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Cancer system biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324506/induction-of-site-specific-oxidative-damage-at-telomeres-by-killerred-fused-shelretin-proteins
#1
Rong Tan, Li Lan
Chronic oxidative stress is the major endogenous metabolic stress and contributes directly to telomere shortening and senescence. Understanding the dysfunction of telomeres under oxidative stress will greatly facilitate healthy aging and advance the treatment of aging-related diseases. Here, we describe the KR-TEL (KillerRed induced DNA damage at telomeres) system that induces site-specific oxidative damage at telomeres. We have developed the KR-TEL system by fusing killerred with the shelterin component TRF1 (KR-TRF1) or other shelterin proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318556/natural-killer-cells-in-placentation-and-cancer-implications-for-hypertension-during-pregnancy
#2
Heather Yvonne Small, Denise C Cornelius, Tomasz J Guzik, Christian Delles
Hypertension during pregnancy is the most common medical condition encountered during gestation. Despite this, knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the disease and the development of new therapies are limited. Hypertension during pregnancy and some forms of cancer confer an increased risk to the development of cardiovascular disease later in life; one mechanism which may link these conditions is the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells. Whilst immunology and immunotherapy are well-developed areas in oncology; the complex mechanisms of the immune system in health and disease at the maternal-fetal interface are less well-defined...
March 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318170/-application-of-saliva-in-disease-diagnosis
#3
Cheng Xingqun, Zhou Xuedong, Xu Xin
Saliva is secreted by salivary glands and performs a variety of functions, including mouth cleaning and protection, antibacterial activity, and digestion. With the rapid progress in salivaomics, saliva became recognized as a potential pool of biological markers. Being a non-invasive and safe source, saliva is a potential substitute for blood in diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. This review summarizes the latest advancement in saliva-related studies and presents the potential value of saliva in early diagnosis of oral diseases, such as dental caries, periodontal disease, cancer, diabetes, and other systemic disorders...
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317586/strategies-to-improve-local-control-of-resected-pancreas-adenocarcinoma
#4
Paul H Sugarbaker
BACKGROUND: Only approximately one in ten pancreas cancer patients is a candidate for potentially curative resection of this disease. Even this small fraction of patients has a poor prognosis following pancreatico-duodenectomy. The disease has an anatomic location that makes it difficult for the surgeon to maintain adequate margins of resection and prevent tumor spillage at the time of resection. Also, the disease is biologically aggressive and even with a complete visible resection of the disease, micrometastases are likely to remain behind...
March 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315359/antibodies-and-associates-partners-in-targeted-drug-delivery
#5
REVIEW
Patrick J Kennedy, Carla Oliveira, Pedro L Granja, Bruno Sarmento
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are well established in the clinic due to their specificity and affinity to a diverse array of biochemical targets. More recently, mAbs are being exploited as targeting agents in modern drug delivery systems, aiming to bypass normal host tissue and to accumulate a therapeutic agent to a specific tissue or cell for enhanced pharmacology. At sizes ranging from ~10-100nm, antibody-based bioconjugates have opened up a whole new realm of clinical possibilities with several platforms emerging on the market...
March 14, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315203/adc-histogram-analysis-of-cervical-cancer-aids-detecting-lymphatic-metastases-a-preliminary-study
#6
Stefan Schob, Hans Jonas Meyer, Nikolaos Pazaitis, Dominik Schramm, Kristina Bremicker, Marc Exner, Anne Kathrin Höhn, Nikita Garnov, Alexey Surov
PURPOSE: Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis has been used to some extent in cervical cancer (CC) to distinguish between low-grade and high-grade tumors. Although this differentiation is undoubtedly helpful, it would be even more crucial in the presurgical setting to determine whether a tumor already gained the potential to metastasize via the lymphatic system. So far, no studies investigated the potential of 3T ADC histogram analysis in CC to differentiate between nodal-positive and nodal-negative entities...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314689/dna-methylation-based-classification-and-grading-system-for-meningioma-a-multicentre-retrospective-analysis
#7
Felix Sahm, Daniel Schrimpf, Damian Stichel, David T W Jones, Thomas Hielscher, Sebastian Schefzyk, Konstantin Okonechnikov, Christian Koelsche, David E Reuss, David Capper, Dominik Sturm, Hans-Georg Wirsching, Anna Sophie Berghoff, Peter Baumgarten, Annekathrin Kratz, Kristin Huang, Annika K Wefers, Volker Hovestadt, Martin Sill, Hayley P Ellis, Kathreena M Kurian, Ali Fuat Okuducu, Christine Jungk, Katharina Drueschler, Matthias Schick, Melanie Bewerunge-Hudler, Christian Mawrin, Marcel Seiz-Rosenhagen, Ralf Ketter, Matthias Simon, Manfred Westphal, Katrin Lamszus, Albert Becker, Arend Koch, Jens Schittenhelm, Elisabeth J Rushing, V Peter Collins, Stefanie Brehmer, Lukas Chavez, Michael Platten, Daniel Hänggi, Andreas Unterberg, Werner Paulus, Wolfgang Wick, Stefan M Pfister, Michel Mittelbronn, Matthias Preusser, Christel Herold-Mende, Michael Weller, Andreas von Deimling
BACKGROUND: The WHO classification of brain tumours describes 15 subtypes of meningioma. Nine of these subtypes are allotted to WHO grade I, and three each to grade II and grade III. Grading is based solely on histology, with an absence of molecular markers. Although the existing classification and grading approach is of prognostic value, it harbours shortcomings such as ill-defined parameters for subtypes and grading criteria prone to arbitrary judgment. In this study, we aimed for a comprehensive characterisation of the entire molecular genetic landscape of meningioma to identify biologically and clinically relevant subgroups...
