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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930995/stereotactic-atlas-guided-laser-capture-microdissection-of-brain-regions-affected-by-traumatic-injury
#1
Harris A Weisz, Deborah R Boone, Stacy L Sell, Helen L Hellmich
The ability to isolate specific brain regions of interest can be impeded in tissue disassociation techniques that do not preserve their spatial distribution. Such techniques also potentially skew gene expression analysis because the process itself can alter expression patterns in individual cells. Here we describe a laser capture microdissection (LCM) method to selectively collect specific brain regions affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI) by using a modified Nissl (cresyl violet) staining protocol and the guidance of a rat brain atlas...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925881/coping-with-stress-during-aging-the-importance-of-a-resilient-brain
#2
P Sampedro-Piquero, P Álvarez-Suárez, A Begega
BACKGROUND: Resilience is the ability to achieve a positive outcome when we are in the face of adversity. It supposes an active resistance to adversity by coping mechanisms in which genetic, molecular, neural and environmental factors are involved. Resilience has been usually studied in early ages and few is known about it during aging. METHODS: In this review, we will address the age-related changes in the brain mechanisms involved in regulating the stress response...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924010/microrna-1906-a-novel-regulator-of-toll-like-receptor-4-ameliorates-ischemic-injury-after-experimental-stroke-in-mice
#3
Xiaomeng Xu, Zhuoyu Wen, Nan Zhao, Xiaohui Xu, Fang Wang, Jie Gao, Yongjun Jiang, Xinfeng Liu
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pro-inflammatory cascade initiator in post-stroke inflammation. In this study, miR-1906, a novel regulator of TLR4, was identified via in silico analysis and microRNA profiling in male adult mice, and its expression was then quantitated in the ischemic hemisphere. We found miR-1906 to be significantly brain-enriched in the ischemic hemisphere and even more drastically enriched in the peri-infarct regions. Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrated that during oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), miR-1906 expression was increased in glial cells but decreased in neurons...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921467/mir-155-dysregulation-and-therapeutic-intervention-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Claire E McCoy
microRNAs play a fundamental role in the immune system. One particular microRNA, miR-155 plays a critical role in hematopoietic cell development and tightly regulates innate and adaptive immune responses in response to infection. However, its dysregulation, more specifically its overexpression, is closely associated with various inflammatory disorders. The purpose of this review is to consolidate how miR-155 underpins a variety of processes that contribute to the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). In particular, the impact of miR-155 is discussed with respect to human pathology and animal models...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917501/personalized-translational-epilepsy-research-novel-approaches-and-future-perspectives-part-i-clinical-and-network-analysis-approaches
#5
REVIEW
Felix Rosenow, Natascha van Alphen, Albert Becker, Andreas Chiocchetti, Ralf Deichmann, Thomas Deller, Thomas Freiman, Christine M Freitag, Johannes Gehrig, Anke M Hermsen, Peter Jedlicka, Christian Kell, Karl Martin Klein, Susanne Knake, Dimitri M Kullmann, Stefan Liebner, Braxton A Norwood, Diana Omigie, Karlheinz Plate, Andreas Reif, Philipp S Reif, Yvonne Reiss, Jochen Roeper, Michael W Ronellenfitsch, Stephanie Schorge, Gerhard Schratt, Stephan W Schwarzacher, Joachim P Steinbach, Adam Strzelczyk, Jochen Triesch, Marlies Wagner, Matthew C Walker, Frederic von Wegner, Sebastian Bauer
Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917498/personalized-translational-epilepsy-research-novel-approaches-and-future-perspectives-part-ii-experimental-and-translational-approaches
#6
REVIEW
Sebastian Bauer, Natascha van Alphen, Albert Becker, Andreas Chiocchetti, Ralf Deichmann, Thomas Deller, Thomas Freiman, Christine M Freitag, Johannes Gehrig, Anke M Hermsen, Peter Jedlicka, Christian Kell, Karl Martin Klein, Susanne Knake, Dimitri M Kullmann, Stefan Liebner, Braxton A Norwood, Diana Omigie, Karlheinz Plate, Andreas Reif, Philipp S Reif, Yvonne Reiss, Jochen Roeper, Michael W Ronellenfitsch, Stephanie Schorge, Gerhard Schratt, Stephan W Schwarzacher, Joachim P Steinbach, Adam Strzelczyk, Jochen Triesch, Marlies Wagner, Matthew C Walker, Frederic von Wegner, Felix Rosenow
Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912849/microrna-93-inhibits-inflammatory-responses-and-cell-apoptosis-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-by-targeting-interleukin-1-receptor-associated-kinase-4
#7
Feng Tian, Chao Yuan, Lixun Hu, Shihai Shan
The present study aimed to investigate changes in the expression of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) and microRNA (miRNA or miR)-93 in mice with cerebral ischemia reperfusion (CIR) injury, as well as the association and regulatory mechanism between IRAK4 and miR-93. The CIR mouse model was constructed and mouse microglia BV2 cells were transfected with miR-93 mimic or miR-93 inhibitor. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of mRNA and miR-93. Western blotting was performed to determine protein expression...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912531/tgf-%C3%A3-1-induced-mir-503-controls-cell-growth-and-apoptosis-by-targeting-pdcd4-in-glioblastoma-cells
#8
Pin Guo, Yanan Yu, Huanting Li, Daoxiang Zhang, Anjing Gong, Shifang Li, Wei Liu, Lei Cheng, Yongming Qiu, Weicheng Yao, Luo Li, Yugong Feng
Aberrant expression of microRNAs hae been shown to be closely associated with glioblastoma cell proliferation, apoptosis and drug resistance. However, mechanisms underlying the role of mcroRNAs in glioblastoma cell growth and apoptosis are not fully understood. In this study, we report that miR-503 is overexpressed in glioblastoma tissue compared with normal human brain tissue. Mechanistically, miR-503 can be induced by TGF-â1 at the transcriptional level by binding the smad2/3 binding elements in the promoter...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904856/mir-101-inhibits-ovarian-carcinogenesis-by-repressing-the-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#9
