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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457784/hiv-latency-is-reversed-by-acss2-driven-histone-crotonylation
#1
Guochun Jiang, Don Nguyen, Nancie M Archin, Steven A Yukl, Gema Méndez-Lagares, Yuyang Tang, Maher M Elsheikh, George R Thompson, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor, David M Margolis, Joseph K Wong, Satya Dandekar
Eradication of HIV-1 (HIV) is hindered by stable viral reservoirs. Viral latency is epigenetically regulated. While the effects of histone acetylation and methylation at the HIV long-terminal repeat (LTR) have been described, our knowledge of the proviral epigenetic landscape is incomplete. We report that a previously unrecognized epigenetic modification of the HIV LTR, histone crotonylation, is a regulator of HIV latency. Reactivation of latent HIV was achieved following the induction of histone crotonylation through increased expression of the crotonyl-CoA-producing enzyme acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457711/small-animal-models-for-evaluating-filovirus-countermeasures
#2
Logan Banadyga, Gary Wong, Xiangguo Qiu
The development of novel therapeutics and vaccines to treat or prevent disease caused by filoviruses, such as Ebola and Marburg viruses, depends on the availability of animal models that faithfully recapitulate clinical hallmarks of disease as it is observed in humans. In particular, small animal models (like mice and guinea pigs) are historically and frequently used for the primary evaluation of antiviral countermeasures, prior to testing in nonhuman primates, which represent the gold-standard filovirus animal model...
February 19, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457675/oocyte-activating-capacity-of-fresh-and-frozen-thawed-spermatids-in-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#3
Narumi Ogonuki, Hiroki Inoue, Shogo Matoba, Yoko Kakino Kurotaki, Hidetoshi Kassai, Yukiko Abe, Erika Sasaki, Atsu Aiba, Atsuo Ogura
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) represents a promising nonhuman primate model for the study of human diseases because of its small size, ease of handling, and availability of gene-modified animals. Here, we aimed to devise reproductive technology for marmoset spermatid injection using immature males for a possible rapid generational turnover. Spermatids at each step could be identified easily by their morphology under differential interference microscopy: thus, early round spermatids had a round nucleus with a few nucleolus-like structures and abundant cytoplasm, as in other mammals...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457637/rhesus-macaque-personality-dominance-behavior-and-health
#4
Lauren M Robinson, Kristine Coleman, John P Capitanio, Daniel H Gottlieb, Ian G Handel, Mark J Adams, Matthew C Leach, Natalie K Waran, Alexander Weiss
Previous studies of nonhuman primates have found relationships between health and individual differences in personality, behavior, and social status. However, despite knowing these factors are intercorrelated, many studies focus only on a single measure, for example, rank. Consequently, it is difficult to determine the degree to which these individual differences are independently associated with health. The present study sought to untangle the associations between health and these individual differences in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457464/assessment-of-dna-methylation-patterns-in-the-bone-and-cartilage-of-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-osteoarthritis
#5
Genevieve Housman, Lorena M Havill, Ellen E Quillen, Anthony G Comuzzie, Anne C Stone
Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) affects humans and several other animals. Thus, the mechanisms underlying this disorder, such as specific skeletal tissue DNA methylation patterns, may be evolutionary conserved. However, associations between methylation and OA have not been readily studied in nonhuman animals. Baboons serve as important models of disease and develop OA at rates similar to those in humans. Therefore, this study investigated the associations between methylation and OA in baboons to advance the evolutionary understanding of OA...
February 1, 2018: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456072/acute-illness-from-campylobacter-jejuni-may-require-high-doses-while-infection-occurs-at-low-doses
#6
Peter F M Teunis, Axel Bonačić Marinović, David R Tribble, Chad K Porter, Arno Swart
Data from a set of different studies on the infectivity and pathogenicity of Campylobacter jejuni were analyzed with a multilevel model, allowing for effects of host species (nonhuman primates and humans) and different strains of the pathogen. All challenge studies involved high doses of the pathogen, resulting in all exposed subjects to become infected. In only one study a dose response effect (increasing trend with dose) for infection was observed. High susceptibility to infection with C. jejuni was found in a joint analysis of outbreaks and challenge studies...
February 8, 2018: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456015/multi-antigenic-human-cytomegalovirus-mrna-vaccines-that-elicit-potent-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immunity
#7
Shinu John, Olga Yuzhakov, Angela Woods, Jessica Deterling, Kimberly Hassett, Christine A Shaw, Giuseppe Ciaramella
A cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine that is effective at preventing congenital infection and reducing CMV disease in transplant patients remains a high priority as no approved vaccines exist. While the precise correlates of protection are unknown, neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific T cells have been implicated in controlling infection. We demonstrate that the immunization of mice and nonhuman primates (NHPs) with lipid nanoparticles (LNP) encapsulating modified mRNA encoding CMV glycoproteins gB and pentameric complex (PC) elicit potent and durable neutralizing antibody titers...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450788/tool-use-in-goffin-s-cockatoos-shape-frame-matching
#8
Irene M Pepperberg
Nonhuman tool use is no longer questioned; the issues now are whether such use is mostly inflexible and innately specified or involves experience, innovation, adaptation, and cognitive planning, and how many species qualify. Habl and Auersperg (PLoS One, 12(11):e0186859, 2017) have shown that some Goffin's cockatoos (Cacatua goffiniana) respond in novel ways to a tool-use task that nonhuman primates and young children find somewhat challenging.
