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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662754/magnesium-based-implants-beyond-fixators
#1
Xiaodan Chen
The mystery behind magnesium-induced bone formation is revealed by linking the neuropeptide(s) from sensory nerves with the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in the periosteum. Zhang and colleagues' study sheds light on the development of magnesium pills or calcitonin gene-related peptide-delivery system for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis. The translational potential of this article: For the first time, magnesium is shown to be beneficial for fracture healing at the weight-bearing site...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659152/cranial-pair-i-the-olfactory-nerve
#2
Carlos Crespo, Teresa Liberia, José Miguel Blasco-Ibáñez, Juan Nácher, Emilio Varea
The olfactory nerve constitutes the first cranial pair. Compared with other cranial nerves, it depicts some atypical features. First, the olfactory nerve does not form a unique bundle. The olfactory axons join other axons and form several small bundles or fascicles: the fila olfactoria. These fascicles leave the nasal cavity, pass through the lamina cribrosa of the ethmoid bone and enter the brain. The whole of these fascicles is what is known as the olfactory nerve. Second, the olfactory sensory neurons, whose axons integrate the olfactory nerve, connect the nasal cavity and the brain without any relay...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623937/efficacy-of-chitosan-and-sodium-alginate-scaffolds-for-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#3
Zi-Ang Yao, Feng-Jia Chen, Hong-Li Cui, Tong Lin, Na Guo, Hai-Ge Wu
Spinal cord injury results in the loss of motor and sensory pathways and spontaneous regeneration of adult mammalian spinal cord neurons is limited. Chitosan and sodium alginate have good biocompatibility, biodegradability, and are suitable to assist the recovery of damaged tissues, such as skin, bone and nerve. Chitosan scaffolds, sodium alginate scaffolds and chitosan-sodium alginate scaffolds were separately transplanted into rats with spinal cord hemisection. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores and electrophysiological results showed that chitosan scaffolds promoted recovery of locomotor capacity and nerve transduction of the experimental rats...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616726/segmentation-of-the-chick-central-and-peripheral-nervous-systems
#4
Roger Keynes, Geoffrey Cook
The chick embryo has provided a prominent model system for the study of segmental patterning in the nervous system. During early development, motor and sensory axon growth cones traverse the anterior/rostral half of each somite, so avoiding the developing vertebral components and ensuring separation of spinal nerves from vertebral bones. A glycoprotein expressed on the surface of posterior half-somite cells confines growth cones to the anterior half-somites by a contact repulsive mechanism. Hindbrain segmentation is also a conspicuous feature of chick brain development...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615088/ultrasound-guided-needle-release-of-the-transverse-carpal-ligament-with-and-without-corticosteroid-injection-for-the-treatment-of-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#5
Xuan-Yan Guo, Mao-Xiang Xiong, Man Lu, Xue-Qing Cheng, Yan-Yan Wu, Shi-Yin Chen, Kai Chen, Qiao-Dan Zhou, Lei Wang, Li Tan, Jie-Rong Quan, Fan-Ding He, Qin Chen
BACKGROUND: To compare the clinical effectiveness of ultrasound-guided needle release of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) with and without corticosteroid injection in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). METHODS: From June 2016 to June 2017, 49 CTS patients (50 wrists) were included in this study. Twenty-five wrists were treated with ultrasound-guided needle release of the TCL plus corticosteroid injection (group A), and 25 wrists were treated with single ultrasound-guided needle release of the TCL (group B)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590147/influence-of-bone-conducted-vibration-on-simulator-sickness-in-virtual-reality
#6
Séamas Weech, Jae Moon, Nikolaus F Troje
Use of virtual reality (VR) technology is often accompanied by a series of unwanted symptoms, including nausea and headache, which are characterised as 'simulator sickness'. Sensory mismatch has been thought to lie at the heart of the problem and recent studies have shown that reducing cue mismatch in VR can have a therapeutic effect. Specifically, electrical stimulation of vestibular afferent nerves (galvanic vestibular stimulation; GVS) can reduce simulator sickness in VR. However, GVS poses a risk to certain populations and can also result in negative symptoms in normal, healthy individuals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589502/comparison-between-a-multicentre-collaborative-closed-loop-audit-assessing-management-of-supracondylar-fractures-and-the-british-orthopaedic-association-standard-for-trauma-11-boast-11-guidelines
#7
MULTICENTER STUDY
R Goodall, H Claireaux, J Hill, E Wilson, F Monsell, Boast Collaborative, P Tarassoli
Aims Supracondylar fractures are the most frequently occurring paediatric fractures about the elbow and may be associated with a neurovascular injury. The British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma 11 (BOAST 11) guidelines describe best practice for supracondylar fracture management. This study aimed to assess whether emergency departments in the United Kingdom adhere to BOAST 11 standard 1: a documented assessment, performed on presentation, must include the status of the radial pulse, digital capillary refill time, and the individual function of the radial, median (including the anterior interosseous), and ulnar nerves...
