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Nonhuman primate

Maya S Kummrow, Martin Brüne
  Despite the growing knowledge and literature on primate medicine, assessment and treatment of behavioral abnormalities in nonhuman primates (NHPs) is an underdeveloped field. There is ample evidence for similarity between humans and great apes, including basic neurologic physiology and emotional processes, and no substantial argument exists against a concept of continuity for abnormal conditions in NHPs that emerge in response to adverse experiences, akin to human psychopathology. NHPs have served as models for human psychopathologies for many decades, but the acquired knowledge has only hesitantly been applied to primates themselves...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Chitra D Mandyam, Sucharita S Somkuwar, Robert J Oliver, Yoshio Takashima
Addictive drugs effect the brain reward circuitry by altering functional plasticity of neurons governing the circuits. Relapse is an inherent problem in addicted subjects and is associated with neuroplasticity changes in several brain regions including the hippocampus. Recent studies have begun to determine the functional significance of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where new neurons in the granule cell layer are continuously generated to replace dying or diseased cells. One of the many negative consequences of chronic methamphetamine (METH) abuse and METH addiction in rodent and nonhuman primate models is a decrease in neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and reduced neurogenesis in the granule cell layer during METH exposure...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Andrea Marzi, Elaine Haddock, Masahiro Kajihara, Heinz Feldmann, Ayato Takada
Marburg virus (MARV), family Filoviridae, causes Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) in humans and nonhuman primates with case fatality rates of up to 90%. There is no approved therapeutic for MHF, yet several experimental approaches have been evaluated in preclinical studies including small interfering RNA and monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment. In this study we attempted to improve the therapeutic efficacy of the neutralizing mAb M4 by combining treatment with 1 or 2 of blocking but nonneutralizing mAbs 126-15 and 127-8...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Shunya Nakayama, Hiroshi Koie, Kiichi Kanayama, Yuko Katakai, Yasuyo Ito-Fujishiro, Tadashi Sankai, Yasuhiro Yasutomi, Naohide Ageyama
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has a tremendous impact on the quality of life of humans. While experimental animals are valuable to medical research as models of human diseases, cardiac systems differ widely across various animal species. Thus, we examined a CVD model in cynomolgus monkeys. Laboratory primates are precious resources, making it imperative that symptoms of diseases and disorders are detected as early as possible. Thus, in this study we comprehensively examined important indicators of CVD in cynomolgus monkeys, including arterial blood gas, complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry, and cardiac hormones...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Xinjian Jiang, Tenghai Long, Weicong Cao, Junru Li, Stanislas Dehaene, Liping Wang
Understanding and producing embedded sequences in language, music, or mathematics, is a central characteristic of our species. These domains are hypothesized to involve a human-specific competence for supra-regular grammars, which can generate embedded sequences that go beyond the regular sequences engendered by finite-state automata. However, is this capacity truly unique to humans? Using a production task, we show that macaque monkeys can be trained to produce time-symmetrical embedded spatial sequences whose formal description requires supra-regular grammars or, equivalently, a push-down stack automaton...
May 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Fiona Houston, Olivier Andréoletti
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is the only animal prion disease that has been demonstrated to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. The link between BSE and vCJD was established by careful surveillance, epidemiologic investigations, and experimental studies using in vivo and in vitro models of cross-species transmission. Similar approaches have been used to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion diseases, including atypical forms identified through active surveillance...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Scarlett R Howard, Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Jair E Garcia, Andrew D Greentree, Adrian G Dyer
Some vertebrates demonstrate complex numerosity concepts-including addition, sequential ordering of numbers, or even the concept of zero-but whether an insect can develop an understanding for such concepts remains unknown. We trained individual honey bees to the numerical concepts of "greater than" or "less than" using stimuli containing one to six elemental features. Bees could subsequently extrapolate the concept of less than to order zero numerosity at the lower end of the numerical continuum...
