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sensory nerve and bone

Qingqing Wu, Bo Yang, Cong Cao, Mengkai Guang, Ping Gong
Aging is associated with peripheral nerve degradation and bone destruction. The aim of the study is to elucidate the influence of sensory denervation on bone metabolism in different age groups by establishing a modified unilateral inferior alveolar nerve transection (IANT) model. The rats, divided into young, middle-aged and aged group, were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after right IANT. The histological changes of mandibles were analyzed by fluorescent double labeling, micro-CT, HE, TRAP and anti-CGRP immunohistochemical staining...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Molecular Histology
Hainan Lang, Eishi Nishimoto, Yazhi Xing, LaShardai N Brown, Kenyaria V Noble, Jeremy L Barth, Amanda C LaRue, Kiyoshi Ando, Bradley A Schulte
The peripheral auditory nerve (AN) carries sound information from sensory hair cells to the brain. The present study investigated the contribution of mouse and human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to cellular diversity in the AN following the destruction of neuron cell bodies, also known as spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Exposure of the adult mouse cochlea to ouabain selectively killed type I SGNs and disrupted the blood-labyrinth barrier. This procedure also resulted in the upregulation of genes associated with hematopoietic cell homing and differentiation, and provided an environment conducive to the tissue engraftment of circulating stem/progenitor cells into the AN...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Yifeng Zhang, Jiankun Xu, Ye Chun Ruan, Mei Kuen Yu, Micheal O'Laughlin, Helen Wise, Di Chen, Li Tian, Dufang Shi, Jiali Wang, Sihui Chen, Jian Q Feng, Dick Ho Kiu Chow, Xinhui Xie, Lizhen Zheng, Le Huang, Shuo Huang, Kwoksui Leung, Na Lu, Lan Zhao, Huafang Li, Dewei Zhao, Xia Guo, Kaiming Chan, Frank Witte, Hsiao Chang Chan, Yufeng Zheng, Ling Qin
Orthopedic implants containing biodegradable magnesium have been used for fracture repair with considerable efficacy; however, the underlying mechanisms by which these implants improve fracture healing remain elusive. Here we show the formation of abundant new bone at peripheral cortical sites after intramedullary implantation of a pin containing ultrapure magnesium into the intact distal femur in rats. This response was accompanied by substantial increases of neuronal calcitonin gene-related polypeptide-α (CGRP) in both the peripheral cortex of the femur and the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
October 2016: Nature Medicine
Ryan E Tomlinson, Zhi Li, Qian Zhang, Brian C Goh, Zhu Li, Daniel L J Thorek, Labchan Rajbhandari, Thomas M Brushart, Liliana Minichiello, Fengquan Zhou, Arun Venkatesan, Thomas L Clemens
Developing tissues dictate the amount and type of innervation they require by secreting neurotrophins, which promote neuronal survival by activating distinct tyrosine kinase receptors. Here, we show that nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling through neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (TrkA) directs innervation of the developing mouse femur to promote vascularization and osteoprogenitor lineage progression. At the start of primary ossification, TrkA-positive axons were observed at perichondrial bone surfaces, coincident with NGF expression in cells adjacent to centers of incipient ossification...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
Magdy M El-Sayed Ahmed
We report a case of a hand replantation. A 43-year-old male presented with an amputated right hand. After clinical and radiological examination of the amputated hand and the forearm stump, the patient was consented for hand replantation procedure. Both bones of the forearm were fixed using K-wires. Careful dissection, trimming and repair of the tendons, vessels (two arteries and one vein) and nerves was achieved. The patient tolerated the procedure well and 2 months later showed a progressive improvement in motor and sensory functions...
2013: SAGE Open Med Case Rep
R Taraquois, A Joly, A Sallot, J-D Kün Darbois, B Laure, A Paré
INTRODUCTION: The sacrifice of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) is usual in case of resection of mandibular tumors and is responsible for disabling sensory disorders, drooling and lip incompetence. We report the case of a reconstruction of the IAN by means of an autologous nerve graft after segmental resection of the mandible. OBSERVATION: A 27-year-old man presented with a recurrence of mandibular ameloblastoma. Treatment consisted in segmental mandibulectomy with resection of the IAN...