Ying Xu, Lei Xu, Jianbin Zheng, Lei Geng, Shuping Zhao
Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal malignant gynecological tumors as a result of difficulties in early-stage detection and a lack of effective treatments for patients with advanced or recurrent cancer. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether some of the microRNA (miRNA) content of serum might be related to ovarian cancer, as well as the role of these miRNAs and their intercellular transport via exosomes in ovarian cancer. We first detected the expression of six candidate miRNAs in ovarian cancer tissues and adjacent nontumor ovarian samples from 36 patients and confirmed the altered expression of four miRNAs...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903422/cdk4-6-inhibition-is-more-active-against-the-glioblastoma-proneural-subtype
#10
Ming Li, Aizhen Xiao, Desiree Floyd, Inan Olmez, Jeongwu Lee, Jakub Godlewski, Agnieszka Bronisz, Krishna P L Bhat, Erik P Sulman, Ichiro Nakano, Benjamin Purow
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal brain tumor. Gene expression profiling has classified GBM into distinct subtypes, including proneural, mesenchymal, and classical, and identifying therapeutic vulnerabilities of these subtypes is an extremely high priority. We leveraged The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data, in particular for microRNA expression, to seek druggable core pathways in GBM. The E2F1-regulated miR-17˜92 cluster and its analogs are shown to be highly expressed in proneural GBM and in GSC lines, suggesting the E2F cell cycle pathway might be a key driver in proneural GBM...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901413/microrna%C3%A2-188-acts-as-a-tumour-suppressor-in-glioma-by-directly-targeting-the-igf2bp2-gene
#11
Li Ding, Ling Wang, Feng Guo
Glioma is the most common and aggressive human brain tumour and accounts for ~35‑61% of intracranial tumours. Despite considerable advances in treatments for glioma, the prognosis for patients with this disease remains unsatisfactory. MicroRNAs (miRNAs of miRs) are small regulatory RNA molecules that have been identified as being involved in the initiation and progression of human cancers, and represent novel therapeutic targets for anticancer treatments. The dysregulation of miR‑188 has been reported in various kinds of human cancer...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901408/microrna%C3%A2-382-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-of-retinoblastoma-by-targeting-bdnf%C3%A2-mediated-pi3k-akt-signalling-pathway
#12
Dan Song, Jiandong Diao, Yongjing Yang, Yahong Chen
It has previously been demonstrated that multiple microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are aberrantly expressed in retinoblastoma (RB) and contribute to RB initiation and progression. miR‑382 has been revealed to be aberrantly expressed and therefore exhibits a key role in the progression of various types of cancer. However, the expression pattern, functional roles and underlying molecular mechanism of miR‑382 in RB remain unknown. The present study investigated the expression levels of miR‑382 and its effects on RB cells and the underlying regulatory mechanism of its action...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900088/-estimation-of-time-dependent-microrna-expression-patterns-in-brain-tissue-leukocytes-and-blood-plasma-of-rats-under-photochemically-induced-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#13
V A Gusar, A V Timofeeva, I S Zhanin, S I Shram, V G Pinelis
miRNA expression over different time periods (24 and 48 h) using the quantitative RT-PCR and deep sequencing has been evaluated in a model of photochemically induced thrombosis. A combination of two approaches allowed us to determine the miRNA expression patterns caused by ischemia. Nine miRNAs, including let-7f-5p, miR-221-3p, miR-21-5p, miR-30c-5p, miR-30a-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-23a-3p, miR-22-5p, and miR-99a-5p, were differentially expressed in brain tissue and leukocytes of rats 48 h after onset of ischemia...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887457/spinal-mirna-124-regulates-synaptopodin-and-nociception-in-an-animal-model-of-bone-cancer-pain
#14
Sara Elramah, María José López-González, Matthieu Bastide, Florence Dixmérias, Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Anne-Cécile Wielanek-Bachelet, Anne Vital, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Alexandre Brochard, Marc Landry, Alexandre Favereaux
Strong breakthrough pain is one of the most disabling symptoms of cancer since it affects up to 90% of cancer patients and is often refractory to treatments. Alteration in gene expression is a known mechanism of cancer pain in which microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-coding regulatory RNAs, play a crucial role. Here, in a mouse model of cancer pain, we show that miR-124 is down-regulated in the spinal cord, the first relay of the pain signal to the brain. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that miR-124 is an endogenous and specific inhibitor of synaptopodin (Synpo), a key protein for synaptic transmission...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886366/micrornas-induce-a-permissive-chromatin-environment-that-enables-neuronal-subtype-specific-reprogramming-of-adult-human-fibroblasts
#15
Daniel G Abernathy, Woo Kyung Kim, Matthew J McCoy, Allison M Lake, Rebecca Ouwenga, Seong Won Lee, Xiaoyun Xing, Daofeng Li, Hyung Joo Lee, Robert O Heuckeroth, Joseph D Dougherty, Ting Wang, Andrew S Yoo
Directed reprogramming of human fibroblasts into fully differentiated neurons requires massive changes in epigenetic and transcriptional states. Induction of a chromatin environment permissive for acquiring neuronal subtype identity is therefore a major barrier to fate conversion. Here we show that the brain-enriched miRNAs miR-9/9(∗) and miR-124 (miR-9/9(∗)-124) trigger reconfiguration of chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation, and mRNA expression to induce a default neuronal state. miR-9/9(∗)-124-induced neurons (miNs) are functionally excitable and uncommitted toward specific subtypes but possess open chromatin at neuronal subtype-specific loci, suggesting that such identity can be imparted by additional lineage-specific transcription factors...
