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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778015/dietary-ala-epa-and-dha-have-distinct-effects-on-oxylipin-profiles-in-female-and-male-rat-kidney-liver-and-serum
#1
Shan Leng, Tanja Winter, Harold M Aukema
There is much data on the effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on tissue fatty acid compositions, but comparable comprehensive data on their oxygenated metabolites (oxylipins) is limited. The effects of providing female and male rats with diets high in α-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA or DHA for 6 weeks on oxylipins and fatty acids in kidney, liver and serum were therefore examined. The oxylipin profile generally reflected fatty acids, but it also revealed unique effects of individual n-3 fatty acids that were not apparent from fatty acid data alone...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778008/plasma-metabolic-changes-in-chinese-hiv-infected-patients-receiving-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-treatment-implications-for-hiv-precision-therapy
#2
Xiaolin Li, Tong Wu, Yongjun Jiang, Zining Zhang, Xiaoxu Han, Wenqing Geng, Haibo Ding, Jing Kang, Qi Wang, Hong Shang
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to profile the metabolic changes in the plasma of HIV patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) relative to their treatment-naïve phase, aimed to identify precision therapy for HIV for improving prognosis and predicting dyslipidemia caused by LPV/r. METHODS: 38 longitudinal plasma samples were collected from 19 HIV-infected patients both before and after antiretroviral therapy, and 18 samples from healthy individuals were used as controls...
May 16, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777919/brain-to-bone-what-is-the-contribution-of-the-brain-to-skeletal-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Anna Idelevich, Roland Baron
The brain, which governs most, if not all, physiological functions in the body, from the complexities of cognition, learning and memory, to the regulation of basal body temperature, heart rate and breathing, has long been known to affect skeletal health. In particular, the hypothalamus - located at the base of the brain in close proximity to the medial eminence, where the blood-brain-barrier is not as tight as in other regions of the brain but rather "leaky", due to fenestrated capillaries - is exposed to a variety of circulating body cues, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids), and hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin) [1-3]...
May 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777864/effectiveness-on-maternal-and-offspring-metabolic-control-of-a-home-based-dietary-counseling-intervention-and-dha-supplementation-in-obese-overweight-pregnant-women-might-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial-study-protocol
#4
María Luisa Garmendia, Camila Corvalán, Paola Casanello, B Marcela Araya, Marcela Flores, Alfredo Bravo, Juan Pedro Kusanovic, Pablo Olmos, Ricardo Uauy
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle interventions are the primary prevention strategy for gestational diabetes (GDM) in obese/overweight women; however, these interventions have shown limited effectiveness. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake has shown beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, lipid fractions and inflammatory factors in women who already have GDM. Combining PUFAs supplementation with a lifestyle intervention could achieve lower increase of glucose levels by improving insulin sensitivity...
May 16, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777706/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-ameliorate-hepatic-steatosis-via-the-ppar-%C3%AE-cpt-1%C3%AE-pathway-in-a-mouse-model-of-parenteral-nutrition
#5
Feng Tian, Jiwei Wang, Haifeng Sun, Jianbo Yang, Peng Wang, Songlin Wan, Xuejin Gao, Li Zhang, Jieshou Li, Xinying Wang
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is one of the basic therapies for patients with intestinal failure; however, hepatic steatosis associated with PN limits the long-term use of PN. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been used to improve clinical outcomes of patients receiving PN; however, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFAs ameliorate hepatic steatosis remain unclear. In the present study, C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to three treatment groups, namely, enteral nutrition (EN), n-3 PUFAs, and n-6 PUFAs...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777569/improving-metabolic-stability-with-deuterium-the-discovery-of-hwl-066-a-potent-and-long-acting-free-fatty-acid-receptor-1-agonists
#6
Chunxia Liu, Zheng Li, Wei Shi, Huilan Li, Nasi Wang, Yuxuan Dai, Chen Liao, Wenlong Huang, Hai Qian
The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) is a potential target due to its function in enhancing of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The FFA1 agonist GW9508 has great potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it has been suffering from high plasma clearance probably because the phenylpropanoic acid is vulnerable to β-oxidation. To identify orally available analog without influence on the unique pharmacological mechanism of GW9508, we tried to interdict the metabolically labile group by incorporating two deuterium atoms at the α-position of phenylpropionic acid affording compound 4 (HWL-066)...
May 18, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777369/adherence-to-special-diets-and-its-association-with-meeting-the-nutrient-recommendations-in-individuals-with-type-1-diabetes
#7
A J Ahola, C Forsblom, Per-Henrik Groop
AIMS: Not much is known about adherence to special diets in type 1 diabetes, characteristics of individuals with special diets, and whether such practices should raise concerns with respect to meeting the dietary recommendations. In this study, we assessed the frequencies of adherence to special diets, in a population of individuals with type 1 diabetes, and investigated the association between special diet adherence and dietary intake, measured as dietary patterns and nutrient intakes...