June 8, 2018: Science
Mark C Moffett, John H McDonough, Joseph D McMonagle, Todd M Myers
Oxime reactivators are critical antidotes after organophosphate pesticide or nerve agent poisoning, directly restoring the function of inhibited acetylcholinesterase. In the continuing search for more broad-spectrum acetylcholinesterase reactivators, this study evaluated one of the leading next-generation oxime reactivators: methoxime, (1,1'-trimethylene bis[4-(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium dichloride (MMB-4). The pharmacokinetics of both salts of MMB-4 (dichloride [2Cl] and dimethanesulphonate [DMS]) were characterized across a range of relevant doses (19, 58, and 116 µmol/kg, intramuscular) in a nonhuman primate model (male African green monkeys), and only subtle differences were observed between the salts...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Joshua Gertler, Savannah Tollefson, Rehima Jordan, Michael Himes, N Scott Mason, W Gordon Frankle, Rajesh Narendran
Studies in nonhuman primates and humans have demonstrated that amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the cortex can be measured with [11 C]FLB 457 and PET imaging. This technique has been successfully used in recent clinical studies to show decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and alcohol dependence. Here, we present data from a cohort of twelve healthy controls in whom an oral amphetamine challenge (0.5 mg kg-1 ) did not lead to a significant reduction in [11 C]FLB 457 BPND (i...
June 6, 2018: Synapse
Hannah M Atkins, Susan E Appt, Robert N Taylor, Yaritbel Torres-Mendoza, Emily E Lenk, Nancy S Rosenthal, David L Caudell
Endometriosis is characterized by endometrial tissue development outside the uterus. Anemia and iron depletion do notcommonly accompany endometriosis in women, despite chronic abdominal inflammation and heavy menstrual bleeding.The objective of this study was to examine iron kinetics associated with endometriosis by using a NHP model, to betterunderstand the underlying mechanism of abnormal hematogram values in women with endometriosis. Hematologic datafrom 46 macaques with endometriosis were examined for signs of iron depletion...
June 5, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Fuqiang Zhao, Marie A Holahan, Xiaohai Wang, Jason M Uslaner, Andrea K Houghton, Jeffrey L Evelhoch, Christopher T Winkelmann, Catherine D G Hines
Studies in rodents show that olfactory processing in the principal neurons of olfactory bulb (OB) and piriform cortex (PC) is controlled by local inhibitory interneurons, and glutamate NMDA receptor plays a role in this inhibitory control. It is not clear if findings from studies in rodents translate to olfactory processing in nonhuman primates (NHPs). In this study, the effect of the glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 on odorant-induced olfactory responses in the OB and PC of anesthetized NHPs (rhesus monkeys) was investigated by cerebral blood volume (CBV) fMRI...
2018: PloS One
Adrienne E Swanstrom, Robert J Gorelick, Guoxin Wu, Bonnie Howell, Anitha Vijayagopalan, Rebecca Shoemaker, Kelli Oswald, Siddhartha A Datta, Brandon Keele, Gregory Del Prete, Elena Chertova, Julian Bess, Jeffrey Lifson
Although effective at suppressing viral replication, combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) does not represent definitive therapy of HIV infection due to persistence of replication-competent viral reservoirs. The advent of effective cART regimens for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected nonhuman primates (NHP) has enabled the development of relevant models for studying viral reservoirs and intervention strategies targeting them. Viral reservoir measurements are crucial for such studies, but are problematic...
June 5, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jonathan B Clayton, Andres Gomez, Katherine Amato, Dan Knights, Dominic A Travis, Ran Blekhman, Rob Knight, Steven Leigh, Rebecca Stumpf, Tiffany Wolf, Kenneth E Glander, Francis Cabana, Timothy J Johnson
The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to trillions of bacteria that play a substantial role in host metabolism and immunity. While progress has been made in understanding the role that microbial communities play in human health and disease, much less attention has been given to host-associated microbiomes in nonhuman primates (NHPs). Here we review past and current research exploring the gut microbiome of NHPs. First, we summarize methods for characterization of the NHP gut microbiome. Then we discuss variation in gut microbiome composition and function across different NHP taxa...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Daniel R Ram, Cordelia Manickam, Brady Hueber, Hannah L Itell, Sallie R Permar, Valerie Varner, R Keith Reeves
Natural killer (NK) cells classically typify the nonspecific effector arm of the innate immune system, but have recently been shown to possess memory-like properties against multiple viral infections, most notably CMV. Expression of the activating receptor NKG2C is elevated on human NK cells in response to infection with CMV as well as HIV, and may delineate cells with memory and memory-like functions. A better understanding of how NKG2C+ NK cells specifically respond to these pathogens could be significantly advanced using nonhuman primate (NHP) models but, to date, it has not been possible to distinguish NKG2C from its inhibitory counterpart, NKG2A, in NHP because of unfaithful antibody cross-reactivity...
