. Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of brain leads to impairment of motor activities as well as cognitive defects. There are many underlying causes to this disease, both genetic and epigenetic, which are yet to be fully explored. Non-coding RNAs are significant part of our genome and are involved in various cellular processes. MicroRNAs, which are small non-coding RNAs having 20-22 nucleotides, are involved in many underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's...
May 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526834/the-transcription-factor-irf6-co-represses-ppar%C3%AE-mediated-cytoprotection-in-ischemic-cerebrovascular-endothelial-cells
#2
Rongzhong Huang, Zicheng Hu, Yuxing Feng, Lehua Yu, Xingsheng Li
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in the cerebrovascular endothelium is a key suppressor of post-stroke brain damage. However, the role of PPARγ's co-regulators during cerebral ischemia remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the transcription factor IRF6 is a novel PPARγ co-regulator that directly binds to and suppresses PPARγ activity in murine cerebrovascular endothelial cells. Moreover, IRF6 was also revealed to be a transcriptional target of PPARγ suppression, with PPARγ silencing significantly promoting IRF6 expression in cerebrovascular endothelial cells...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523997/differences-in-relative-levels-of-88-micrornas-in-various-regions-of-the-normal-adult-human-brain
#3
Elena Vladislavovna Filatova, Anelya Khanlarovna Alieva, Maria Igorevna Shadrina, Petr Andreevich Slominsky
AIM OF STUDY: Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the 1990s, our knowledge about their biology has grown considerably. The increasing number of studies addressing the role of miRNAs in development and in various diseases emphasizes the need for a comprehensive catalogue of accurate sequence, expression and conservation information regarding the large number of miRNAs proposed recently in all organs and tissues. The objective of this study was to provide data on the levels of miRNA expression in 15 tissues of the normal human brain...
May 19, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522551/inhibition-of-mir-143-during-ischemia-cerebral-injury-protects-neurons-through-recovery-of-the-hexokinase-2-mediated-glucose%C3%A2-uptake
#4
Xianzhu Zeng, Na Liu, Jing Zhang, Lei Wang, Zhecheng Zhang, Ju Zhu, Qian Li, Yuwen Wang
Ischemic stroke, a major cause of death, is caused by occlusion of a blood vessel, resulting in a significant reduction in regional cerebral blood flow. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short noncoding RNAs (18 to 22 nucleotides) and bind the 3' un-translated region (UTR) of their target genes to post-transcriptionally suppress gene expression. In this study, we report miR-143 is downregulated in rat neurons but high expressed in astrocytes cells. In vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and ex vivo oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) results showed miR-143 was significantly induced by ischemia injury...
May 18, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520736/the-bantam-microrna-acts-through-numb-to-exert-cell-growth-control-and-feedback-regulation-of-notch-in-tumor-forming-stem-cells-in-the-drosophila-brain
#5
Yen-Chi Wu, Kyu-Sun Lee, Yan Song, Stephan Gehrke, Bingwei Lu
Notch (N) signaling is central to the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and other tissue stem cells. Its deregulation compromises tissue homeostasis and contributes to tumorigenesis and other diseases. How N regulates stem cell behavior in health and disease is not well understood. Here we show that N regulates bantam (ban) microRNA to impact cell growth, a process key to NSC maintenance and particularly relied upon by tumor-forming cancer stem cells. Notch signaling directly regulates ban expression at the transcriptional level, and ban in turn feedback regulates N activity through negative regulation of the Notch inhibitor Numb...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513547/epigenetic-regulation-of-telomere-maintenance-for-therapeutic-interventions-in-gliomas
#6
REVIEW
Elisabeth Naderlinger, Klaus Holzmann
High-grade astrocytoma of WHO grade 4 termed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a common human brain tumor with poor patient outcome. Astrocytoma demonstrates two known telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs) based on telomerase activity (TA) and on alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). ALT is associated with lower tumor grades and better outcome. In contrast to ALT, regulation of TA in tumors by direct mutation and epigenetic activation of the hTERT promoter is well established. Here, we summarize the genetic background of TMMs in non-malignant cells and in cancer, in addition to clinical and pathological features of gliomas...
