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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641384/acute-testosterone-deficiency-alters-adipose-tissue-fatty-acid-storage
#1
Sylvia Santosa, Nikki C Bush, Michael D Jensen
Context: Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. Objective: We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. Design: This was a prospective, randomized trial. Setting: Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641031/treatment-options-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-a-safety-evaluation
#2
Danny Issa, Julia Wattacheril, Arun J Sanyal
Introduction There is an urgent as yet unmet need to develop highly effective and safe therapeutics for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The remarkable progress in understanding NAFLD pathogenesis allowed the identification of injury pathways which may be recruited as therapy targets. Areas covered This article reviews the safety and tolerability data of the NAFLD therapies and explains the mechanistic basis for each of the established and investigational drugs. Treatment targets include: weight loss, anti-metabolic agents such as lipid lowering and anti-diabetic drugs, inflammation, fibrosis and others such as targeting gut microbiota, immune modulation and apoptosis...
June 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640915/physiological-and-genomic-features-of-a-novel-violacein-producing-bacterium-isolated-from-surface-seawater
#3
Yue-Hong Wu, Hong Cheng, Lin Xu, Xiong-Bin Jin, Chun-Sheng Wang, Xue-Wei Xu
Strains JW1T and JW3, isolated from surface seawater of the Arabian Sea, were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Cells of both strains were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, and rod-shaped. They formed violet pigment and produced violacein. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strains JW1T and JW3 showed high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Pseudoalteromonas byunsanensis JCM12483T (98.2%), P. shioyasakiensis SE3T (97.8%), P. arabiensis JCM 17292T (97.3%), and P. gelatinilytica NH153T (97...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640711/effects-of-season-and-postmortem-changes-on-blood-analytes-in-pyrenean-chamois-rupicapra-pyrenaica
#4
Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Ignasi Marco, Rafaela Cuenca, Santiago Lavín, Josep Pastor
Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of the 1) season, and 2) postmortem changes on serum biochemistries related with metabolism in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica). Serum samples from 98 animals obtained from 2009 to 2012 were included. To investigate seasonal influences on blood parameters, the Pyrenean chamois were captured in drive-nets during the feed abundant (FA; n=32) and food deficient (FD; n=35) seasons. To evaluate the possible differences in biochemistry analytes when sampling live or dead animals, we used serum samples from 32 captured animals and 31 dead animals (obtained during controlled hunting) in the FA season...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640602/dietary-n-carbamylglutamate-supplementation-in-reduced-protein-diet-affects-carcass-traits-and-profile-of-muscle-amino-acids-and-fatty-acids-in-finishing-pigs
#5
Changchuan Ye, Xiangzhou Zeng, JInlong Zhu, Ying Liu, Qianhong Ye, Shiyan Qiao, Xiangfang Zeng
This aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary N-Carbamylglutamate (NCG) supplementation affected carcass traits and meat quality in finishing pigs. One hundred and twenty gilts were randomly assigned to one of four treatments for 40 d, including standard protein diet (SP), reduced protein diet supplemented 1.7% L-alanine (RP + Ala), reduced protein diet supplemented with 1.0 % L-arginine (RP + Arg) and reduced protein diet supplemented with 0.1% NCG and 1.7% L-alanine (RP + NCG). NCG supplementation increased the endogenous synthesis of L-arginine...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637161/sequential-batch-thermophilic-solid-state-anaerobic-digestion-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-via-recirculating-digestate-as-inoculum-part-ii-microbial-diversity-and-succession
#6
Long Lin, Zhongtang Yu, Yebo Li
This study aimed to investigate the effect of recirculation of digestate as inoculum on the microbial communities in thermophilic solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of yard trimmings. The SS-AD consisted of 4 consecutive runs (30days/run), with digestate from the previous run being used as the inoculum of the subsequent run. Bacterial and archaeal communities (day 0, 4, 8, 12, 20, and 30) were examined using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The results revealed substantial microbial succession toward increased diversity until run 3...
