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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161525/sea-cucumber-lipid-soluble-extra-fraction-prevents-ovalbumin-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation
#1
Da-In Lee, Shin Ae Kang, Anisuzzaman Md, U-Cheol Jeong, Feng Jin, Seok-Joong Kang, Jeong-Yeol Lee, Hak Sun Yu
In a previous study, our research group demonstrated that sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) extracts ameliorated allergic airway inflammation through CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T (regulatory T; Treg) cell activation and recruitment to the lung. In this study, we aimed to determine which components of sea cucumber contribute to the amelioration of airway inflammation. We used n-hexane fractionation to separate sea cucumber into three phases (n-hexane, alcohol, and solid) and evaluated the ability of each phase to elevate Il10 expression in splenocytes and ameliorate symptoms in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)/alum-induced asthma...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161329/comparative-metabolomics-profiling-of-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-lead-to-a-strategy-that-improving-%C3%AE-carotene-production-by-acetate-supplementation
#2
Xiao Bu, Liang Sun, Fei Shang, Guoliang Yan
A comparative metabolomic analysis was conducted on recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain producing β-carotene and the parent strain cultivated with glucose as carbon source using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) based approach. The results showed that most of the central intermediates associated with amino acids, carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle intermediates (acetic acid, glycerol, citric acid, pyruvic acid and succinic acid), fatty acids, ergosterol and energy metabolites were produced in a lower amount in recombinant strain, as compared to the parent strain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161196/emergence-of-mixed-oil-fat-emulsions-for-use-in-parenteral-nutrition
#3
Manpreet S Mundi, Robert Martindale, Ryan T Hurt
Since early work by Wretlind and Schuberth led to the development of a stable and safe intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) using soybean oil (SO) and egg phospholipid emulsifier, IFEs have become a crucial source of essential fatty acids and nonprotein energy in parenteral nutrition. However, largely due to their high ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and phytosterol content, SO IFEs have been associated with complications, including a proinflammatory profile and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as intestinal failure-associated liver disease...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161092/the-impact-of-diet-on-immunity-and-respiratory-diseases
#4
Tomasz P Wypych, Benjamin J Marsland, Niki D J Ubags
The Western world has witnessed a tremendous increase in the occurrence of allergy and autoimmunity in the second half of the 20th century. Extensive efforts have been made to explain this phenomenon and various hypotheses have been formulated. Among them, two concepts have attracted the most attention: the "hygiene hypothesis," identifying the reduced exposure to environmental microorganisms as a driving force behind the observed epidemiological trends; and the "diet hypotheses," pointing to the importance of changes in our dietary habits...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161088/mechanistic-basis-for-obesity-related-increases-in-ozone-induced-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-mice
#5
Stephanie A Shore
Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, especially nonallergic asthma. Ozone, a common air pollutant, is a nonallergic asthma trigger. Importantly, ozone-induced decrements in lung function are greater in obese and overweight human subjects than in lean individuals. Obese mice also exhibit exaggerated pulmonary responses to ozone. Ozone causes greater increases in pulmonary resistance, in bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils, and in airway hyperresponsiveness in obese than in lean mice. Our data indicate that IL-33 plays a role in mediating these events...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161087/the-hygiene-hypothesis-in-the-age-of-the-microbiome
#6
Markus J Ege
The original version of the hygiene hypothesis suggested that infections transmitted early in life by "unhygienic contact" prevented allergies. Examples were endemic fecal-oral infections by viral, bacterial, or protozoic pathogens, such as hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori, or Toxoplasma gondii. Later, this concept also included microorganisms beyond pathogens, such as commensals and symbionts, and the hygiene hypothesis was extended to inflammatory diseases in general. An impressive illustration of the hygiene hypothesis was found in the consistent farm effect on asthma and allergies, which has partly been attributed to immunomodulatory properties of endotoxin as emitted by livestock...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161081/diet-obesity-and-asthma
#7
Lisa G Wood
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries as Western dietary patterns have been widely adopted. These diets are characterized by excess energy intake as well as regular consumption of processed or "fast" foods and limited consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. The result is a high intake of saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, and sodium; and a low intake of fiber, vitamins, and other phytochemicals. This type of poor-quality diet has been associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160608/apple-fruit-superficial-scald-resistance-mediated-by-ethylene-inhibition-is-associated-with-diverse-metabolic-processes
