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Cancer system biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165794/leptomeningeal-metastasis-from-systemic-cancer-review-and-update-on-management
#1
REVIEW
Nancy Wang, Mia S Bertalan, Priscilla K Brastianos
Leptomeningeal metastasis is an uncommon and typically late complication of cancer with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Diagnosis is often challenging, with nonspecific presenting symptoms ranging from headache and confusion to focal neurologic deficits, such as cranial nerve palsies. Standard diagnostic evaluation involves a neurologic examination, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine with gadolinium, and cytologic evaluation of the cerebral spinal fluid. Therapy entails a multimodal approach focused on palliation with surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy, which may be administered systemically or directly into the cerebral spinal fluid...
November 22, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164365/organ-doses-and-lifetime-attributable-risk-evaluations-for-scoliosis-examinations-of-adolescent-patients-with-the-eos-imaging-system
#2
Marco Branchini, Antonella Del Vecchio, Carmen Rosaria Gigliotti, Alessandro Loria, Alberto Zerbi, Riccardo Calandrino
PURPOSE: The goal of this work is to evaluate organ doses and lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence and mortality in scoliosis examinations of adolescent patients performed with EOS imaging system, in order to optimize patient dose and protocols. METHODS: An anthropomorphic phantom of a normal patient, with thermoluminescent dosimeters in correspondence with the main organs at risk, was imaged with both EOS and computed radiography (CR). For each modality, effective dose was calculated from the measured organ doses...
November 21, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164177/a-systems-medicine-approach-translating-emerging-science-into-individualized-wellness
#3
REVIEW
J S Bland, D M Minich, B M Eck
In today's aging society, more people are living with lifestyle-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Numerous opinion-leader organizations recommend lifestyle medicine as the first-line approach in NCD prevention and treatment. However, there is a strong need for a personalized approach as "one-size-fits-all" public health recommendations have been insufficient in addressing the interindividual differences in the diverse populations. Advancement in systems biology and the "omics" technologies has allowed comprehensive analysis of how complex biological systems are impacted upon external perturbations (e...
2017: Advances in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163922/bright-and-sensitive-ratiometric-fluorescent-probe-enabling-endogenous-fa-imaging-and-mechanistic-exploration-of-indirect-oxidative-damage-due-to-fa-in-various-living-systems
#4
Kun Dou, Guang Chen, Fabiao Yu, Yuxia Liu, Lingxin Chen, Ziping Cao, Tao Chen, Yulin Li, Jinmao You
As a notorious toxin, formaldehyde (FA) poses an immense threat to human health. Aberrantly elevated FA levels lead to serious pathologies, including organ damage, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Unfortunately, current techniques limit FA imaging to general comparative studies, instead of a mechanistic exploration of its biological role, and this is presumably due to the lack of robust molecular tools for reporting FA in living systems. More importantly, despite being reductive, FA, however, can induce oxidative damage to organisms, thus providing a challenge to the mechanistic study of FA using fluorescence imaging...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162974/nonmonotonic-pathway-gene-expression-analysis-reveals-oncogenic-role-of-p27-kip1-at-intermediate-dose
#5
Hien H Nguyen, Susan C Tilton, Christopher J Kemp, Mingzhou Song
The mechanistic basis by which the level of p27(Kip1) expression influences tumor aggressiveness and patient mortality remains unclear. To elucidate the competing tumor-suppressing and oncogenic effects of p27(Kip1) on gene expression in tumors, we analyzed the transcriptomes of squamous cell papilloma derived from Cdkn1b nullizygous, heterozygous, and wild-type mice. We developed a novel functional pathway analysis method capable of testing directional and nonmonotonic dose response. This analysis can reveal potential causal relationships that might have been missed by other nondirectional pathway analysis methods...
2017: Cancer Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162970/fice-in-predicting-colorectal-flat-lesion-histology
#6
Cevher Akarsu, Nuri A Sahbaz, Ahmet C Dural, Osman Kones, Sinan Binboga, Hamit A Kabuli, Alpen Y Gumusoglu, Halil Alis
Background and Objectives: Colonoscopy is the gold standard for detection of polyps and is preventive against colorectal cancers. Flat adenomas are small, superficial lesions and have a high rate of going undetected during conventional white-light endoscopy. This article adds to the scant body of literature in English regarding in vivo detection and diagnosis of flat adenomas using Fujinon intelligent color enhancement (FICE) system. In this study, we investigated the diagnosis of flat lesions via the FICE endoscopy system and in vivo histologic diagnostic estimations of flat lesions...
