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Sameer Hassamal, Susan Waller, Kimberly Reese, Claudia Testa
Valproic acid (VPA) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder. VPA is also used off-label to treat other conditions in psychiatry such as impulse control disorders, major depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although VPA is mostly well-tolerated, common adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), neurological symptoms (sedation, ataxia, tremor), weight gain, and alopecia...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Tarun Arora, Vikas Maharshi, Harmeet S Rehan, Pravesh Nagar
BACKGROUND: Blepharospasm is one of the components of drug-induced Meige's syndrome which is reported to be caused by typical antipsychotics. Reports of blepharospasm or Meige's syndrome caused by atypical antipsychotics are rare. CASE: A 30-year-old female patient presented to psychiatry out patient department (OPD) with chief complaints of inability to keep her eyes open for long and excessive blinking for 2 months, irritation of eyes, watery discharge from eyes and photophobia for last 1 month...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Nicholas Bott, Corey Keller, Malathy Kuppuswamy, David Spelber, Joshua Zeier
BACKGROUND: The Cotard delusion (CD) is one of a variety of narrowly defined monothematic delusions characterized by nihilistic beliefs about the body's existence or life itself. The presence of CD within the context of schizophrenia is rare (<1%), and remains understudied. CASE: 'Mr. C' is a 58-year-old veteran with a prior diagnosis of schizophrenia, who presented with CD in the context of significant depression, suicidal ideation, violence, and self-harm behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Katie Joyce, Andrew Thompson, Steven Marwaha
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate a key element of the early intervention approach whether treatment at an earlier stage of bipolar disorder is more effective than later in its course. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review using Medline, Embase, Psychinfo, PsycArticle, and Web of Science, as data sources, with a subsequent narrative synthesis. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias method. RESULTS: Our search strategy yielded eight primary papers and two meta-analyses (of psychological therapies and Olanzapine) in total representing 8942 patients...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
Sabrina Salah, Lesly Thomas, Saravanan Ram, Glenn T Clark, Reyes Enciso
AIMS: To conduct a systematic review to determine the efficacy of oral medications for the management of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). METHODS: Three electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Library (up to 7 July 2015), MEDLINE via PubMed (from 1950 to 7 July 2015), and Web of Science (1864 to 7 July 2015). Studies were limited to double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized controlled trials on oral medications used to treat PHN. Risk of bias was independently assessed in duplicate...
2016: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
Jessica L Hambly, Sohil Khan, Brett McDermott, William Bor, Alison Haywood
UNLABELLED: There is a critical need for evaluation of the pharmacotherapies used in conduct disorder (CD), due to the high incidence of off-label prescribing. The aim of this review was to identify concerns associated with the safety, efficacy and impact on quality of life (QOL) that pharmacotherapy has in children and adolescents with CD. A systematic review was undertaken using pre-defined search criteria and four databases, including reference searches. We assessed these studies using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy, Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation, and Review Manager Risk of Bias (RevMan®) tools...
October 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
A Ahmad, S Sheikh, T Shah, M S Reddy, Bsv Prasad, K K Verma, B B Chandrakant, M Paithankar, P Kale, R V Solanki, R Patel, H Barkate, I Ahmad
The protein kinase C (PKC) signaling system plays a role in mood disorders and PKC inhibitors such as endoxifen may be an innovative medicine for bipolar disorder (BP) patients. In this study we show for the first time the antimanic properties of endoxifen in patients with bipolar I disorder (BPD I) with current manic or mixed episode. In a double-blind, active-controlled study, 84 subjects with BPD I were randomly assigned to receive endoxifen (4 mg/day or 8 mg/day) or divalproex in a 2:1 ratio. Patients orally administered 4 mg/day or 8 mg/day endoxifen showed significant improvement in mania assessed by the Young Mania Rating Scale as early as 4 days...
June 27, 2016: Clinical and Translational Science
Shuoye Yang, Xin Wang, Jiangsong Jia, Pengyuan Li
In the present study, a novel divalproex sodium (DS) enteric-coated capsule was prepared, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay method for DS was developed. Their uniformity, release curve and release characteristics in different solvents were examined. The release studies were performed using marketed sample as a reference and data were analyzed in terms of cumulative release amounts as a function of time. It was demonstrated by the results that assay developed was specific, rapid and reliable, which can be used to determine DS in vitro accurately, and our developed samples were similar to reference preparation in in vitro release characteristics...