March 14, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304347/plausible-roles-for-rage-in-conditions-exacerbated-by-direct-and-indirect-secondhand-smoke-exposure
#8
REVIEW
Joshua B Lewis, Kelsey M Hirschi, Juan A Arroyo, Benjamin T Bikman, David L Kooyman, Paul R Reynolds
Approximately 1 billion people smoke worldwide, and the burden placed on society by primary and secondhand smokers is expected to increase. Smoking is the leading risk factor for myriad health complications stemming from diverse pathogenic programs. First- and second-hand cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents, including several carcinogens and cytotoxic chemicals that orchestrate chronic inflammatory responses and destructive remodeling events. In the current review, we outline details related to compromised pulmonary and systemic conditions related to smoke exposure...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302015/multicolorful-carbon-dots-for-tumor-theranostics
#9
Haitao Wang, Jingran Bi, Beiwei Zhu, Mingqian Tan
Cancer is a great threat of human health worldwide due to the uncontrollable spread of malignant cells throughout the body. Accurate diagnosis and targeted therapy approaches are critical factors for cancer treatment. Carbon dots are a novel class of small fluorescence carbon nanostructures with size less than 10 nm at least in one dimension, which exhibit excellent optical properties, larger surface area to volume ratio and low toxicity. The unique properties of carbon dots make it as an ideal carrier for incorporation of cancer targeting moieties, bio-imaging agents and antineoplastic agents in one delivery system...
March 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301871/a-unified-model-of-the-hierarchical-and-stochastic-theories-of-gastric-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Yanjing Song, Yao Wang, Chuan Tong, Hongqing Xi, Xudong Zhao, Yi Wang, Lin Chen
Gastric cancer (GC) is a life-threatening disease worldwide. Despite remarkable advances in treatments for GC, it is still fatal to many patients due to cancer progression, recurrence and metastasis. Regarding the development of novel therapeutic techniques, many studies have focused on the biological mechanisms that initiate tumours and cause treatment resistance. Tumours have traditionally been considered to result from somatic mutations, either via clonal evolution or through a stochastic model. However, emerging evidence has characterised tumours using a hierarchical organisational structure, with cancer stem cells (CSCs) at the apex...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300784/the-molecular-basis-of-toxins-interactions-with-intracellular-signaling-via-discrete-portals
#11
REVIEW
Adi Lahiani, Ephraim Yavin, Philip Lazarovici
An understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which microbial, plant or animal-secreted toxins exert their action provides the most important element for assessment of human health risks and opens new insights into therapies addressing a plethora of pathologies, ranging from neurological disorders to cancer, using toxinomimetic agents. Recently, molecular and cellular biology dissecting tools have provided a wealth of information on the action of these diverse toxins, yet, an integrated framework to explain their selective toxicity is still lacking...
March 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299927/supramolecular-hydrogels-based-on-dna-self-assembly
#12
Yu Shao, Haoyang Jia, Tianyang Cao, Dongsheng Liu
Extracellular matrix (ECM) provides essential supports three dimensionally to the cells in living organs, including mechanical support and signal, nutrition, oxygen, and waste transportation. Thus, using hydrogels to mimic its function has attracted much attention in recent years, especially in tissue engineering, cell biology, and drug screening. However, a hydrogel system that can merit all parameters of the natural ECM is still a challenge. In the past decade, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has arisen as an outstanding building material for the hydrogels, as it has unique properties compared to most synthetic or natural polymers, such as sequence designability, precise recognition, structural rigidity, and minimal toxicity...
March 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299687/a-mini-electrochemical-system-with-integrated-micropipet-tip-and-pencil-graphite-electrode-for-measuring-cytotoxicity
#13
Dong-Mei Wu, Xiao-Ling Guo, Qian Wang, Jin-Lian Li, Ji-Wen Cui, Shi Zhou, Su-E Hao
A novel mini-electrochemical system has been developed for evaluating cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs based on trace cell samples. The mini-electrochemical system was integrated by using pencil graphite modified with threonine as working electrode, an Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a micropipet tip as electrochemical cell. The mini-electrochemical system dramatically reduces sample volumes from 500 μL in a traditional electrochemical system to 10 μL, and exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of purine from MCF-7 cells due to increased sensitivity provided by threonine...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298557/chemical-approaches-to-targeted-protein-degradation-through-modulation-of-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-pathway
#14
REVIEW
Ian Collins, Hannah Wang, John J Caldwell, Raj Chopra
Manipulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to achieve targeted degradation of proteins within cells using chemical tools and drugs has the potential to transform pharmacological and therapeutic approaches in cancer and other diseases. An increased understanding of the molecular mechanism of thalidomide and its analogues following their clinical use has unlocked small-molecule modulation of the substrate specificity of the E3 ligase cereblon (CRBN), which in turn has resulted in the advancement of new immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) into the clinic...
