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Nonhuman primate

Mareike Cora Janiak
All living organisms need to consume nutrients to grow, survive, and reproduce, making the successful acquisition of food resources a powerful selective pressure. However, acquiring food is only part of the challenge. While all animals spend much of their daily activity budget hunting, searching for, or otherwise procuring food, a large part of what is involved in overall nutrition occurs once the meal has been swallowed. Most nutritional components are too complex for immediate use and must be broken down into simpler compounds, which can then be absorbed by the body...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
Clayton P Mosher, Prisca E Zimmerman, Andrew J Fuglevand, Katalin M Gothard
The majority of neurophysiological studies that have explored the role of the primate amygdala in the evaluation of social signals have relied on visual stimuli such as images of facial expressions. Vision, however, is not the only sensory modality that carries social signals. Both humans and nonhuman primates exchange emotionally meaningful social signals through touch. Indeed, social grooming in nonhuman primates and caressing touch in humans is critical for building lasting and reassuring social bonds. To determine the role of the amygdala in processing touch, we recorded the responses of single neurons in the macaque amygdala while we applied tactile stimuli to the face...
September 2016: ENeuro
Hiroshi Yamazaki
Research over the past 30 years has elucidated the roles of polymorphic human liver cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes associated with toxicological and/or pharmacological actions. Thalidomide exerts its various pharmacological and toxic actions in primates through multiple mechanisms, including nonspecific modification of many protein networks after bioactivation by autoinduced human P450 enzymes. To overcome species-differences between rodents, currently, nonhuman primates and/or mouse models with transplanted human hepatocytes are used...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Kristine Coleman, Nicola D Robertson, Gregory A Dissen, Martha D Neuringer, L Drew Martin, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher Kroenke, Damien Fair, Ansgar M Brambrink
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence correlates anesthetic exposure during early development with neuronal and glial injury and death, as well as behavioral and cognitive impairments, in young animals. Several, although not all, retrospective human studies of neurocognitive and behavioral disorders after childhood exposure to anesthesia suggest a similar association. Few studies have specifically investigated the effects of infant anesthesia exposure on subsequent neurobehavioral development...
October 5, 2016: Anesthesiology
Thomas Ebenhan, Isabel Schoeman, Daniel D Rossouw, Anne Grobler, Biljana Marjanovic-Painter, Judith Wagener, Hendrik G Kruger, Mike M Sathekge, Jan Rijn Zeevaart
PURPOSE: Radiopharmaceuticals containing the motive tripeptide arginyl-glycyl-asparatic acid (RGD) are known to target ανβ3 integrins during tumor angiogenesis. A more generic kit radiolabeling procedure accommodating Ga-68 from different generators was developed for NOTA-RGD and evaluated for its versatile use and safety in subsequent in vivo applications. The [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD kit was further verified for its expected biodistribution and pharmacokinetics in nonhuman primates and its clinical sensitivity to detect solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) in cancer patients...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Jennifer L Gori, Jason M Butler, Balvir Kunar, Michael G Poulos, Michael Ginsberg, Daniel J Nolan, Zachary K Norgaard, Jennifer E Adair, Shahin Rafii, Hans-Peter Kiem
: : Successful expansion of bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) would benefit many HSPC transplantation and gene therapy/editing applications. However, current expansion technologies have been limited by a loss of multipotency and self-renewal properties ex vivo. We hypothesized that an ex vivo vascular niche would provide prohematopoietic signals to expand HSPCs while maintaining multipotency and self-renewal. To test this hypothesis, BM autologous CD34(+) cells were expanded in endothelial cell (EC) coculture and transplanted in nonhuman primates...