May 18, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777213/semaphorin-6d-reverse-signaling-controls-macrophage-lipid-metabolism-and-anti-inflammatory-polarization
#8
Sujin Kang, Yoshimitsu Nakanishi, Yoshiyuki Kioi, Daisuke Okuzaki, Tetsuya Kimura, Hyota Takamatsu, Shohei Koyama, Satoshi Nojima, Masayuki Nishide, Yoshitomo Hayama, Yuhei Kinehara, Yasuhiro Kato, Takeshi Nakatani, Tomomi Shimogori, Junichi Takagi, Toshihiko Toyofuku, Atsushi Kumanogoh
Polarization of macrophages into pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory states has distinct metabolic requirements, with mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase signaling playing a critical role. However, it remains unclear how mTOR regulates metabolic status to promote polarization of these cells. Here we show that an mTOR-Semaphorin 6D (Sema6D)-Peroxisome proliferator receptor γ (PPARγ) axis plays critical roles in macrophage polarization. Inhibition of mTOR or loss of Sema6D blocked anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization, concomitant with severe impairments in PPARγ expression, uptake of fatty acids, and lipid metabolic reprogramming...
May 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777200/a-map-of-the-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-nt-pgc-1%C3%AE-regulated-transcriptional-network-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#9
Ji Suk Chang, Sujoy Ghosh, Susan Newman, J Michael Salbaum
Transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α and its splice variant NT-PGC-1α play crucial roles in regulating cold-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). PGC-1α and NT-PGC-1α are highly induced by cold in BAT and subsequently bind to and coactivate many transcription factors to regulate expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, respiration and thermogenesis. To identify the complete repertoire of PGC-1α and NT-PGC-1α target genes in BAT, we analyzed genome-wide DNA-binding and gene expression profiles...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777058/gpr40-is-a-low-affinity-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-receptor-in-vascular-cells
#10
Sang Kyu Park, Anja Herrnreiter, Sandra L Pfister, Kathryn M Gauthier, Benjamin A Falck, John R Falck, William B Campbell
Endothelium-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have numerous vascular activities mediated by G protein--coupled receptors. Long-chain free fatty acids and EETs activate GPR40, prompting us to investigate the role of GPR40 in some vascular EET activities. 14,15-EET, 11,12-EET, arachidonic acid, and the GPR40 agonist GW9508 increase intracellular calcium concentrations in human GPR40-overexpressing HEK293 cells (EC50 = 0.58 ± 0.08 μM, 0.91 ± 0.08 μM, 3.9 ± 0.06 μM and 19 ± 0.37 nM, respectively)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776927/ecological-engineering-helps-maximize-function-in-algal-oil-production
#11
Sara L Jackrel, Anita Narwani, Bastian Bentlage, Robert B Levine, David C Hietala, Phillip E Savage, Todd H Oakley, Vincent J Denef, Bradley J Cardinale
Algal biofuels have the potential to curb emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels, but current growing methods fail to produce fuels that meet the multiple standards necessary for economical industrial use. For example, algae grown as monocultures for biofuel production have not simultaneously and economically achieved high yields of the high-quality, lipid-rich biomass desired for the industrial-scale production of bio-oil. Decades of study in the field of ecology have demonstrated that simultaneous increases in multiple functions, such as the quantity and quality of biomass, can occur in natural ecosystems by increasing biological diversity...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776593/heat-shock-influences-the-fatty-acid-composition-of-the-muscle-of-the-antarctic-fish-trematomus-bernacchii
#12
C Truzzi, S Illuminati, M Antonucci, G Scarponi, A Annibaldi
In the Ross Sea region (average temperature of -1.87 °C), shelf water warming up to +0.8-+1.4 °C is predicted by 2200, so there is an urgent need to understand how organisms can respond to rising temperatures. In this study, we analyzed the effect of a heat shock on the fatty acid (FAs) composition of muscle of the Antarctic teleost Trematomus bernacchii, caught in Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea), and held in fish tanks at 0, +1 or +2 °C, for 1, 5 and 10 days. In general, heat shock produced, beyond a reduction in total lipid content correlated to the temperature, an increase in the percentage of saturated FAs, and a decrease in mono-unsaturated FAs; however, the level of poly-unsaturated FAs did not seem to directly correlate with temperature...
April 3, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775960/strategies-to-decrease-oxidative-stress-biomarker-levels-in-human-medical-conditions-a-meta-analysis-on-8-iso-prostaglandin-f-2%C3%AE
#13
Thomas J van 't Erve
The widespread detection of elevated oxidative stress levels in many medical conditions has led to numerous efforts to design interventions to reduce its effects. Efforts have been wide-ranging, from dietary changes to administration of antioxidants, supplements, e.g., omega-3-fatty acids, and many medications. However, there is still no systemic assessment of the efficacy of treatments for oxidative stress reduction across a variety of medical conditions. The goal of this meta-analysis is, by combining multiple studies, to quantitate the change in the levels of the popular oxidative stress biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α ) after a variety of treatment strategies in human populations...