May 17, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508328/mir-424-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-glioma-cells-and-is-down-regulated-by-dna-methylation
#7
Chen Jin, Minhong Li, Yian Ouyang, Zhigang Tan, Yugang Jiang
Glioma is one of the most lethal malignancies, and increasing reports revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, play a critical role in the development and pathology of human gliomas. MiR-424 has been found to be dysregulated in many different types of human cancers. However, the clinical significance and function of miR-424 in glioma remains unclear. Here, based on RTq-PCR analysis in 148 clinical specimens, we found miR-424 expression was significantly decreased in glioma tumor tissues than in adjacent non-neoplastic brain tissues, and decreased miR-424 expression was associated with glioma KPS (P = 0...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507320/the-microbiome-regulates-amygdala-dependent-fear-recall
#8
A E Hoban, R M Stilling, G Moloney, F Shanahan, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The amygdala is a key brain region that is critically involved in the processing and expression of anxiety and fear-related signals. In parallel, a growing number of preclinical and human studies have implicated the microbiome-gut-brain in regulating anxiety and stress-related responses. However, the role of the microbiome in fear-related behaviours is unclear. To this end we investigated the importance of the host microbiome on amygdala-dependent behavioural readouts using the cued fear conditioning paradigm...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502584/up-regulation-of-mir-325-3p-suppresses-pineal-aralkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-aanat-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-brain-injury-in-rats
#9
Yuanyuan Yang, Bin Sun, Jian Huang, Lixiao Xu, Jian Pan, Chen Fang, Mei Li, Gen Li, Yanfang Tao, Xiaofeng Yang, Ying Wu, Po Miao, Ying Wang, Hong Li, Jing Ren, Meiqin Zhan, Yiping Fang, Xing Feng, Xin Ding
Survivors of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), besides impairment of psychomotor development, often develop circadian rhythm disorders, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we first verified that mRNA and protein expression of pineal aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat), a key regulator for melatonin (MT) synthesis, along with MT, were severely impaired after HIBD. In addition, we demonstrated that neonatal HIBD disrupted the circadian rhythmicity of locomotor activities in juvenile rats...
May 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501777/mir-140-bdnf-axis-regulates-normal-human-astrocyte-proliferation-and-lps-induced-il-6-and-tnf-%C3%AE-secretion
#10
Zhiming Tu, Yawei Li, Yuliang Dai, Lei Li, Guohua Lv, Ivan Chen, Bing Wang
Reactive astrocyte proliferation after spinal cord injury (SCI) contributes to glial scar formation that impedes axonal regeneration. The mechanisms underlying astrocyte proliferation upon injury remain partially understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as a major class of post-transcriptional gene expression regulators that participate in many biological processes. In this study, we focused on the functional role of miR-140 in normal human astrocyte (NHA) cell proliferation. Ectopic miR-140 expression significantly inhibited NHA cell viability and proliferation; miR-140 inhibition exerted the opposite function...
May 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497156/tumor-suppressors-microrna-302d-and-microrna-16-inhibit-human-glioblastoma-multiforme-by-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-fgf2
#11
Feng Wang, Lijun Yang, Jianping Sun, Jun Zheng, Lin Shi, Gengshen Zhang, Na Cui
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant cancer in the brain with a median survival time of approximately one year. However, the mechanisms underlying GBM development and occurrence are poorly understood. Recently, miRNAs were reported to play important roles in GBM. We performed microRNA profiling by comparing the human GBM cell line T98G and control cell line HCN1A. MicroRNA assays, PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to detect the expressions of microRNAs, mRNAs and proteins of target genes, respectively...
May 12, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496112/-tornado-theranostic-one-step-rna-detector-microfluidic-disc-for-the-direct-detection-of-microrna-134-in-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid
#12
Hazel McArdle, Eva M Jimenez-Mateos, Rana Raoof, Eadaoin Carthy, David Boyle, Hany ElNaggar, Norman Delanty, Hajo Hamer, Muejgdan Dogan, Tessa Huchtemann, Peter Kӧrtvelyessy, Felix Rosenow, Robert J Forster, David C Henshall, Elaine Spain
Diagnosis of seizure disorders such as epilepsy currently relies on clinical examination and electroencephalogram recordings and is associated with substantial mis-diagnosis. The miRNA, miR-134 (MIR134 in humans), has been found to be elevated in brain tissue after experimental status epilepticus and in human epilepsy cells and their detection in biofluids may serve as unique biomarkers. miRNAs from unprocessed human plasma and human cerebrospinal fluid samples were used in a novel electrochemical detection based on electrocatalytic platinum nanoparticles inside a centrifugal microfluidic device where the sandwich assay is formed using an event triggered release system, suitable for the rapid point-of-care detection of low abundance biomarkers of disease...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495533/microrna-27a-reduces-mutant-hutingtin-aggregation-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#13
Jae-Jun Ban, Jin-Young Chung, Mijung Lee, Wooseok Im, Manho Kim
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal genetic disease caused by abnormal aggregation of mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt). Reduction of mHtt aggregation decreases cell death of the brain and is a promising therapeutic strategy of HD. MicroRNAs are short non-coding nucleotides which modulate various genes and dysregulated in many diseases including HD. MicroRNA miR-27a is reported to be reduced in the brain of R6/2 HD mouse model and modulates multidrug resistance protein-1 (MDR-1). Using subventricular zone-derived neuronal stem cells (NSCs), we used in vitro HD model to test the effect of miR-27a on MDR-1 and mHtt aggregation...