July 26, 2016: Revue de Stomatologie, de Chirurgie Maxillo-faciale et de Chirurgie Orale
Chi-Heun Lee, Baek-Soo Lee, Byung-Joon Choi, Jung-Woo Lee, Joo-Young Ohe, Hee-Young Yoo, Yong-Dae Kwon
BACKGROUND: Bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) is the most widely used mandibular surgical technique in orthognathic surgery and is easy to relocate the distal segments, accelerating bone repair by the large surface of bone contact. However, it can cause neurosensory dysfunction (NSD) or sensory loss by injury of the inferior alveolar nerve. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate NSD after BSSRO and modifiers at NSD recovery. METHODS: In this study, NSD characteristics after BSSRO from 2009 to 2014 at the Kyung Hee University Dental Hospital were evaluated...
December 2016: Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Angélica Castro Pimentel, Marco Antonio Sanches, Gabriel Cardoso Ramalho, Caio Vinicius Roman-Torres, Marcello Roberto Manzi, Wilson Roberto Sendyk
Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve...
2016: Case Reports in Dentistry
Naoki Takahashi, Yumi Matsuda, Keisuke Sato, Petrus R de Jong, Samuel Bertin, Koichi Tabeta, Kazuhisa Yamazaki
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is abundantly expressed in peripheral sensory neurons where it acts as an important polymodal cellular sensor for heat, acidic pH, capsaicin, and other noxious stimuli. The oral cavity is densely innervated by afferent sensory neurons and is a highly specialized organ that protects against infections as well as physical, chemical, and thermal stresses in its capacity as the first part of the digestive system. While the function of TRPV1 in sensory neurons has been intensively studied in other organs, its physiological role in periodontal tissues is unclear...
2016: Scientific Reports
Daniel M Vasconcelos, Manuel Ribeiro-da-Silva, António Mateus, Cecília Juliana Alves, Gil Costa Machado, Joana Machado-Santos, Diogo Paramos-de-Carvalho, Inês S Alencastre, Rui Henrique, Gilberto Costa, Mário A Barbosa, Meriem Lamghari
BACKGROUND: Aseptic loosening (AL) of hip prosthesis presents inflammation and pain as sign and symptom similarly to arthritis pathologies. Still, the immune and innervation profiles in hip AL remain unclear and their interplay is poorly explored. Herein, local tissue inflammatory response, sensory and sympathetic innervation as well as associated local mediators were assessed in hip joint microenvironment underlying AL and compared to osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Histopathological analysis, immune cells (macrophages, T, B cells and PMNs) as well as sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers (SP(+), CGRP(+), TH(+)) distribution and profiles were analyzed on tissues retrieved from patients with failed hip prostheses due to AL (n = 20) and hip OA (n = 15) by immunohistochemistry...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Hwan Jun Choi, Jun Ho Park, Chang Yong Choi
Osteomas grow slowly, blocking or compressing adjacent structures, and frequently causing aesthetic deformity. Although most patients remain asymptomatic, development of facial pain and headaches due to compression of adjacent sensory nerves is not uncommon. Depending on the location of osteoma, many techniques were introduced to remove it. If the osteoma was located close to important structures such as nerves and vessels, surgeons can be concerned about damaging them resulting in unfavorable symptoms to patients...
July 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Emilie B Fitzpatrick, Mary J Dehart, Tommy A Brown, Shashikumar K Salgar
BACKGROUND: Limb transplantation is a viable option for reconstruction after traumatic limb loss; however, functional recovery can be suboptimal. The aim of this study was to determine whether mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration can improve limb transplant functional recovery. METHODS: Orthotopic syngeneic hindlimb transplants were performed in Lewis rats, followed by topical and intravenous injections of syngeneic MSCs (5 × 10(6) ) or vehicle. Transplanted limb sensory and motor functions were tested by cutaneous pain reaction and walking track analysis, respectively...
