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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239997/effects-of-different-doses-of-silk-peptide-on-energy-metabolism-during-exercise-in-mice
#1
Suh Heajung, Kim Jisu, Park Jonghoon, Kim Bokyung, Lee Chi-Ho, Lim Kiwon
Purpose: This study was carried out to determine the optimal dose of silk peptide for enhancing fat metabolism during exercise. Methods: Fifty male ICR mice were randomly divided into five groups: Sed, SP0, SP200, SP400, and SP800. All SP mice underwent training by running on a treadmill 5 times a week for 2 weeks (20 m/min, 8° slope, 50 min/day for the first week and 25 m/min, 8° slope, 50 min/day at about 70-75% of maximum oxygen uptake for the second week)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239834/order-constrained-linear-optimization
#2
Joe W Tidwell, Michael R Dougherty, Jeffrey S Chrabaszcz, Rick P Thomas
Despite the fact that data and theories in the social, behavioural, and health sciences are often represented on an ordinal scale, there has been relatively little emphasis on modelling ordinal properties. The most common analytic framework used in psychological science is the general linear model, whose variants include ANOVA, MANOVA, and ordinary linear regression. While these methods are designed to provide the best fit to the metric properties of the data, they are not designed to maximally model ordinal properties...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239807/adiponectin-partially-rescues-high-glucose-high-fat-induced-impairment-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-function-in-a-pgc-1%C3%AE-dependent-manner
#3
H Wang, W-J Yan, J-L Zhang, F-Y Zhang, C Gao, Y-J Wang, W Bond Law, L Tao
OBJECTIVE: Plasma adiponectin (APN) levels are decreased in diabetic patients. Dysfunctional mitochondrial biogenesis is involved in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) pathogenesis, by unclear mechanisms. The present study determined (1) whether myocardial mitochondrial biogenesis was impaired in cardiomyocytes exposed to a high glucose/high fat (HGHF) medium (a T2DM in vitro model), (2) the effects of APN administration upon mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiomyocytes affected by HGHF incubation, and 3) the involved underlying mechanisms...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239754/neprilysin-facilitates-adipogenesis-through-potentiation-of-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pi3k-signaling-pathway
#4
Juwan Kim, Dasol Han, Sung-Hyun Byun, Mookwang Kwon, Sun-Jung Cho, Young Ho Koh, Keejung Yoon
Neprilysin (NEP) is a zinc metallopeptidase that cleaves a number of small peptides into inactive forms. Despite the recent evidence of a significant correlation between the levels of NEP in plasma and the severity of obesity in humans, a cause-and-effect relationship or a functional role of NEP in obesity has remained uncertain. In this study, we show that NEP has a positive regulatory effect on fat cell formation from precursor cells. NEP increases the accumulation of cytoplasmic triglycerides in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes or the C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell line in differentiation conditions...
February 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239649/switching-harmful-visceral-fat-to-beneficial-energy-combustion-improves-metabolic-dysfunctions
#5
Xiaoyan Yang, Wenhai Sui, Meng Zhang, Mei Dong, Sharon Lim, Takahiro Seki, Ziheng Guo, Carina Fischer, Huixia Lu, Cheng Zhang, Jianmin Yang, Meng Zhang, Yangang Wang, Caixia Cao, Yanyan Gao, Xingguo Zhao, Meili Sun, Yuping Sun, Rujie Zhuang, Nilesh J Samani, Yun Zhang, Yihai Cao
Visceral fat is considered the genuine and harmful white adipose tissue (WAT) that is associated to development of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Here, we present a new concept to turn the harmful visceral fat into a beneficial energy consumption depot, which is beneficial for improvement of metabolic dysfunctions in obese mice. We show that low temperature-dependent browning of visceral fat caused decreased adipose weight, total body weight, and body mass index, despite increased food intake...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239573/role-of-buccal-pad-of-fat-in-reconstruction-of-the-buccal-mucosa-defects
#6
A Sagayaraj, N Divya Jyothi, S M Azeem Mohiyuddin, Ravindra P Deo, B Vageesh Padiyar
Carcinoma buccal mucosa is the most common oral cavity cancer in India. Following excision of these lesions the defects can be reconstructed using various reconstructive techniques. Buccal pad of fat has been successfully used in the reconstruction of small palatal defects and in the closure of the oro antral fistula. This study aims at evaluating the role of buccal pad of fat in reconstruction of defects following excision of the small to medium premalignant lesions and T1-T2 malignant lesions of buccal mucosa...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239540/differences-in-preschool-age-children-s-dietary-intake-between-meals-consumed-at-childcare-and-at-home
#7
S B Sisson, A C Kiger, K C Anundson, A H Rasbold, M Krampe, J Campbell, B DeGrace, L Hoffman