May 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494740/nucleic-acids-based-nanotherapeutics-crossing-the-blood-brain-barrier
#14
Noha Nafee, Noha Gouda
The restless endeavors revealing the molecular pathways underlying many neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors have paved the way for the introduction of the selective exogenous gene-based therapeutics. The implicated active biomolecules encompass mainly negatively-charged nucleic acids ranging from DNA, mRNA, non-coding RNAs (small-interfering RNA, siRNA, and microRNA, miRNA), to antisense oligonucleotides. They selectively interfere with the genes translational and/or transcriptional processes. Although many reviews previously addressed brain targeting, a thorough correlation between the molecular properties of these biomacromolecules, the nature of blood brain barrier (BBB) in the accompanying pathological condition, the intracellular targets, as well as the design of the delivery system which will transport the bioactive cargo to the target cells attempting efficient delivery to the active sites in the brain will be appraised...
May 10, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494198/microrna-338-modulates-cortical-neuronal-placement-and-polarity
#15
Aron Kos, Annetrude J de Mooij-Malsen, Hans van Bokhoven, Barry B Kaplan, Gerard J Martens, Sharon M Kolk, Armaz Aschrafi
The precise spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression orchestrates the many intricate processes during brain development. In the present study we examined the role of the brain-enriched microRNA-338 (miR-338) during mouse cortical development. Reduction of miR-338 levels in the developing mouse cortex, using a sequence-specific miR-sponge, resulted in a loss of neuronal polarity in the cortical plate and significantly reduced the number of neurons within this cortical layer. Conversely, miR-338 overexpression in developing mouse cortex increased the number of neurons, which exhibited a multipolar morphology...
May 11, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493018/emerging-role-of-mirna-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Saurabh Srivastav, Susanne Walitza, Edna Grünblatt
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder whose aetiology still remains elusive. Nevertheless, evidence supports a high genetic contribution that interacts with environmental factors, also known to modulate epigenetic processes. These epigenetic modulators are a class of non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), known as post-transcriptional regulators, which have emerged as prospective players in neuropsychiatric disorders since they play a role in brain development, synapse formation, and the fine-tuning of genes underlying synaptic and memory formation...
May 10, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488209/mir-135a-regulates-synaptic-transmission-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-amygdala
#17
Cecilia Mannironi, Antonio Biundo, Samyutha Rajendran, Francesca De Vito, Luana Saba, Silvia Caioli, Cristina Zona, Teresa Ciotti, Silvana Caristi, Emerald Perlas, Giorgia Del Vecchio, Irene Bozzoni, Arianna Rinaldi, Andrea Mele, Carlo Presutti
MicroRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs with a growing relevance in the regulation of gene expression related to brain function and plasticity. They have the potential to orchestrate complex phenomena, such as the neuronal response to homeostatic challenges. We previously demonstrated the involvement of miR-135a in the regulation of early stress response. In the present study, we examine the role of miR-135a in stress-related behavior. We show that the knockdown (KD) of miR-135a in the mouse amygdala induces an increase in anxiety-like behavior...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483648/oleic-acid-induces-mir-7-processing-through-remodelling-of-pri-mir-7-protein-complex
#18
Santosh Kumar, Angela Downie Ruiz Velasco, Gracjan Michlewski
MicroRNAs (miRs) play a vital role in governing cell function, with their levels tightly controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Different sets of RNA-binding proteins (RNA-BPs) interact with primary (pri-) miRs and precursor (pre-) miR transcripts, controlling their biogenesis post-transcriptionally. The Hu antigen R (HuR)-mediated binding of Musashi homolog2 (MSI2) to the Conserved Terminal Loop (CTL) of pri-miR-7 regulates the levels of brain-enriched miR-7 formation in a tissue specific manner...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478799/role-of-microrna-124-in-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy-inducedby-angiotensin-ii
#19
Q Bao, L Chen, J Li, M Zhao, S Wu, W Wu, X Liu
Cardiac hypertrophy is a crucial predictor of heart failure and is regulated by microRNAs. MicroRNA-124 (miR-124) is regarded as a prognostic indicator for outcomes after cardiac arrest. However, whether miR-124 participates in cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. Therefore, our study aimed to determine the role of miR-124 in angiotensin II(AngII)-induced myocardial hypertrophy and the possible mechanism. Primary cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes(NCMs) were transfected with miR-124 mimics or inhibitor, followed by AngII stimulation...
April 29, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475008/a-novel-serum-microrna-based-identification-and-classification-biomarker-of-human-glioma
#20
Wenli Xing, Chun Zeng
Malignant glioma is one of the most common primary brain tumors that develop via multiple pathways and gene deregulation. MicroRNAs are involved in human cancer development and progression, and their serum expression profiles of glioma patients may be useful for classifying cancers. However, the profile and molecular mechanism of serum microRNAs for human glioma are poorly understood. Thus, it is crucial to analyze microRNA expression in human glioma serum to identify molecular subclasses and early stage of glioma...
May 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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