February 15, 2018: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447591/characterization-of-a-partial-body-irradiation-model-with-oral-cavity-shielding-in-non-human-primates
#9
Michael V Accardi, Oreola Donini, Adam Rumage, Alexis Ascah, Julius Haruna, Mylène Pouliot, Kim Bujold, Hai Haung, Wieslaw Wierzbicki, John Stamatopoulos, Houman Naraghi, Thomas Measey, Simon Authier
PURPOSE: Characterization of a novel partial body irradiation (PBI) shielding strategy in nonhuman primates (NHP; rhesus macaques), aimed at protecting the oral cavity, with respect to various gastrointestinal (GI-ARS) syndrome parameters as well as buccal ulceration development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NHPs were irradiated using a Cobalt-60 gamma source, in a single uniform dose, ranging from 9-13 Gy and delivered at 0.60-0.80 Gy min -1 . Animals were either partially shielded via oral cavity shielding (PBI OS ) or underwent total body irradiation (TBI)...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446201/transposable-elements-shape-the-human-proteome-landscape-via-formation-of-cis-acting-upstream-open-reading-frames
#10
Shohei Kitano, Hikaru Kurasawa, Yasunori Aizawa
Transposons are major drivers of mammalian genome evolution. To obtain new insights into the contribution of transposons to the regulation of protein translation, we here examined how transposons affected the genesis and function of upstream open reading frames (uORFs), which serve as cis-acting elements to regulate translation from annotated ORFs (anORFs) located downstream of the uORFs in eukaryotic mRNAs. Among 39,786 human uORFs, 3,992 had ATG trinucleotides of a transposon origin, termed "transposon-derived upstream ATGs" or TuATGs...
February 15, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444112/social-network-and-dominance-hierarchy-analyses-at-chimpanzee-sanctuary-northwest
#11
Jake A Funkhouser, Jessica A Mayhew, John B Mulcahy
Different aspects of sociality bear considerable weight on the individual- and group-level welfare of captive nonhuman primates. Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a useful tool for gaining a holistic understanding of the dynamic social relationships of captive primate groups. Gaining a greater understanding of captive chimpanzees through investigations of centrality, preferred and avoided relationships, dominance hierarchy, and social network diagrams can be useful in advising current management practices in sanctuaries and other captive settings...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441434/a-nonhuman-primate-pet-study-measurement-of-brain-pde4-occupancy-by-roflumilast-using-r-11-c-rolipram
#12
Akihiro Takano, Tolga Uz, Jesus Garcia-Segovia, Max Tsai, Gezim Lahu, Nahid Amini, Ryuji Nakao, Zhisheng Jia, Christer Halldin
PURPOSE: Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibition in the brain has been reported to improve cognitive function in animal models. Therefore, PDE4 inhibitors are one of key targets potential for drug development. Investigation of brain PDE4 occupancy would help to understand the effects of PDE4 inhibition to cognitive functions. Roflumilast is a selective phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitor used clinically for severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but the effects to the brain have not been well investigated...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437967/immunogenicity-of-nyvac-prime-protein-boost-hiv-1-envelope-vaccination-and-shiv-challenge-of-nonhuman-primates
#13
Kevin O Saunders, Sampa Santra, Robert Parks, Nicole L Yates, Laura L Sutherland, Richard M Scearce, Harikrishnan Balachandran, Todd Bradley, Derrick Goodman, Amanda Eaton, Sherry A Stanfield-Oakley, James Tartaglia, Sanjay Phogat, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Mariano Esteban, Carmen E Gomez, Beatriz Perdiguero, Bertram Jacobs, Karen Kibler, Bette Korber, David C Montefiori, Guido Ferrrari, Nathan Vandergrift, Hua-Xin Liao, Georgia D Tomaras, Barton F Haynes
A preventive HIV-1 vaccine is an essential part of the strategy to eradicate AIDS. A critical question is whether antibodies that do not neutralize primary isolate (tier 2) HIV-1 viruses can protect from infection. Here, we investigated the ability of an attenuated poxvirus vector (NYVAC) prime-envelope gp120 boost to elicit potentially protective antibody responses in a rhesus macaque model of mucosal simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection. NYVAC vector delivery of a group M consensus envelope, trivalent mosaic envelopes, or a natural clade B isolate B...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435770/visual-artificial-grammar-learning-by-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-exploring-the-role-of-grammar-complexity-and-sequence-length
#14
Lisa A Heimbauer, Christopher M Conway, Morten H Christiansen, Michael J Beran, Michael J Owren
Humans and nonhuman primates can learn about the organization of stimuli in the environment using implicit sequential pattern learning capabilities. However, most previous artificial grammar learning studies with nonhuman primates have involved relatively simple grammars and short input sequences. The goal in the current experiments was to assess the learning capabilities of monkeys on an artificial grammar-learning task that was more complex than most others previously used with nonhumans. Three experiments were conducted using a joystick-based, symmetrical-response serial reaction time task in which two monkeys were exposed to grammar-generated sequences at sequence lengths of four in Experiment 1, six in Experiment 2, and eight in Experiment 3...