October 14, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Nathan McDannold, Margaret Livingstone, Can Barış Top, Jonathan Sutton, Nick Todd, Natalia Vykhodtseva
This study investigated thermal ablation and skull-induced heating with a 230 kHz transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (TcMRgFUS) system in nonhuman primates. We evaluated real-time acoustic feedback and aimed to understand whether cavitation contributed to the heating and the lesion formation. In four macaques, we sonicated thalamic targets at acoustic powers of 34-560 W (896-7590 J). Tissue effects evaluated with MRI and histology were compared to MRI-based temperature and thermal dose measurements, acoustic emissions recorded during the experiments, and acoustic and thermal simulations...
October 14, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Renaud Massart, Matthew J Suderman, Zsofia Nemoda, Sheila Sutti, Angela M Ruggiero, Amanda M Dettmer, Stephen J Suomi, Moshe Szyf
The effects of social status on human health can be modeled in captive cohorts of nonhuman primates. This study shows that maternal social rank is associated with broad changes in DNA methylation in placentae of rhesus monkeys (N = 10). Differentially methylated genes between social ranks are enriched in signaling pathways playing major roles in placenta physiology. Moreover, the authors found significant overlaps with genes whose expression was previously associated with social rank in adult rhesus monkeys (Tung et al...
October 14, 2016: Child Development
Lin Wang, Ling Wang
Animal models are one of the most important tools in the study of human hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. They are particularly important in light of the major limitations of the cell culture system for HEV. Besides nonhuman primates, which are extremely valuable because of their susceptibility to HEV genotypes 1-4, animals like swine, rabbit, and chicken are also potential models for studies of pathogenesis, cross-species infection, and the molecular biology of HEV. Identification of the most useful animal model for human HEV infection studies is crucial to further investigations into this ubiquitous yet poorly understood virus...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yihua Zhou
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute self-limiting hepatitis in most cases and chronic infection in rare circumstances. It is believed to be noncytopathic, so immunologically mediated events should play important roles in its pathogenesis and infection outcomes. The anti-HEV antibody response was clarified when the major antigenic determinants on the ORF2 polypeptide were determined, which are located in its C-terminal portion. This subregion also forms the conformational neutralization epitopes. Robust anti-HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG responses usually develop 3-4 weeks after infection in experimentally infected nonhuman primates...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Rahul Krishnan, David Ko, Clarence E Foster, Wendy Liu, A M Smink, Bart de Haan, Paul De Vos, Jonathan R T Lakey
Transplantation of alginate-encapsulated islets has the potential to treat patients suffering from type I diabetes, a condition characterized by an autoimmune attack against insulin-secreting beta cells. However, there are multiple immunological challenges associated with this procedure, all of which must be adequately addressed prior to translation from trials in small animal and nonhuman primate models to human clinical trials. Principal threats to graft viability include immune-mediated destruction triggered by immunogenic alginate impurities, unfavorable polymer composition and surface characteristics, and release of membrane-permeable antigens, as well as damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by the encapsulated islets themselves...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Carrie E McCurdy, Simon Schenk, Byron Hetrick, Julie Houck, Brian G Drew, Spencer Kaye, Melanie Lashbrook, Bryan C Bergman, Diana L Takahashi, Tyler A Dean, Travis Nemkov, Ilya Gertsman, Kirk C Hansen, Andrew Philp, Andrea L Hevener, Adam J Chicco, Kjersti M Aagaard, Kevin L Grove, Jacob E Friedman
Maternal obesity is proposed to alter the programming of metabolic systems in the offspring, increasing the risk for developing metabolic diseases; however, the cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used a nonhuman primate model to examine the impact of a maternal Western-style diet (WSD) alone, or in combination with obesity (Ob/WSD), on fetal skeletal muscle metabolism studied in the early third trimester. We find that fetal muscle responds to Ob/WSD by upregulating fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial complex activity, and metabolic switches (CPT-1, PDK4) that promote lipid utilization over glucose oxidation...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
(no author information available yet)
Background Data from studies in nonhuman primates suggest that the triple monoclonal antibody cocktail ZMapp is a promising immune-based treatment for Ebola virus disease (EVD). Methods Beginning in March 2015, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial of ZMapp plus the current standard of care as compared with the current standard of care alone in patients with EVD that was diagnosed in West Africa by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay. Eligible patients of any age were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the current standard of care or the current standard of care plus three intravenous infusions of ZMapp (50 mg per kilogram of body weight, administered every third day)...