September 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879407/microrna-profiling-in-aging-brain-of-psen1-psen2-double-knockout-mice
#16
Suji Ham, Tae Kyoo Kim, Sangjoon Lee, Ya-Ping Tang, Heh-In Im
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that function as regulators of gene expression. The altered expression of microRNAs influences the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Many researchers have focused on studies based on the relatively distinctive etiology of familial Alzheimer's disease due to the absence of risk factors in the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Although there is a limitation in Alzheimer's disease studies, both Alzheimer's disease types have a common risk factor-aging. No study to date has examined the aging factor in Alzheimer's disease animal models with microRNAs...
September 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873276/micrornas-regulate-synaptic-plasticity-underlying-drug-addiction
#17
REVIEW
A C W Smith, P J Kenny
Chronic use of drugs of abuse results in neurochemical, morphological and behavioral plasticity that underlies the emergence of compulsive drug seeking and vulnerability to relapse during periods of attempted abstinence. Identifying and reversing addiction-relevant plasticity is seen as a potential point of pharmacotherapeutic intervention in drug-addicted individuals. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of the actions of drugs of abuse in the brain this information has thus far yielded few novel treatment options addicted individuals...
September 5, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871468/microrna-expression-in-the-locus-coeruleus-entorhinal-cortex-and-hippocampus-at-early-and-middle-stages-of-braak-neurofibrillary-tangle-pathology
#18
Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Pol Andrés-Benito, Waqas Tahir, Belén Ansoleaga, Karina Hernández-Ortega, Eulàlia Martí, Inga Zerr, Isidro Ferrer
The present study analyzes by RT-qPCR the expression of microRNA (miRNA)-27a-3p, miRNA-124-3p, miRNA-132-3p, and miRNA-143-3p in the locus coeruleus (LC), entorhinal cortex (EC), CA1 region of the hippocampus (CA1), and dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged (MA) individuals with no brain lesions and of cases at Braak and Braak stages I-II and II-IV of neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology. The most affected region is the LC in which miRNA-27a-3p, miRNA-124-3p, and miRNA-143-3p show a trend to increase at stages I-II and are significantly up-regulated at stages III-IV when compared with MA...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870209/bridging-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-schizophrenia-through-inflammation-and-biomarkers-pre-clinical-and-clinical-investigations
#19
REVIEW
Joana Prata, Susana G Santos, Maria Inês Almeida, Rui Coelho, Mário A Barbosa
In recent years, evidence supporting a link between inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders has been mounting. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia share some clinical similarities which we hypothesize might reflect the same biological basis, namely, in terms of inflammation. However, the diagnosis of ASD and schizophrenia relies solely on clinical symptoms, and to date, there is no clinically useful biomarker to diagnose or monitor the course of such illnesses.The focus of this review is the central role that inflammation plays in ASD and schizophrenia...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868238/mir-9-promotes-apoptosis-via-suppressing-smc1a-expression-in-gbm-cell-lines
#20
Yong Zu, Zhichuan Zhu, Min Lin, Dafeng Xu, Yongjun Liang, Yueqian Wang, Zhengdong Qiao, Ting Cao, Dan Yang, Lili Gao, Pengpeng Jin, Peng Zhang, Jianjun Fu, Jing Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Glioblastomas multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain cancer, which presented vast genomic variation with complicated pathologic mechanism. METHOD: MicroRNA is a delicate post-transcriptional tuner of gene expression in the organisms by targeting and regulating protein coding genes. MiR-9 was reported as a significant biomarker for GBM patient prognosis and a key factor in regulation of GBM cancer stem cells. To explore the effect of miR-9 on GBM cell growth, we over expressed miR-9 in U87 and U251 cells...
2017: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
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