May 9, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775936/from-hit-to-lead-structure-based-discovery-of-naphthalene-1-sulfonamide-derivatives-as-potent-and-selective-inhibitors-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4
#14
Ding-Ding Gao, Hui-Xia Dou, Hai-Xia Su, Ming-Ming Zhang, Ting Wang, Qiu-Feng Liu, Hai-Yan Cai, Hai-Peng Ding, Zhuo Yang, Wei-Liang Zhu, Ye-Chun Xu, He-Yao Wang, Ying-Xia Li
Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) plays a critical role in metabolism and inflammatory processes and therefore is a potential therapeutic target for immunometabolic diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis. Herein, we reported the identification of naphthalene-1-sulfonamide derivatives as novel, potent and selective FABP4 inhibitors by applying a structure-based design strategy. The binding affinities of compounds 16dk, 16do and 16du to FABP4, at the molecular level, are equivalent to or even better than that of BMS309403...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775926/chlorophyll-a-%C3%AF-uorescence-and-transcriptome-reveal-the-toxicological-effects-of-bisphenol-a-on-an-invasive-cyanobacterium-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii
#15
Rong Xiang, Junqiong Shi, Hongbo Zhang, Congcong Dong, Li Liu, JunKe Fu, Xinyu He, Yanjun Yan, Zhongxing Wu
Bisphenol A has attracted worldwide attention due to its harmful effects on humans, animals and plants. In this study, the toxicological effects of BPA on Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were assessed based on chlorophyll a fluorescence and transcriptome analyses. The results showed that the growth of C. raciborskii was significantly inhibited when BPA exceeded 0.1 mg L-1 . A marked rise of phase J was observed at a concentration greater than 0.1 mg L-1 , while a K phase appeared at 20 mg L-1 . The chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of RC/CS0 , F0 , φP0 , φE0 , and ψ0 , underwent a significant decline under all treatments of BPA, whereas a significant increase in both VJ and M0 occurred under all concentrations of BPA...
May 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775920/il-33-stimulates-expression-of-the-gpr84-ex33-fatty-acid-receptor-gene-and-of-cytokine-and-chemokine-genes-in-human-adipocytes
#16
Mohamed S Zaibi, Małgorzata A Kępczyńska, Parvathy Harikumar, Suliman Y Alomar, Paul Trayhurn
Expression of GPCR fatty acid sensor/receptor genes in adipocytes is modulated by inflammatory mediators, particularly IL-1β. In this study we examined whether the IL-1 gene superfamily member, IL-33, also regulates expression of the fatty acid receptor genes in adipocytes. Human fat cells, differentiated from preadipocytes, were incubated with IL-33 at three different dose levels for 3 or 24 h and mRNA measured by qPCR. Treatment with IL-33 induced a dose-dependent increase in GPR84 mRNA at 3 h, the level with the highest dose being 13...
May 15, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775891/protective-effect-of-atorvastatin-meditated-by-hmgcr-gene-on-diabetic-rats-with-atherosclerosis-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-study
#17
Yong-Zhi Wang, Lei Yang, Chuan-Fang Li
BACKGROUND: Accelerated atherosclerosis in patients suffering from diabetes represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of present study was to investigate the protective effects conferred by atorvastatin (AVT) meditated by the HMGCR gene in diabetic rats with atherosclerosis. METHODS: Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and serum insulin (INS) were all determined by means of in vivo experiments...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775890/triterpenic-acids-enriched-fraction-from-cyclocarya-paliurus-attenuates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-via-improving-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#18
Meng-Ge Zhao, Xue-Ping Sheng, Ya-Ping Huang, Yi-Ting Wang, Cui-Hua Jiang, Jian Zhang, Zhi-Qi Yin
The effects of triterpenic acids-enriched fraction from Cyclocarya paliurus (CPT) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated using in vivo and in vitro models. In high fat diet-induced Wister rats, CPT significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels. Moreover, CPT restored mitochondrial membrane potential dysfunction, decreased cytochrome P450 enzyme 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity, improved nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase1 (HO-1) expression...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775706/purification-and-characterization-of-an-organic-solvent-tolerant-and-detergent-stable-lipase-from-haloferax-mediterranei-cncmm-50101
#19
Siham Akmoussi-Toumi, Souad Khemili-Talbi, Imen Ferioune, Salima Kebbouche-Gana
The present study investigates the purification and biochemical characterization of an extracellular lipase (HML) from Haloarchaea Haloferax mediterranei strain ATS1, isolated from the Sebkha (Medea, Algeria). The pure protein was obtained with ammonium sulfate precipitation (40-70%)-dialysis and UNO Q-6 FPLC, and characterized biochemically. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer, with a molecular mass of 45,011...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775616/amelioration-of-uvb-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-fat-1-transgenic-mouse-skin
#20
Hye-Won Yum, Seong Hoon Kim, Jing X Kang, Young-Joon Surh
ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in some fish oils, are known to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals and increase host immunoresponsiveness. As UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in apoptotic cell death, this study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic capacity of fat-1 transgenic mice capable of converting ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and fat-1 mice were maintained on the AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10% safflower oil rich in ω-6 PUFAs for 5 weeks...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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