March 1, 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546705/derivation-of-fate-committed-schwann-cells-from-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-of-adult-rats
#8
Y P Tsui, Graham K Shea, Y S Chan, Daisy K Y Shum
Our goal is to derive phenotypically stable Schwann cells from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for use in transplantation studies of central/peripheral nerve injuries. With the adult rat as model, here we describe steps that foster (1) expansion of the BMSC subpopulation of neural progenitors as neurosphere cells, (2) differentiation of the progenitors into Schwann cell-like cells in adherent culture supplemented with soluble factors, and (3) cell-intrinsic switch of Schwann cell-like cells to the Schwann cell fate following co-culture with sensory neurons purified from dorsal root ganglia...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510758/garcin-syndrome-caused-by-sphenoid-bone-metastasis-of-lung-cancer-a-case-study
#9
Satoshi Fukai, Naoyuki Okabe, Hayato Mine, Hironori Takagi, Hiroyuki Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Garcin syndrome, which consists of unilateral palsies of almost all cranial nerves without either sensory or motor long-tract disturbances or intracranial hypertension, can be caused by malignant tumors at the skull base. The case of a patient with lung cancer that metastasized to the sphenoid bone and resulted in Garcin syndrome is presented. CASE PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old woman was diagnosed as having non-small cell lung cancer with pericardial and diaphragmatic infiltration, cT4N1M0, stage 3A...
March 6, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486004/temporal-mechanically-induced-signaling-events-in-bone-and-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-after-in-vivo-bone-loading
#10
Jason A Bleedorn, Troy A Hornberger, Craig A Goodman, Zhengling Hao, Susannah J Sample, Ermias Amene, Mark D Markel, Mary Behan, Peter Muir
Mechanical signals play an integral role in the regulation of bone mass and functional adaptation to bone loading. The osteocyte has long been considered the principle mechanosensory cell type in bone, although recent evidence suggests the sensory nervous system may play a role in mechanosensing. The specific signaling pathways responsible for functional adaptation of the skeleton through modeling and remodeling are not clearly defined. In vitro studies suggest involvement of intracellular signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478714/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-and-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-contribute-to-the-progression-of-colonic-inflammation-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-in-mice-links-to-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-and-substance-p
#11
Daichi Utsumi, Kenjiro Matsumoto, Takuya Tsukahara, Kikuko Amagase, Makoto Tominaga, Shinichi Kato
Transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), which are non-selective cation channels, play important roles in the sensation of pain. This study investigated the roles of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis. DSS (2%) administered for 7 days caused severe colitis that was significantly less severe in TRPV1-deficient (TRPV1KO) and TRPA1-deficient (TRPA1KO) mice than that in wild-type (WT) mice. Similar colitis attenuations were observed in TRPV1KO and TRPA1KO mice but not in WT mice that had been transplanted with bone marrow cells from WT, TRPA1KO, or TRPV1KO mice...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451219/low-frequency-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-pretreated-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-the-regeneration-of-crush-injured-rat-mental-nerve
#12
NaRi Seo, Sung-Ho Lee, Kyung Won Ju, JaeMan Woo, BongJu Kim, SoungMin Kim, Jeong Won Jahng, Jong-Ho Lee
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432884/the-changing-sensory-and-sympathetic-innervation-of-the-young-adult-and-aging-mouse-femur
#13
Stephane R Chartier, Stefanie A T Mitchell, Lisa A Majuta, Patrick W Mantyh
Although bone is continually being remodeled and ultimately declines with aging, little is known whether similar changes occur in the sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers that innervate bone. Here, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to examine changes in the sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers that innervate the young (10 days post-partum), adult (3 months) and aging (24 months) C57Bl/6 mouse femur. In all three ages examined, the periosteum was the most densely innervated bone compartment...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389699/use-of-vascularized-sural-nerve-grafts-for-sciatic-nerve-reconstruction-after-malignant-bone-and-soft-tissue-tumor-resection-in-the-lower-legs
#14
Hideki Tokumoto, Shinsuke Akita, Yoshitaka Kubota, Motone Kuriyama, Nobuyuki Mitsukawa
BACKGROUND: Vascularized nerve grafting is normally associated with a good outcome, but can be difficult to use for nerve reconstruction in patients with long defects of the sciatic nerve given the graft thickness. We report 3 cases of large defect sciatic nerve reconstruction using the bilateral sural nerves of the lower legs harvested together with the fascia and lesser saphenous vein to form a vascularized flap. METHODS: The subjects were 3 patients who required the reconstruction of a 10-cm or longer segment of the sciatic nerve...