May 24, 2016: Microsurgery
Sara Nencini, Jason J Ivanusic
Pain is associated with most bony pathologies. Clinical and experimental observations suggest that bone pain can be derived from noxious stimulation of the periosteum or bone marrow. Sensory neurons are known to innervate the periosteum and marrow cavity, and most of these have a morphology and molecular phenotype consistent with a role in nociception. However, little is known about the physiology of these neurons, and therefore information about mechanisms that generate and maintain bone pain is lacking. The periosteum has received greater attention relative to the bone marrow, reflecting the easier access of the periosteum for experimental assessment...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Sami H Tuffaha, Prateush Singh, Joshua D Budihardjo, Kenneth R Means, James P Higgins, Jaimie T Shores, Roberto Salvatori, Ahmet Höke, W P Andrew Lee, Gerald Brandacher
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerve injuries often result in debilitating motor and sensory deficits. There are currently no therapeutic agents that are clinically available to enhance the regenerative process. Following surgical repair, axons often must regenerate long distances to reach and reinnervate distal targets. Progressive atrophy of denervated muscle and Schwann cells (SCs) prior to reinnervation contributes to poor outcomes. Growth hormone (GH)-based therapies have the potential to accelerate axonal regeneration while at the same time limiting atrophy of muscle and the distal regenerative pathway prior to reinnervation...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
F-M Leclère, V Casoli
Since it was first described by Song in 1982, then by Katsaros in 1984, the lateral arm flap has become a workhorse technique for upper limb reconstruction. Herein we describe a clinical case of complex foot defect and bring up the possibility of using a composite neuromusculo-fasciocutaneous lateral arm/triceps free flap for its reconstruction. A 19-year-old male nonsmoker suffered ballistic trauma to his right foot with open multifragment Gustilo-IIIb fractures of the first to fifth metatarsal bones. Two weeks after debridement and V...
April 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
Ozan Volkan Yurdakul, Nilgün Mesci, Yilmaz Çetinkaya, Duygu Geler Külcü
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We determined the reliability of ultrasonography (US) measurements for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and their correlation with symptom duration and electrophysiology findings. We determined whether the ratio of the median-to-ulnar cross-sectional areas (CSAs) can support CTS diagnoses. METHODS: The pisiform CSA (CSA(pisiform)), swelling ratio (SR), palmar bowing, and CSA(pisiform)/ulnar CSA (CSA(ulnar)) measurements made in two subgroups of CTS patients (having sensory affection alone or having both sensory and motor affection) were compared with controls...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurology
L Xu, F M Chen, L Wang, P X Zhang, X R Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the meaning and value of high-frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). METHODS: In this study, 48 patients (unilateral hand) with CTS were analyzed. The thickness of transverse carpal ligaments at the pisiform bone was measured using high-frequency ultrasound. Open carpal tunnel release procedure was performed in the 48 CTS patients, and the thickness of transverse carpal ligaments at the hamate hook bone measured using vernier caliper under direct vision...
April 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Tuğrul Bulut, Ulaş Akgün, Atilla Çıtlak, Cihan Aslan, Ufuk Şener, Muhittin Şener
OBJECTIVE: The prognostic factors that affect sensory nerve recovery after digital nerve repair are variable because of nonhomogeneous data, subjective tests, and different assessment/scoring methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the success of sensory nerve recovery after digital nerve repair and to investigate the prognostic factors in sensorial healing. METHODS: Ninety-six digital nerve repairs of 63 patients were retrospectively evaluated. All nerves were repaired with end-to-end neurorraphy...
2016: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Charlotte Ørsted Frost, Rikke Rie Hansen, Anne-Marie Heegaard
Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
M B Cegin, L Soyoral, N Yuzkat, V Baydi, U Goktas
OBJECTIVE: Adjuvant agents, given with local anesthetics or via venous, oral, or rectal routes for peripheral nerve blocking, have been in use for a long time. Literature studies about pregabalin usage in peripheral nerve blocking are limited in number. In this study, we aimed to reveal the blocking quality of pregabalin administered orally in various doses as an anxiolytic agent and its effective dose range. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty patients who underwent upper extremity bone surgery were included in the study...
2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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