Preschool children need optimal nutrition, including a variety of nutrient-dense foods, for growth and development. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in foods and nutrients consumed at childcare and home environments. Children ages 3-to-5 years (n = 90, 3.8 ± 0.7 years; 56% female) from 16 childcare centers participated in this cross-sectional study from 2011 to 2014. Lunches at childcare were observed for two days; three days of dinners at home were reported by caregivers. Nutrient-dense and energy-dense foods were counted and nutrient content of meals was determined using FoodWorks®...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239482/aggressive-clinical-approach-to-obesity-improves-metabolic-and-clinical-outcomes-and-can-prevent-bariatric-surgery-a-single-center-experience
#8
Flavio A Cadegiani, Gustavo C Diniz, Gabriella Alves
BACKGROUND: The number of bariatric procedures has exponentially increased in the past decade, as a result of the lack of successful clinical weight-loss interventions. The main reasons for the failure of clinical obesity management are: (1) anti-obesity medications are administered as monotherapies (or pre-combined drugs); (2) lack of combination between pharmacotherapy and non-pharmacological modalities; (3) short duration of pharmacotherapy for obesity; (4) lack of weight-loss maintenance strategies; (5) misunderstanding of the complex pathophysiology of obesity; and (6) underprescription of anti-obesity medications...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239404/impact-of-a-6-week-non-energy-restricted-ketogenic-diet-on-physical-fitness-body-composition-and-biochemical-parameters-in-healthy-adults
#9
Paul Urbain, Lena Strom, Lena Morawski, Anja Wehrle, Peter Deibert, Hartmut Bertz
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat and adequate-protein diet that without limiting calories induces different metabolic adaptations, eg, increased levels of circulating ketone bodies and a shift to lipid metabolism. Our objective was to assess the impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted KD in healthy adults beyond cohorts of athletes on physical performance, body composition, and blood parameters. METHODS: Our single arm, before-and-after comparison study consisted of a 6-week KD with a previous preparation period including detailed instructions during classes and individual counselling by a dietitian...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239403/lipid-overload-during-gestation-and-lactation-can-independently-alter-lipid-homeostasis-in-offspring-and-promote-metabolic-impairment-after-new-challenge-to-high-fat-diet
#10
Laís Angélica de Paula Simino, Thaís de Fante, Marina Figueiredo Fontana, Fernanda Oliveira Borges, Márcio Alberto Torsoni, Marciane Milanski, Lício Augusto Velloso, Adriana Souza Torsoni
BACKGROUND: Nutritional status in early life is critically involved in the metabolic phenotype of offspring. However the changes triggered by maternal consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) in pre- or postnatal period should be better understood. Here we evaluated whether maternal HFD consumption during gestation and lactation could differently affect liver miR-122 and miR-370 expression leading to metabolic damages observed in offspring. Moreover, we investigate whether early overnutrition program offspring to more harmful response to HFD in later life...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239402/high-cholesterol-diet-does-not-alter-gut-microbiota-composition-in-mice
#11
Lidiya G Dimova, Nikola Zlatkov, Henkjan J Verkade, Bernt Eric Uhlin, Uwe J F Tietge
INTRODUCTION: Western diet containing both saturated fat and cholesterol impairs cardio-metabolic health partly by modulating diversity and function of the microbiota. While diet containing only high fat has comparable effects, it is unclear how diets only enriched in cholesterol impact the microbiota. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the response of host and microbiota to a high cholesterol (HC) diet in mice susceptible to cardio-metabolic disease. METHODS: LDLR knockout mice received either 1...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239368/connection-of-nicotine-to-diet-induced-obesity-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-cellular-and-mechanistic-insights
#12
REVIEW
Amiya P Sinha-Hikim, Indrani Sinha-Hikim, Theodore C Friedman
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses a serious health hazard affecting 20-40% of adults in the general population in the USA and over 70% of the obese and extremely obese people. In addition to obesity, nicotine is recognized as a risk factor for NAFLD, and it has been reported that nicotine can exaggerate obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. The development of NAFLD has serious clinical complications because of its potential progression from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239212/nutritional-and-digestive-properties-of-protein-isolates-extracted-from-the-muscle-of-the-common-carp-using-ph-shift-processing
#13
Yuanyong Tian, Wei Wang, Chunhong Yuan, Long Zhang, Jinyang Liu, Junrong Liu
: This study details the nutritional and digestive properties of protein isolates that are extracted from carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) muscle using pH shifting methods. Alkaline (ALPI) and acid (ACPI) protein isolates exhibit higher protein yields (87.6%, 76.3%, respectively). In addition to the high recovery of myofibrillar protein, a portion of the water-soluble proteins is also recovered. The moisture contents of ACPI and ALPI are 85.5% and 88.5%, respectively, and the crude protein contents of these two fractions are 83...