#8
Nicola Busatto, Brian Farneti, Mauro Commisso, Martino Bianconi, Barbara Iadarola, Elisa Zago, Benedetto Ruperti, Francesco Spinelli, Angelo Zanella, Riccardo Velasco, Alberto Ferrarini, Giulia Chitarrini, Urska Vrhovsek, Massimo Delledonne, Flavia Guzzo, Guglielmo Costa, Fabrizio Costa
Fruits stored at low temperature can exhibit different types of chilling injury. In apple, one of the most serious physiological disorders is superficial scald, which is characterized by discoloration and brown necrotic patches on the fruit exocarp. Although this phenomenon is widely ascribed to the oxidation of α-farnesene, its physiology is not yet fully understood. To elucidate the mechanism of superficial scald development and possible means of prevention, we performed an integrated metabolite screen, including an analysis of volatiles, phenols and lipids, together with a large-scale transcriptome study...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160429/reduction-of-venous-pressure-during-the-resection-of-liver-metastases-compromises-enteric-blood-flow-igfbp-1-as-a-novel-biomarker-of-intestinal-barrier-injury
#9
Hermes Vieira Barbeiro, Marcel Autran César Machado, Heraldo Possolo de Souza, Fabiano Pinheiro da Silva, Marcel Cerqueira César Machado
OBJECTIVES: Disruption of the intestinal barrier and bacterial translocation commonly occur when intestinal blood flow is compromised. The aim of this study was to determine whether liver resection induces intestinal damage. METHODS: We investigated intestinal fatty-acid binding protein and insulin-like growth factor binding protein levels in the plasma of patients who underwent liver resection. RESULTS: We show that liver resection is associated with significant intestinal barrier injury, even if the Pringle maneuver is not performed...
October 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160228/controlled-synthesis-of-quantum-confined-cspbbr3-perovskite-nanocrystals-under-ambient-condition
#10
Huimei He, Bing Tang, Ying Ma
Room temperature recrystallization is a simple and convenient method for synthesis of all-inorganic perovskite nanomaterials with excellent luminescent properties. However, the fast crystallization usually brings the colloidal stability and uncontrollable synthesis issues in the formation of all-inorganic perovskite. In the present study, we present a new strategy to prepare the quantum confined CsPbBr3 nanocrystals with controlled morphology under ambient condition. With the assist of fatty acid-capped precursor, the crystallization and the following growth rate can be retarded...
November 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160201/aquicoccus-porphyridii-gen-nov-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-small-marine-red-alga-porphyridium-marinum
#11
Tingye Feng, Kyung Hyun Kim, Sang Eun Jeong, Wonyong Kim, Che Ok Jeon
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and aerobic bacterial strain, designated L1 8-17(T), was isolated from a marine alga, Porphyridium marinum, in South Korea. Cells of strain L1 8-17(T) were found to be oxidase- and catalase-positive cocci without flagella. Growth of strain L1 8-17(T) was observed at 20-40 °C (optimum, 37 °C), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 0-7 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %). The isoprenoid quinone detected was only ubiquinone-10. Summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0 were detected as major cellular fatty acids...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160200/methylobacterium-frigidaeris-sp-nov-isolated-from-an-air-conditioning-system
#12
Yunho Lee, Che Ok Jeon
A reddish pink-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and methylotrophic bacterial strain, designated strain IER25-16(T), was isolated from a laboratory air conditioning system in the Republic of Korea. Cells were motile rods showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. Strain IER25-16(T) grew at 10-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 4.0-7.0 (optimum, pH 5.0-7.0) and in the presence of 0-1.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0 %). The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10 and ubiquinone-9 was also detected as the minor respiratory quinone...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160198/herbidospora-soli-sp-nov-isolated-from-soil
#13
Nantawan Niemhom, Chitti Thawai
A novel actinomycete strain PS42-9(T), which formed short chains of spores borne on the tip of long sporophores arising from the substrate mycelium, was isolated from soil in Phu-Sang National Park, Phayao province, Thailand. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars of strain PS42-9(T) were glucose, madurose, mannose, rhamnose and ribose. The characteristic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine and ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipids...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160196/rheinheimera-marina-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-deep-sea-seamount
#14
Qian Wang, Ya-Wen Sun, Jie Liu, De-Chao Zhang