October 2017: JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161882/redox-active-quinones-chelators-as-possible-antitumor-drugs-properties-mechanisms-of-action-cells-delivery-and-cells-toxicity
#7
Nikolaj Polyakov, Tatyana Leshina, Lidiya Fedenok, Irina Slepneva, Igor A Kirilyuk, Justina Furso, Magdalena M Olchawa, Tadeusz Sarna, Martyna Elas, Itzhak Bilkis, Lev Weiner
SIGNIFICANCE: Chemotherapy is currently the principal method for treating many malignancies. Thus, development of improved antitumor drugs with enhanced efficacy and selectivity remains a high priority. Recent Advances: Anthracycline antibiotics (AAs), e.g., doxorubicin, daunomycin, and mitomycin C, are an important family of antitumor agents widely used in chemotherapy. All these compounds are quinones. They are thus capable of being reduced by appropriate chemicals or reductases. One of their important properties is that under aerobic conditions their reduced forms undergo oxidation, with concomitant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), i...
November 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161677/nanotechnology-based-recent-approaches-for-sensing-and-remediation-of-pesticides
#8
REVIEW
Deepak Rawtani, Nitasha Khatri, Sanjiv Tyagi, Gaurav Pandey
Pesticides are meant to control and destroy the pests and weeds. They are classified into different categories on the basis their origin and type of pest they target. Chemical pesticides such as insecticides, herbicides and fungicides are commonly used in agricultural fields. However, the excessive use of these agrochemicals have adverse effects on environment such as reduced population of insect pollinators, threat to endangered species and habitat of birds. Upon consumption; chemical pesticides also cause various health issues such as skin, eye and nervous system related problems and cancer upon prolonged exposure...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161245/cancer-systems-biology-harnessing-off-target-effects
#9
Gaye Saginc, Franziska Voellmy, Rune Linding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160420/next-generation-sequencing-based-genomic-profiling-fostering-innovation-in-cancer-care
#10
Gustavo S Fernandes, Daniel F Marques, Daniel M Girardi, Maria Ignez F Braghiroli, Renata A Coudry, Sibele I Meireles, Artur Katz, Paulo M Hoff
OBJECTIVES: With the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, DNA sequencing has been increasingly utilized in clinical practice. Our goal was to investigate the impact of genomic evaluation on treatment decisions for heavily pretreated patients with metastatic cancer. METHODS: We analyzed metastatic cancer patients from a single institution whose cancers had progressed after all available standard-of-care therapies and whose tumors underwent next-generation sequencing analysis...
October 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159749/fullerenol-based-intracellular-delivery-of-methotrexate-a-water-soluble-nanoconjugate-for-enhanced-cytotoxicity-and-improved-pharmacokinetics
#11
Shradha Bahuguna, Manish Kumar, Gajanand Sharma, Rajendra Kumar, Bhupinder Singh, Kaisar Raza
Derivatization of fullerenes to polyhydroxylated fullerenes, i.e., fullerenols (FLU), dramatically decreases their toxicity and has been reported to enhance the solubility as well as cellular permeability. In this paper, we report synthesis of FLU as nanocarrier and subsequent chemical conjugation of Methotrexate (MTX) to FLU with a serum-stable and intracellularly hydrolysable ester bond between FLU and MTX. The conjugate was characterized for physiochemical attributes, micromeritics, drug-loading, and drug-release and evaluated for cancer cell-toxicity, cellular-uptake, hemocompatibility, protein binding, and pharmacokinetics...
November 20, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159146/lactobacillus-plantarum-induces-apoptosis-in-oral-cancer-kb-cells-through-upregulation-of-pten-and-downregulation-of-mapk-signalling-pathways
#12
Abbas Asoudeh-Fard, Abolfazl Barzegari, Alireza Dehnad, Sepideh Bastani, Asal Golchin, Yadollah Omidi
Introduction: The oral tumor is the sixth most prevalent type of cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Although chemotherapy and immunotherapy are the main strategies for the treatment of oral cancer, an emergence of inevitable resistance to these treatment modalities is the major drawback that causes recurrence of the disease. Nowadays, probiotics have been suggested as adjunctive and complementary treatment modalities for improving the impacts of chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents...