June 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637104/-treatment-options-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Won Kim
The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has sharply increased over the past several decades in Korea. In most cases of NAFLD, metabolic stress and cellular apoptosis are often driven by metabolic abnormality, eventually leading to inflammation and fibrosis . Along with a dramatic surge in the obesity epidemic, 10-20% of NAFLD patients ultimately progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a precursor to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as multi-organ systemic diseases...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637102/-the-progression-of-liver-fibrosis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
Moon Young Kim
Understanding the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and its fibrosis progression is still evolving. Nonetheless, current evidence suggests that mechanisms involved are very complex parallel processes with multiple metabolic factors. Lipotoxicity related with excess saturated free fatty acids, obesity, and insulin resistance acts as the central driver of cellular injury via oxidative stress. Hepatocyte apoptosis and/or senescence are also contribute to the activation of inflammasome via various intra- and inter-cellular signaling mechanisms that lead to fibrosis...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636830/attenuation-of-hepatic-steatosis-by-purple-sweet-potato-color-is-associated-with-blocking-src-erk-c-ebp%C3%AE-signalling-in-high-fat-diet-treated-mice
#9
Xin Wang, Zi-Feng Zhang, Gui-Hong Zheng, Ai-Min Wang, Chun-Hui Sun, Su-Ping Qin, Juan Zhuang, Jun Lu, Dai-Fu Ma, Yuan-Lin Zheng
Our previous work showed that purple sweet potato color (PSPC), a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, effectively improved hepatic glucose metabolic dysfunction in high-fat diet (HFD)-treated mice. This study investigated the effects of PSPC on HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and the signalling events associated with these effects. Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD+PSPC group and PSPC group. PSPC was administered daily for 20 weeks at oral doses of 700 mg/kg/day. Our results showed that PSPC significantly improved obesity and related metabolic parameters, as well as liver injury in HFD-treated mice...
June 21, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636668/microbiota-in-anorexia-nervosa-the-triangle-between-bacterial-species-metabolites-and-psychological-tests
#10
Francesca Borgo, Alessandra Riva, Alberto Benetti, Maria Cristina Casiraghi, Sara Bertelli, Stefania Garbossa, Simona Anselmetti, Silvio Scarone, Antonio E Pontiroli, Giulia Morace, Elisa Borghi
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease with devastating physical consequences, with a pathophysiological mechanism still to be elucidated. Metagenomic studies on anorexia nervosa have revealed profound gut microbiome perturbations as a possible environmental factor involved in the disease. In this study we performed a comprehensive analysis integrating data on gut microbiota with clinical, anthropometric and psychological traits to gain new insight in the pathophysiology of AN. Fifteen AN women were compared with fifteen age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636510/the-balance-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-for-reducing-residual-risks-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#11
Yuji Nishizaki, Kazunori Shimada, Hiroyuki Daida
Residual risk, which cannot be prevented by statins alone, must be controlled for inhibiting the onset of coronary events. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play an important role in controlling residual risk. The Japan eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) Lipid Intervention Study demonstrated the inhibitory effect of high-purity EPA preparations on the residual risk of cardiovascular events. Omega-3 PUFAs inhibit coronary artery disease (CAD) through various actions, including triglyceride-lowering action...
March 21, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636372/surface-desorption-dielectric-barrier-discharge-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#12
Hong Zhang, Jie Jiang, Na Li, Ming Li, Yingying Wang, Jing He, Hong You
A variant of dielectric-barrier discharge named surface desorption dielectric-barrier discharge ionization (SDDBDI) mass spectrometry was developed for high-efficiency ion transmission and high spatial resolution imaging. In SDDBDI, a tungsten nanotip and the inlet of the mass spectrometer are used as electrodes, and a piece of cover slip is used as a sample plate as well as an insulating dielectric barrier, which simplifies the configuration of instrument and thus the operation. Different from volume dielectric-barrier discharge (VDBD), the microdischarges are generated on the surface at SDDBDI, and therefore the plasma density is extremely high...
June 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636230/quantification-of-fatty-acids-in-erythrocytes-and-plasma-by-fast-gas-chromatography
#13
Cristina Cruz-Hernandez, Sagar K Thakkar, Isabelle Masserey-Elmelegy, William Bousi, Patric Fontannaz, Francesca Giuffrida
As a result of the heterogeneous nature of lipid classes in complex biological matrices such as plasma and erythrocytes, it is imperative to have a robust and validated methodology for fatty acid quantification. The effective method presented here combines available methodology of fast gas chromatography and an improvement of the sample preparation methodology before injection into the gas chromatograph. This methodology ensures complete transesterification and quantification of total and individual fatty acids (and not only in relative amounts) by addition of internal standards...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636047/decoding-the-regulatory-mechanism-of-glucose-and-insulin-induced-phosphatidylinositol-3-4-5-trisphosphate-dynamics-in-%C3%AE-cells
#14
Tagari Samanta, Peeyush Sharma, Dwijendra Kukri, Sandip Kar
In MIN6 pancreatic β-cells, glucose and insulin act in a synergistic manner to regulate the dynamics of Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3). However, the precise regulatory mechanism behind such an experimentally observed synergy is poorly understood. In this article, we propose a phenomenological mathematical model for studying the glucose and insulin driven PIP3 activation dynamics under various stimulatory conditions to unfold the mechanism responsible for the observed synergy. The modeling study reveals that the experimentally observed oscillation in PIP3 dynamics with disparate time scales for different external glucose doses is mainly orchestrated by the complex dynamic regulation of cytosolic Ca(2+) in β-cells...