February 12, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432794/different-macaque-models-of-cognitive-aging-exhibit-task-dependent-behavioral-disparities
#15
Alison E Comrie, Daniel T Gray, Anne C Smith, Carol A Barnes
Deficits in cognitive functions that rely on the integrity of the frontal and temporal lobes are characteristic of normative human aging. Due to similar aging phenotypes and homologous cortical organization between nonhuman primates and humans, several species of macaque monkeys are used as models to explore brain senescence. These macaque species are typically regarded as equivalent models of cognitive aging, yet no direct comparisons have been made to support this assumption. Here we used adult and aged rhesus and bonnet macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca radiata) to characterize the effect of age on acquisition and retention of information across delays in a battery of behavioral tasks that rely on prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe networks...
February 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432452/a-conserved-eph-family-receptor-binding-motif-on-the-gh-gl-complex-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-and-rhesus-monkey-rhadinovirus
#16
Anna K Großkopf, Armin Ensser, Frank Neipel, Doris Jungnickl, Sarah Schlagowski, Ronald C Desrosiers, Alexander S Hahn
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human oncogenic virus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma and two B-cell malignancies. The rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) is a virus of nonhuman primates that is closely related to KSHV. Eph family receptor tyrosine kinases (Ephs) are cellular receptors for the gH/gL glycoprotein complexes of both KSHV and RRV. Through sequence analysis and mutational screens, we identified conserved residues in the N-terminal domain of KSHV and RRV glycoprotein H that are critical for Eph-binding in vitro...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432157/flexible-usage-and-social-function-in-primate-vocalizations
#17
Dorothy L Cheney, Robert M Seyfarth
Vocalizations are a pervasive feature of nonhuman primate social life, yet we know surprisingly little about their function. We review studies supporting the hypothesis that many primate vocalizations function to facilitate social interactions by reducing uncertainty about the signaler's intentions and likely behavior. Such interactions help to establish and maintain the social bonds that increase reproductive success. Compared with humans, songbirds, and a few other mammals, primates have small vocal repertoires that show little acoustic modification during development...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431693/an-antigen-free-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-targeting-immunotherapy-to-bolster-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-nonhuman-primates
#18
Yuji Masuta, Takuya Yamamoto, Yayoi Natsume-Kitatani, Tomohiro Kanuma, Eiko Moriishi, Kouji Kobiyama, Kenji Mizuguchi, Yasuhiro Yasutomi, Ken J Ishii
The priming, boosting, and restoration of memory cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes by vaccination or immunotherapy in vivo is an area of active research. Particularly, nucleic acid-based compounds have attracted attention due to their ability to elicit strong Ag-specific CTL responses as a vaccine adjuvant. Nucleic acid-based compounds have been shown to act as anticancer monotherapeutic agents even without coadministration of cancer Ag(s); however, so far they have lacked efficacy in clinical trials. We recently developed a second-generation TLR9 agonist, a humanized CpG DNA (K3) complexed with schizophyllan (SPG), K3-SPG, a nonagonistic Dectin-1 ligand...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429613/self-control-in-chimpanzees-relates-to-general-intelligence
#19
Michael J Beran, William D Hopkins
For humans, there appears to be a clear link between general intelligence and self-control behavior, such as sustained delay of gratification [1-9]. Chimpanzees also delay gratification [10-12] and can be given tests of general intelligence (g) [13-15], but these two constructs have never been compared within the same sample of nonhuman animals. We presented 40 chimpanzees with the hybrid delay task (HDT) [16, 17], which measures inter-temporal choices and the capacity for sustained delay of gratification, and the primate cognitive test battery (PCTB), which measures g in chimpanzees [13-15]...
January 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429544/ebola-virus-localization-in-the-macaque-reproductive-tract-during-acute-ebola-virus-disease
#20
Donna L Perry, Louis M Huzella, John G Bernbaum, Michael R Holbrook, Peter B Jahrling, Katie R Hagen, Matthias J Schnell, Reed F Johnson
Sexual transmission of Ebola virus (EBOV) has been demonstrated more than a year after recovery from the acute phase of Ebola virus disease (EVD). The mechanisms underlying EBOV persistence and sexual transmission are not currently understood. Using the acute macaque model of EVD, we hypothesized EBOV would infect the reproductive tissues and sought to localize the infection in these tissues using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. In four female and eight male macaques that succumbed to EVD between 6 and 9 days after EBOV challenge, we demonstrate widespread EBOV infection of the interstitial tissues and endothelium in the ovary, uterus, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and prostate gland, with minimal associated tissue immune response or organ pathology...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
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