May 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Edward P Chronicle, Wim M Mulleners
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Heather M Byers, Christopher W Beatty, Si Houn Hahn, Sidney M Gospe
BACKGROUND: Channelopathies are a group of monogenic disorders that affect a single ion channel and can result in neurological disease. While a rare cause of epilepsy, channelopathies offer unique insight to the molecular basis of epilepsy and treatment opportunities. Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated by a series of interacting subunits. CACNA1A encodes the principal pore-forming subunit of the voltage-gated P/Q-type calcium channel, alpha1. Patients with epileptic encephalopathy due to pathogenic variants in CACNA1A have been previously described and are challenging to treat...
July 2016: Pediatric Neurology
D Bailly
OBJECTIVE: To review the options for acute and maintenance pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review of randomized clinical trials and open-label studies was conducted. RESULTS: Published data from randomized controlled trials show that antipsychotics are significantly more effective than mood stabilizers in the treatment of manic or mixed episodes. Few data are available related to the treatment of depressive episodes...
May 16, 2016: L'Encéphale
Mary Yu, David Tadin, Erich J Conrad, Fred A Lopez
A 48-year-old man residing in a mental health department inpatient program with a history of schizoaffective disorder presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of fever and intense abdominal pain for one day. The patient stated he initially fell in the shower and afterwards experienced back pain. He was transferred to an acute care unit within the facility for further evaluation. The facility physician noted that the patient had a mild temperature elevation and abdominal rigidity on exam...
September 2015: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
Daniel J Lee, Carla W Schnitzlein, Jonathan P Wolf, Meena Vythilingam, Ann M Rasmusson, Charles W Hoge
BACKGROUND: Current clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) offer contradictory recommendations regarding use of medications or psychotherapy as first-line treatment. Direct head-to-head comparisons are lacking. METHODS: Systemic review of Medline, EMBASE, PILOTS, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, and Global Health Library was conducted without language restrictions. Randomized clinical trials ≥8 weeks in duration using structured clinical interview-based outcome measures, active-control conditions (e...
September 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Jennifer R Urban, Brett King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: JAAD Case Reports
Nilesh Shah, M S Reddy, Sandeep Vohra, Uday Chaudhuri, Senthilnathan Mohanasundaram
The study was conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of divalproex sodium XR containing regimen in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) who are in continuation phase. It was an open-label, prospective, observational study conducted from July 2010 to December 2011 at 48 sites across India. Adult patients with bipolar I disorder of manic or mixed type fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria and who were in the continuation phase were included. Safety (primary outcome) was assessed by incidence of treatment emergent adverse events (AEs)...
April 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Raman Deep Pattanayak, Deepak Charan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
R A Kowatch, T J Carmody, T Suppes, J H Hume, M Kromelis, G J Emslie, W A Weinberg
We report the results of an acute-phase and continuation-phase study of the pharmacological treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorders. The acute phase study, with a duration of 6-8 weeks, aimed at developing effect sizes (ES) for lithium, divalproex sodium, and carbamazepine, in the acute phase treatment of Bipolar I or II children and adolescents during a mixed or manic episode. During the acute-phase of treatment, 42 outpatients with a mean age of 11.4 yr. (20 with Bipolar I Disorder and 22 with Bipolar II Disorder) were randomly assigned to 6-8 weeks of open treatment with either lithium, divalproex sodium, or carbamazepine...
September 2000: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
R L Findling, B L Gracious, N K McNamara, J R Calabrese
INTRODUCTION: There are no definitively established acute or maintenance treatments for juvenile bipolar disorder. METHOD: Two randomized, blind, maintenance clinical trials in children and adolescents with bipolar disorders are ongoing at the University Hospitals of Cleveland/Case Western Reserve University Stanley Clinical Research Center for bipolar disorder. The first is comparing the safety and effectiveness of lithium carbonate (Li+) to divalproex sodium (VPA) for up to 76 weeks in youths with stabilized bipolar illness (type 1 or 2)...
September 2000: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Francesca Bagnato, Janine Good
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a chronic debilitating disorder. Selected antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are proposed as preventives for migraine. Clinical efficacy and side effects of these AEDs are discussed. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: The American Academy of Neurology and the American Society of Headache classify topiramate (TPM) and divalproex sodium (DVPX) as Level-A medications and recommend offering them to patients for migraine prophylaxis. Their mechanism(s) of actions remains not entirely known...
March 2016: Headache
Chia-Jui Tsai, Chin Cheng, Po-Han Chou, Ching-Heng Lin, Melvin G McInnis, Chia-Li Chang, Tsuo-Hung Lan
BACKGROUND: The suicide rate is high among bipolar disorder (BD) patients. Previous studies have focused on the anti-suicidal effect of long-term treatment with mood stabilizers but less on the immediate preventive effects of interventions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the short-term and immediate anti-suicidal effects of mood stabilizers on recent-onset BD patients. METHODS: The National Health Insurance Database (NHID) of Taiwan was used to perform a nationwide cohort observation study of suicide behaviors in bipolar disorder...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
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