June 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636003/in-vitro-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-by-whey-protein-to-preserve-intestinal-health
#15
T Sánchez-Moya, R López-Nicolás, D Planes, C A González-Bermúdez, G Ros-Berruezo, C Frontela-Saseta
The effect of several types of whey milk - cow, sheep, goat and a mixture of them (60 : 20 : 20, respectively) - was assessed in the human gut microbiota. The prebiotic potential of these substrates was evaluated through in vitro gastrointestinal digestion following faecal batch culture fermentations (mimicking colonic fermentation) for 48 hours, using faeces from normal-weight (NW) and obese (OB) donors. Throughout the fermentation process, pH, gas production, short chain and branched fatty acids (SCFA-BCFA) were measured, as well as the changes of microbiota using qPCR...
June 21, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635680/saturated-fatty-acids-and-cardiovascular-disease-replacements-for-saturated-fat-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk
#16
REVIEW
Michelle A Briggs, Kristina S Petersen, Penny M Kris-Etherton
Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk...
June 21, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635632/glucose-and-lipid-dysmetabolism-in-a-rat-model-of-prediabetes-induced-by-a-high-sucrose-diet
#17
Ana Burgeiro, Manuela G Cerqueira, Bárbara M Varela-Rodríguez, Sara Nunes, Paula Neto, Frederico C Pereira, Flávio Reis, Eugénia Carvalho
Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity are key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but their molecular nature during the early stages of the disease remains to be elucidated. We aimed to characterize glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-target organs (liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue) in a rat model treated with a high-sucrose (HSu) diet. Two groups of 16-week-old male Wistar rats underwent a 9-week protocol: HSu diet (n = 10)-received 35% of sucrose in drinking water; Control (n = 12)-received vehicle (water)...
June 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635612/consequences-of-lipopolysaccharide-and-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-administration-on-aortic-function-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#18
Barbara Kaprinay, Ruzena Sotnikova, Karel Frimmel, Jakub Krizak, Iveta Bernatova, Jana Navarova, Ludmila Okruhlicova
The aim of the work was to study the delayed effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on endothelial function of the aorta of rats with genetic hypertension. Further, the possibility to ameliorate LPS-induced changes by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was tested. Rats received a bolus of 1 mg/kg LPS i.p.; n-3 PUFA were administered in the dose of 30 mg/kg daily for 10 days p.o.. Ten days after receiving of LPS, the body weight gain of rats was statistically lower compared to control rats (p < 0...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635579/-fish-oil-in-pregnancy-can-it-prevent-asthma-in-children
#19
P L P Brand, M B Katan
Taking fish oil supplements in the third trimester of pregnancy was associated with significantly less wheezing or asthma in the child at the age of 3-5 years, according to a randomized clinical trial by Bisgaard et al., NEJM 2017. However, the results of this study should be interpreted with caution. The primary end points were modified at a late stage in the study, and two primary end points, eczema in the first 3 years of life and allergic sensitization at 18 months of age, were demoted to secondary end points, and showed no significant effect of treatment...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635193/comparing-the-effect-of-cardiac-biomarkers-on-the-outcome-of-normotensive-patients-with-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#20
Yaser Jenab, Marzieh Pourjafari, Maryam Sotoudeh, Masoumeh Lotfi-Tokaldany, Nasrin Etesamifard, Shapour Shirani, Arash Jalali, Younes Nozari, Hamid-Reza Poorhosseini
Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a cardiovascular challenge with potentially fatal consequences. This study was designed to observe the association of novel cardiac biomarkers with outcome in this setting. In this prospective study, from 86 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PE, 59 patients met the inclusion criteria (22 men, 37 women; mean age, 63.36±15.04 y).The plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), tenascin-C, and D-dimer were measured at the time of confirmed diagnosis...
May 18, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
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