January 31, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373454/double-oblique-osteotomy-a-technique-for-correction-of-posttraumatic-deformities-of-the-distal-femur
#15
Michael A Miranda, Joseph P DeAngelis, George H Canizares, Jeffery W Mast
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes of a double oblique osteotomy for the management of distal femoral malunions and a combination malunion/nonunion. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Level 1/2 hospital. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Ten patients with a mean age of 50 years (range 30-69 years) with posttraumatic deformities of the distal femur. INTERVENTION: A 2-level, length-sparing osteotomy was performed in accordance with a detailed preoperative plan for correction of the mechanical axis in a distal femoral deformity...
February 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346716/neuropeptide-af-induces-piecemeal-degranulation-in-murine-mucosal-mast-cells-a-new-mediator-in-neuro-immune-communication-in-the-intestinal-lamina-propria
#16
Nada Abdellah, Samuel van Remoortel, Omnia Mohey-Elsaeed, Mohamed-Nabil Mustafa, Yasser A Ahmed, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Roeland Buckinx
Neuropeptides AF (NPAF), FF (NPFF) and SF (NPSF) are RFamide neuropeptides known to be widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, where they fulfill a wide range of functions with pain modulation being the most prominent one. Recent evidence indicates that RFamides act as mediators in mast cell-sensory nerve communications related to allergic disease. Previous work by our group has shown that the expression levels of some members of the Mas-related gene receptor (Mrgpr) family in both enteric neurons and mucosal mast cells change during intestinal inflammation...
January 18, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286436/stromal-vascular-fraction-enriched-fat-grafting-for-the-treatment-of-symptomatic-end-neuromata
#17
Simon Zimmermann, Richard M Fakin, Thomas Giesen, Pietro Giovanoli, Maurizio Calcagni
The purpose of this study was to methodically illustrate and highlight the crucial steps of stromal vascular fraction (SVF)-enriched fat grafting as a novel treatment of symptomatic end-neuromata of peripheral sensory nerves, and in this study, specifically of the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN). Despite a multitude of existing treatments, persistent postoperative pain and common pain relapse are still very common, independent of the procedure assessed. The neuroma is microsurgically excised accordingly to standardized protocol...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238079/dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-regulate-the-transcriptional-and-translational-programs-of-osteoblast-differentiation-in-a-microfluidic-platform
#18
Diana Isabel Silva, Bruno Paiva Dos Santos, Jacques Leng, Hugo Oliveira, Joëlle Amédée
Innervation by the sensory nervous system plays a key role in skeletal development and in orchestration of bone remodeling and regeneration. However, it is unclear how and in which bone cells can sensory nerves act to control these processes. Here, we show a microfluidic coculture system comprising dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that more faithfully represents the in vivo scenario of bone sensory innervation. We report that DRG neurons promote the osteogenic differentiation capacity of MSCs, by mediating the increase of alkaline phosphatase activity and the upregulation of osteoblast-specific genes...
December 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233995/adeno-associated-virus-serotype-rh10-is-a-useful-gene-transfer-vector-for-sensory-nerves-that-innervate-bone-in-immunodeficient-mice
#19
Sun H Park, Matthew R Eber, Shunsuke Tsuzuki, Mary E Booker, Aaron G Sunil, D Brooke Widner, Renee A Parker, Christopher M Peters, Yusuke Shiozawa
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is frequently used to manipulate gene expression in the sensory nervous system for the study of pain mechanisms. Although some serotypes of AAV are known to have nerve tropism, whether AAV can distribute to sensory nerves that innervate the bone or skeletal tissue has not been shown. This information is crucial, since bone pain, including cancer-induced bone pain, is an area of high importance in pain biology. In this study, we found that AAVrh10 transduces neurons in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of immunodeficient mice with higher efficacy than AAV2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 when injected intrathecally...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191538/collet-sicard-syndrome-attributable-to-extramedullary-plasmacytoma-of-the-jugular-foramen
#20
Soliman Oushy, Christopher S Graffeo, Avital Perry, Jonathan M Morris, Matthew L Carlson, Jamie J Van Gompel
BACKGROUND: Collet-Sicard syndrome is a rare manifestation of skull base disease involving the jugular and hypoglossal foramina. We report the first case of Collet-Sicard attributable to extramedullary plasmacytoma-multiple myeloma (EP-MM) and the second case of EP-MM precipitating a jugular foramen syndrome (JFS)-spectrum disorder. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 59-year-old woman presented with 4 months of left aural fullness and pulsatile tenderness, positional vertigo, hoarseness, and dysphagia...
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
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