March 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298082/a-reliable-fret-probe-based-on-structure-switching-dna-for-ratiometric-sensing-of-telomerase-in-living-cells
#15
Xue-Jiao Yang, Kai Zhang, Tingting Zhang, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
In situ detection and monitoring of telomerase is of great importance as it is a relatively specific cancer target. However, the complexity of biological system makes it difficult for the nanoprobe to keep absolutely stable and low background in living cells. This study designs a probe termed FRET nanoflares to achieve ratiometric fluorescent detection of intracellular telomerase with higher specificity, which can effectively resist the disturbance from DNase I and GSH, etc. The probe is composed of a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) which is functioned with telomerase primer sequences (TS) and flares fluorescently labeled donors and acceptors at two terminals...
March 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297627/clinical-and-technical-aspects-of-genomic-diagnostics-for-precision-oncology
#16
Yuri Sheikine, Frank C Kuo, Neal I Lindeman
The emergence of precision medicine has been predicated on significant recent advances in diagnostic technology, particularly the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS). Although the chemical technology underlying NGS is complex, and the computational biology expertise required to build systems to facilely interpret the results is highly specialized, the variables involved in designing and deploying a genomic testing program for cancer can be readily understood and applied by understanding several basic considerations...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297567/developing-a-novel-two-dimensional-culture-system-to-enrich-human-prostate-luminal-progenitors-that-can-function-as-a-cell-of-origin-for-prostate-cancer
#17
Dingxiao Zhang, Kevin Lin, Yue Lu, Kiera Rycaj, Yi Zhong, Hsueh-Ping Chao, Tammy Calhoun-Davis, Jianjun Shen, Dean G Tang
Elucidating the cell of origin of cancer has great significance in stratifying patients into appropriate treatment groups and for developing novel targeted therapies. Early studies demonstrate that only stem-like basal cells in the normal human prostate (NHP) can function as the cell of origin for prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we show that the organoids derived from bulk NHP luminal cells can also be tumorigenically transformed. We further show that the WIT medium, which is used to culture human mammary epithelial progenitor cells, when combined with the ROCK inhibitor, can readily propagate a population of progenitor-like cells from the primary NHP luminal cell isolates...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296891/englerin-a-induces-an-acute-inflammatory-response-and-reveals-lipid-metabolism-and-er-stress-as-targetable-vulnerabilities-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#18
Ayse Batova, Diego Altomare, Kim E Creek, Robert K Naviaux, Lin Wang, Kefeng Li, Erica Green, Richard Williams, Jane C Naviaux, Mitchell Diccianni, Alice L Yu
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is among the top ten most common forms of cancer and is the most common malignancy of the kidney. Clear cell renal carcinoma (cc-RCC), the most common type of RCC, is one of the most refractory cancers with an incidence that is on the rise. Screening of plant extracts in search of new anti-cancer agents resulted in the discovery of englerin A, a guaiane sesquiterpene with potent cytotoxicity against renal cancer cells and a small subset of other cancer cells. Though a few cellular targets have been identified for englerin A, it is still not clear what mechanisms account for the cytotoxicity of englerin A in RCC, which occurs at concentrations well below those used to engage the targets previously identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295365/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-isogenic-cell-line-models-and-primary-cancers-links-cic-loss-to-activation-of-the-mapk-signalling-cascade
#19
Veronique G LeBlanc, Marlo Firme, Jungeun Song, Susanna Y Chan, Min Hye Lee, Stephen Yip, Suganthi Chittaranjan, Marco A Marra
CIC encodes a transcriptional repressor whose disrupted activity appears to be involved in several cancer types, including Type I low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and stomach adenocarcinomas (STADs). To explore human CIC's transcriptional network in an isogenic background, we developed novel isogenic CIC knockout cell lines as model systems and used these in transcriptome analyses to study the consequences of CIC loss. We also compared our results to analyses of transcriptome data from TCGA for Type I LGGs and STADs...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294555/promise-and-peril-in-nanomedicine-the-challenges-and-needs-for-integrated-systems-biology-approaches-to-define-health-risk
#20
REVIEW
Sabina Halappanavar, Ulla Vogel, Hakan Wallin, Carole L Yauk
In the 1966s visionary film 'Fantastic Voyage' a submarine crew was shrunk to 100 nm in size and injected into the body of an injured scientist to repair his damaged brain. The movie (written by Harry Kleiner; directed by Richard Fleischer; novel by Isaac Asimov) drew attention to the potential power of engineered nanoscale structures and devices to construct, monitor, control, treat, and repair individual cells. Even more interesting was the fact that the film elegantly noted that the structure had to be miniaturized to a size that is not detected by the body's immune surveillance system, and highlighted the many physiological barriers that are encountered on the submarine's long journey to the target...
March 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
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