May 31, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
N Schmid, J B Stöckl, F Flenkenthaler, K-G Dietrich, J U Schwarzer, F-M Köhn, C Drummer, T Fröhlich, G J Arnold, R Behr, A Mayerhofer
STUDY QUESTION: Are monkey testicular peritubular cells (MKTPCs) from the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) a suitable translational model for the study of human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: MKTPCs can be isolated and propagated in vitro, retain characteristic markers for testicular peritubular cells and their proteome strongly (correlation coefficient of 0.78) overlaps with the proteome of HTPCs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Smooth-muscle-like peritubular cells form the wall of seminiferous tubules, transport sperm, are immunologically active, secrete a plethora of factors and may contribute to the spermatogonial stem cell niche...
May 29, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Elena Bersacola, Joana Bessa, Amélia Frazão-Moreira, Dora Biro, Cláudia Sousa, Kimberley Jane Hockings
Background: West African landscapes are largely characterised by complex agroforest mosaics. Although the West African forests are considered a nonhuman primate hotspot, knowledge on the distribution of many species is often lacking and out-of-date. Considering the fast-changing nature of the landscapes in this region, up-to-date information on primate occurrence is urgently needed, particularly of taxa such as colobines, which may be more sensitive to habitat modification than others...
2018: PeerJ
Veronica Obregon-Perko, Vida L Hodara, Laura M Parodi, Luis D Giavedoni
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques is often characterized by high viremia and CD4 T cell depletion. By contrast, SIV infection in African nonhuman primate natural hosts is typically nonpathogenic despite active viral replication. Baboons are abundant in Africa and have a geographical distribution that overlaps with natural hosts, but they do not harbor SIVs. Previous work has demonstrated baboons are resistant to chronic SIV infection and/or disease in vivo but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
May 25, 2018: Cytokine
Yi-Zhong Gu, Katerina Vlasakova, Sean P Troth, Robert L Peiffer, Herve Tournade, Flavia R Pasello Dos Santos, Warren E Glaab, Frank D Sistare
Newer urinary protein kidney safety biomarkers can outperform the conventional kidney functional biomarkers blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) in rats. However, there is far less experience with the relative performance of these biomarkers in dogs and nonhuman primates. Here, we report urine protein biomarker performance in tenofovir-treated cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs. Tenofovir intravenous daily dosing in monkeys for 2 or 4 weeks at 30 mg/kg/day resulted in minimal to moderate tubular degeneration and regeneration, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate oral dosing in dogs for 10 days at 45 mg/kg/day resulted in mild to marked tubular degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
Rebecca L Walker
Philosophical approaches to animal research have typically asked whether nonhuman animals have rights that would prohibit such research or whether the benefit of such research on the whole balances out the harms to animals. The professional ethics approach instead promotes compliance with regulatory norms that aim to support science progress. In Voracious Science and Vulnerable Animals: A Primate Scientist's Ethical Journey (2016), John Gluck struggles with issues that relate to each of these ethical frameworks, but the notion of an ethical "journey" also raises questions of character that are underdeveloped in animal research ethics...
2018: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Alan F Zahorchak, Angelica Perez-Gutierrez, Mohamed B Ezzelarab, Angus W Thomson
Putative monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (mMDSC; lineage- HLA-DR-/lo ) were generated in 7-day cultures from normal rhesus macaque bone marrow (BM) cells in GM-CSF and IL-6. Three subsets were identified based on their differential expression of CD14, CD33, CD34 and CD11b. Following flow sorting, assessment of the capacity of these subsets to suppress anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation revealed that the most potent population was CD14hi CD33-/lo CD34lo CD11bhi . These BM-derived mMDSC markedly increased the incidence of CD4+ CD25+ CD127- Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in responder T cell populations...
April 27, 2018: Cellular Immunology
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