2017: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158875/a-gene-module-based-eqtl-analysis-prioritizing-disease-genes-and-pathways-in-kidney-cancer
#13
Mary Qu Yang, Dan Li, William Yang, Yifan Zhang, Jun Liu, Weida Tong
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common and most aggressive form of renal cell cancer (RCC). The incidence of RCC has increased steadily in recent years. The pathogenesis of renal cell cancer remains poorly understood. Many of the tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, and dysregulated pathways in ccRCC need to be revealed for improvement of the overall clinical outlook of the disease. Here, we developed a systems biology approach to prioritize the somatic mutated genes that lead to dysregulation of pathways in ccRCC...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158843/ph-responsive-aerobic-nanoparticles-for-effective-photodynamic-therapy
#14
Lingyue Shen, Yu Huang, Dong Chen, Feng Qiu, Chuan Ma, Xin Jin, Xinyuan Zhu, Guoyu Zhou, Zhiyuan Zhang
RATIONALE: Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an O2-dependent treatment for inhibition of cancer proliferation, suffers from the low therapeutic effect in clinical application due to the hypoxic microenvironment in tumor cells. METHODS: To overcome this obstacle, a stimuli-responsive drug delivery system with O2 self-sufficiency for effective PDT was developed. In this study, pH-responsive aerobic nanoparticles were prepared by the electrostatic interaction between the O2-evolving protein Catalase and Chitosan...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158600/crispr-cas9-library-screening-for-drug-target-discovery
#15
REVIEW
Morito Kurata, Kouhei Yamamoto, Branden S Moriarity, Masanobu Kitagawa, David A Largaespada
CRISPR/Cas9-based tools have rapidly developed in recent years. These include CRISPR-based gene activation (CRISPRa) or inhibition (CRISPRi), for which there are libraries. CRISPR libraries for loss of function have been widely used to identify new biological mechanisms, such as drug resistance and cell survival signals. CRISPRa is highly useful in screening for gain of functions, and CRISPRi is a more powerful tool than RNA interference (RNAi) libraries in screening for loss of functions. Positive selection using a CRISPR library can detect survival cells with specific conditions, such as drug treatment, and it can easily clarify drug resistance mechanisms...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158316/role-for-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-tumour-microenvironment
#16
REVIEW
Ana O'Loghlen
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small-membrane vesicles secreted by most cells types with the role to provide intercellular communication both locally and systemically. The transfer of their content between cells, which includes nucleic acids, proteins and lipids, confers the means for these interactions and induces significant cellular behaviour changes in the receiving cell. EVs are implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological and pathological processes, including development and neurological and cardiovascular diseases...
January 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157555/-systemic-therapy-for-advanced-endometrial-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Patricia Pautier, Fanny Pommeret
Endometrial cancer has generally a good prognosis when diagnosed at an early stage, but remains incurable at an advanced stage (recurrent or metastatic) with only few therapeutic options. Hormonal therapy is the treatment of choice in case of slow progressive disease with a tumor expressing hormonal receptors due to its favorable safety profile. Taxanes, anthracyclines and platinum compounds are the most active chemotherapy agents with greater response rates when combined, though at the price of a significant toxicity...
November 17, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157458/robust-breast-cancer-prediction-system-based-on-rough-set-theory-at-national-cancer-institute-of-egypt
#18
Saeed Khodary M Hamouda, Mohammed E Wahed, Reda H Abo Alez, Khaled Riad
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the major death causing diseases of the women in the world. Every year more than million women are diagnosed with breast cancer more than half of them will die because of inaccuracies and delays in diagnosis of the disease. High accuracy in cancer prediction is important to improve the treatment quality and the survivability rate of patients. OBJECTIVES: In this paper, we are going to propose a new and robust breast cancer prediction and diagnosis system based on the Rough Set (RS)...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157446/dynamic-visualization-of-multi-level-molecular-data-the-director-package-in-r
#19
Katherine Icay, Chengyu Liu, Sampsa Hautaniemi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: High-throughput measurement technologies have triggered a rise in large-scale cancer studies containing multiple levels of molecular data. While there are a number of efficient methods to analyze individual data types, there are far less that enhance data interpretation after analysis. We present the R package Director, a dynamic visualization approach to linking and interrogating multiple levels of molecular data after analysis for clinically meaningful, actionable insights...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156899/modulating-the-endocannabinoid-pathway-as-treatment-for-peripheral-neuropathic-pain-a-selected-review-of-preclinical-studies
#20
Shannon O'Hearn, Patrick Diaz, Bo Angela Wan, Carlo DeAngelis, Nicholas Lao, Leila Malek, Edward Chow, Alexia Blake
Chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain is a distressing and commonly occurring side effect of many commonly used chemotherapeutic agents, which in some cases may prevent cancer patients from being able to complete their treatment. Cannabinoid based therapies have the potential to manage or even prevent pain associated with this syndrome. Pre-clinical animal studies that investigate the modulation of the endocannabinoid system (endogenous cannabinoid pathway) are being conducted to better understand the mechanisms behind this phenomenon...
August 31, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
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