February 2017: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239165/anti-hypertensive-agents-do-not-prevent-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-and-cognitive-deficits-in-dietary-induced-obese-mice
#14
J C L Mamo, V Lam, C Giles, S H Coulson, N Fimognari, A Mooranian, H Al-Salami, R Takechi
BACKGROUND: While vascular risk factors including Western-styled diet and obesity are reported to induce cognitive decline and increase dementia risk, recent reports consistently suggest that compromised integrity of cerebrovascular blood-brain barrier (BBB) may play an important role in neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. A number of studies report that elevated blood pressure increases the permeability of BBB. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effects of anti-hypertensive agents, candesartan or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), on BBB dysfunction and cognitive decline in wild-type mice maintained on high fat and fructose (HFF) diet for 24 weeks...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239164/adipocyte-c1qtnf5-expression-is-bmi-dependently-related-to-early-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-and-systemic-ctrp5-serum-levels-in-obese-children
#15
J T Schwartze, K Landgraf, U Spielau, D Rockstroh, D Löffler, J Kratzsch, W Kiess, A Körner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The recently identified adipocytokine C1QTNF5 (encodes for CTRP5) has been demonstrated to inhibit pro-metabolic insulin signaling in adipocytes. We hypothesized that adipocyte C1QTNF5 expression in subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue (AT) would correlate with the degree of obesity, systemic CTRP5 serum levels, and early AT and metabolic dysfunction in children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sc AT samples were obtained from 33 healthy Caucasian lean children aged 10...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239148/amotl1-mediates-sequestration-of-the-hippo-effector-yap1-downstream-of-fat4-to-restrict-heart-growth
#16
Chiara V Ragni, Nicolas Diguet, Jean-François Le Garrec, Marta Novotova, Tatiana P Resende, Sorin Pop, Nicolas Charon, Laurent Guillemot, Lisa Kitasato, Caroline Badouel, Alexandre Dufour, Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin, Alain Trouvé, Helen McNeill, Sigolène M Meilhac
Although in flies the atypical cadherin Fat is an upstream regulator of Hippo signalling, the closest mammalian homologue, Fat4, has been shown to regulate tissue polarity rather than growth. Here we show in the mouse heart that Fat4 modulates Hippo signalling to restrict growth. Fat4 mutant myocardium is thicker, with increased cardiomyocyte size and proliferation, and this is mediated by an upregulation of the transcriptional activity of Yap1, an effector of the Hippo pathway. Fat4 is not required for the canonical activation of Hippo kinases but it sequesters a partner of Yap1, Amotl1, out of the nucleus...
February 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239055/changes-in-lipid-oxidation-and-fatty-acids-in-altay-sheep-fat-during-a-long-time-of-low-temperature-storage
#17
Yu Li, Ying Biao Li, Cheng Jiang Liu
Previously, we have shown that the fatty acid composition of Altay sheep tail fat is of reasonable value and is suitable for further development of possible commercial products. Changes in lipids of Altay sheep tail fat during 50 days of 4°C refrigerated storage were investigated. Lipid oxidation and lipolysis occurred during the storage. The pH showed a continually decreased from first day to the end of the storage (p < 0.05). The lipid oxidation was determined by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239013/recruitment-and-baseline-characteristics-of-participants-in-the-lifestyle-improvement-through-food-and-exercise-life-study
#18
Elizabeth Lynch, Laurin J Mack, Kelly Karavolos, Elizabeth Avery, Rebecca Liebman, Kathryn S Keim, Crystal M Glover, Leon Fogelfeld
African Americans experience poorer diabetes outcomes than non-Hispanic Whites. Few clinical trials of diabetes self-management interventions specifically target African Americans, perhaps due to well-documented barriers to recruitment in this population. This paper describes strategies used to successfully recruit 211 low-income African Americans from community clinics of a large, urban public hospital system to a randomized clinical trial of an 18-month diabetes self-management intervention. Diabetes-related physiological, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of the sample are reported...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238909/apple-polysaccharide-inhibits-microbial-dysbiosis-and-chronic-inflammation-and-modulates-gut-permeability-in-hfd-fed-rats
#19
Sheng Wang, Qian Li, Yue Zang, Yang Zhao, Nan Liu, Yifei Wang, Xiaotao Xu, Li Liu, Qibing Mei
The saying "An apple a day keeps the doctor away" has been known for over 150 years, and numerous studies have shown that apple consumption is closely associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases. It has been well accepted that dysbiosis is the reflection of various chronic diseases. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of apple polysaccharides (AP) on gut dysbiosis. High-fat diet (HFD) fed rats were treated for 14 weeks with AP. The microbiota composition, microbiota-generated short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), gut permeability and chronic inflammation were analyzed...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238722/hormetic-modulation-of-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-by-advanced-glycation-end-products
#20
Nelly T Fabre, Karina Thieme, Karolline S Silva, Sérgio Catanozi, Ana Mercedes Cavaleiro, Danilo A C Pinto, Maristela M Okamoto, Mychel Raony P T Morais, Bárbara Falquetto, Telma M Zorn, Ubiratan F Machado, Marisa Passarelli, Maria Lúcia Correa-Giannella
Because of the paucity of information regarding metabolic effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on liver, we evaluated effects of AGEs chronic administration in (1) insulin sensitivity; (2) hepatic expression of genes involved in AGEs, glucose and fat metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation and; (3) hepatic morphology and glycogen content. Rats received intraperitoneally albumin modified (AlbAGE) or not by advanced glycation for 12 weeks. AlbAGE induced whole-body insulin resistance concomitantly with increased hepatic insulin sensitivity, evidenced by activation of AKT, inactivation of GSK3, increased hepatic glycogen content, and decreased expression of gluconeogenesis genes...
February 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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