October 13, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Nicole Barbaro, Todd K Shackelford
Male-perpetrated female-directed violence (FDV) may be associated with greater sexual access to a female. Accordingly, FDV is expected to be associated with greater copulation frequency. Research on nonhuman primates affirms this hypothesis, but no previous research has investigated this relationship in humans (Homo sapiens). The current research tests the hypothesis that FDV is associated with in-pair copulation frequency and, thus, may function as a form of sexual coercion. It was predicted that men who perpetrate FDV will secure more in-pair copulations than men who do not perpetrate violence (Prediction 1a), and that average monthly rates of FDV would positively correlate with in-pair copulation frequency (Prediction 1b)...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Nicholas J Maness
Decades of research, including the 1996 Nobel Prize in Medicine, confirm the evolutionary and immunological importance of CD8 T lymphocytes (TCD8+) that target peptides bound by the highly variable major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins. However, their perceived importance has varied dramatically over the past decade. Regardless, there remains myriad reasons to consider the diversity of MHC-I alleles and the TCD8+ that target them as enormously important in infectious disease research. Thus, understanding these molecules in the best animal models of human disease could be a necessity for optimizing the translational potential of these models...
October 11, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Stephanie Musgrave, David Morgan, Elizabeth Lonsdorf, Roger Mundry, Crickette Sanz
Teaching is a form of high-fidelity social learning that promotes human cumulative culture. Although recently documented in several nonhuman animals, teaching is rare among primates. In this study, we show that wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the Goualougo Triangle teach tool skills by providing learners with termite fishing probes. Tool donors experienced significant reductions in tool use and feeding, while tool recipients significantly increased their tool use and feeding after tool transfers...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shady Kotb, Joao Piraquive, Franck Lamberton, François Lux, Michael Verset, Vanessa Di Cataldo, Hugues Contamin, Olivier Tillement, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas, Lucie Sancey
In this article, we report the safety evaluation of gadolinium-based nanoparticles in nonhuman primates (NHP) in the context of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in atherosclerosis bearing animals and healthy controls. In healthy NHP, the pharmacokinetics and toxicity profiles demonstrated the absence of dose, time, and sex-effects, as well as a suitable tolerance of intravenous administration of the nanoparticles. We investigated their imaging properties for arterial plaque imaging in a standard diet or a high cholesterol diet NHP, and compared their characteristics with clinically applied Gd-chelate...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jung Eun Park, Xian Feng Zhang, Sang-Ho Choi, Junko Okahara, Erika Sasaki, Afonso C Silva
Chronic monitoring of neuronal activity in the living brain with optical imaging techniques became feasible owing to the continued development of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs). Here we report for the first time the successful generation of transgenic marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), an important nonhuman primate model in neurophysiological research, which were engineered to express the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based family of GECIs, GCaMP, under control of either the CMV or the hSyn promoter...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jin Yong Kim, Ji-Seon Yoon, Bo Mi Kang, Hyein Yum, Hi-Jung Park, Doo-Wan Cho, Young-Su Yang, Su-Cheol Han, Wooseok Koh, Jae-Il Lee, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Kyu Han Kim, Ohsang Kwon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Zongmin Du, Xiaoyi Wang
Various types of animal models of plague have been developed, including mice, rats, guinea pigs, and nonhuman primates. Studies have indicated that rodent and nonhuman primate models of pneumonic plague closely resemble the human disease and that the pathologic changes that occur during bubonic plague are very similar in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. In this section, the pathological changes caused by Y. pestis in different animal models are described. The bacterium Y. pestis causes deadly plague, whereas the other two closely related enteropathogenic Yersinia species merely cause limited gastrointestinal manifestations...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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