A bacterial strain designated TP462(T), isolated from a seamount near the Yap Trench in the tropical western Pacific, was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain TP462(T) was found to be Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Growth occurred at 4-37 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C) and with 0-4.0 % NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain TP462(T) was related to the genus Rheinheimera and had the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain Rheinheimera tangshanensis JA3-B52(T) (96...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160148/are-pupils-programme-for-international-student-assessment-pisa-scores-associated-with-a-nation-s-fish-consumption
#15
Volker Schmiedel, Hans Vogt, Harald Walach
AIMS: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for neurodevelopment. Fish is a major source of these essential nutrients. We asked whether a nation's fish consumption is associated with its pupils' PISA scores as measures of school achievement, independent of economic status and breastfeeding. Method (Design and Setting): This was a regression analytic study based on published data. RESULTS: Data on fish consumption and PISA scores were available for 64 countries. A significant regression model explained 72% of the variance in PISA scores...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159784/g2a-as-a-threshold-regulator-of-inflammatory-hyperalgesia-modulates-chronic-hyperalgesia
#16
Yeu-Shiuan Su, Yu-Fen Huang, Jen Wong, Chia-Wei Lee, Wei-Shan Hsieh, Wei-Hsin Sun
Tissue injury, pathogen infection, and diseases are often accompanied by inflammation to release mediators that sensitize nociceptors and further recruit immune cells, which can lead to chronic hyperalgesia and inflammation. Tissue acidosis, occurring at the inflammatory site, is a major factor contributing to pain and hyperalgesia. The receptor G2 accumulation (G2A), expressed in neurons and immune cells, responds to protons or oxidized free fatty acids such as 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid produced by injured cells or oxidative stresses...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159775/toxic-effects-of-phytol-and-retinol-on-human-glioblastoma-cells-are-associated-with-modulation-of-cholesterol-and-fatty-acid-biosynthetic-pathways
#17
Gustavo Facchini, Raffaela Silvestre Ignarro, Erika Rodrigues-Silva, André Schwambach Vieira, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Roger Frigério Castilho, Fabio Rogerio
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor. Genetic mutations may reprogram the metabolism of neoplastic cells. Particularly, alterations in cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways may favor biomass synthesis and resistance to therapy. Therefore, compounds that interfere with those pathways, such as phytol (PHY) and retinol (RET), may be appropriate for cytotoxic approaches. We tested the effect of PHY or RET on the viability of human GBM cell lines (U87MG, A172 and T98G). Since the compounds showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect, additional analyses were performed with IC50 values...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159769/diversity-effect-of-capsaicin-on-different-types-of-skeletal-muscle
#18
Gan Zhou, Lina Wang, Yaqiong Xu, Kelin Yang, Lv Luo, Leshan Wang, Yongxiang Li, Jiawen Wang, Gang Shu, Songbo Wang, Ping Gao, Xiaotong Zhu, Qianyun Xi, Jiajie Sun, Yongliang Zhang, Qingyan Jiang
Capsaicin is a major pungent content in green and red peppers which are widely used as spice, and capsaicin may activate different receptors. To determine whether capsaicin has different effects on different types of skeletal muscle, we applied different concentrations (0, 0.01, and 0.02%) of capsaicin in the normal diet and conducted a four-week experiment on Sprague-Dawley rats. The fiber type composition, glucose metabolism enzyme activity, and different signaling molecules' expressions of receptors were detected...
November 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159730/uplc-elsd-analysis-of-algal-lipid-classes-and-derivatization-of-bound-and-free-fatty-acids-and-sterols-for-gc-ms-methods
#19
Tuulikki Seppänen-Laakso, Heli Nygren, Heiko Rischer
Constituents of microalgae and sample preparation for UPLC-ELSD and GC-MS analyses are described. Bound fatty acids from acylglycerols, alkylacylglycerols, galactosyldiacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, and sterol esters are derivatized by using transesterification with sodium methoxide to form fatty acid methyl esters. Compounds containing free hydroxyl groups, either present originally or formed during previous step, like free fatty acids, sterols, α-tocopherol, phytol, and nonesterified alkoxyglycerols, are trimethylsilylated...
November 21, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159568/a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-study-between-association-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-derived-from-fish-consumption-and-high-density-lipoprotein-heterogeneity
#20
Shigemasa Tani, Rei Matsuo, Kenji Kawauchi, Tsukasa Yagi, Wataru Atsumi, Atsushi Hirayama
Decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size, cholesterol poor, apolipoprotein A-I-rich HDL particles leading to smaller HDL particle size, may be associated with an anti-atherosclerotic effect. The data are sparse regarding the relationship between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [n-3 PUFAs: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and HDL particle size. This study was designed as a hospital-based cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between the serum levels of n-3 PUFAs and the HDL-cholesterol/apolipoprotein A-1 ratio, as estimated by the HDL particle size, in patients with the presence of one or more risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
November 20, 2017: Heart and Vessels
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