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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437708/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention-of-human-papillomavirus-driven-head-and-neck-cancers
#1
REVIEW
Haïtham Mirghani, Alain C Jung, Carole Fakhry
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs) represent an increasing proportion of head and neck cancers that could become, in the next few decades, a public health problem in certain western countries. This significant epidemiological change strongly calls for preventive measures. Prophylactic HPV vaccination and screening programmes for early identification and treatment of premalignant lesions are currently being used to reduce the incidence of uterine cervical cancer, which is the paradigm of HPV-driven malignancy...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400857/estimation-of-the-overall-burden-of-cancers-precancerous-lesions-and-genital-warts-attributable-to-9-valent-hpv-vaccine-types-in-women-and-men-in-europe
#2
Susanne Hartwig, Jean Lacau St Guily, Géraldine Dominiak-Felden, Laia Alemany, Silvia de Sanjosé
BACKGROUND: In addition to cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a significant proportion of cancers and precancerous lesions of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, head and neck, as well as genital warts. We estimated the annual number of new cases of these diseases attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types in women and men in Europe. METHODS: The annual number of new cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and selected head and neck sites in the population of the European Medicines Agency territory was estimated based on age-specific incidence rates extracted from Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents, Volume X and Eurostat population data for 2015...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389098/identification-and-characterization-of-enhancer-agonist-human-cytotoxic-t-cell-epitopes-of-the-human-papillomavirus-type-16-hpv16-e6-e7
#3
Kwong Y Tsang, Massimo Fantini, Romaine I Fernando, Claudia Palena, Justin M David, James W Hodge, Elizabeth S Gabitzsch, Frank R Jones, Jeffrey Schlom
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the etiology of cervical carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and several other cancer types. Vaccines directed against HPV virus-like particles and coat proteins have been extremely successful in the prevention of cervical cancer through the activation of host HPV-specific antibody responses; however, HPV-associated cancers remain a major public health problem. The development of a therapeutic vaccine will require the generation of T-cell responses directed against early HPV proteins (E6/E7) expressed in HPV-infected tumor cells...
April 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380359/quantitative-multiplex-immunohistochemistry-reveals-myeloid-inflamed-tumor-immune-complexity-associated-with-poor-prognosis
#4
Takahiro Tsujikawa, Sushil Kumar, Rohan N Borkar, Vahid Azimi, Guillaume Thibault, Young Hwan Chang, Ariel Balter, Rie Kawashima, Gina Choe, David Sauer, Edward El Rassi, Daniel R Clayburgh, Molly F Kulesz-Martin, Eric R Lutz, Lei Zheng, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Patrick Leyshock, Adam A Margolin, Motomi Mori, Joe W Gray, Paul W Flint, Lisa M Coussens
Here, we describe a multiplexed immunohistochemical platform with computational image processing workflows, including image cytometry, enabling simultaneous evaluation of 12 biomarkers in one formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue section. To validate this platform, we used tissue microarrays containing 38 archival head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and revealed differential immune profiles based on lymphoid and myeloid cell densities, correlating with human papilloma virus status and prognosis. Based on these results, we investigated 24 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas from patients who received neoadjuvant GVAX vaccination and revealed that response to therapy correlated with degree of mono-myelocytic cell density and percentages of CD8(+) T cells expressing T cell exhaustion markers...
April 4, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369882/worldwide-burden-of-cancer-attributable-to-hpv-by-site-country-and-hpv-type
#5
Catherine de Martel, Martyn Plummer, Jerome Vignat, Silvia Franceschi
HPV is the cause of almost all cervical cancer and is responsible for a substantial fraction of other anogenital cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. Understanding the HPV-attributable cancer burden can boost programs of HPV vaccination and HPV-based cervical screening. Attributable fractions (AF) and the relative contributions of different HPV types were derived from published studies reporting on the prevalence of transforming HPV infection in cancer tissue. Maps of age-standardized incidence rates of HPV-attributable cancers by country from GLOBOCAN 2012 data are shown separately for the cervix, other anogenital tract, and head and neck cancers...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334393/adjuvant-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-for-secondary-prevention-a-systematic-review
#6
Gregory R Dion, Stephanie Teng, Leslie R Boyd, Antonia Northam, Charlotte Mason-Apps, Dorice Vieira, Milan R Amin, Ryan C Branski
Importance: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for children and younger adults but not older adults or those with prior HPV exposure, leaving a large portion of the population at risk for HPV-mediated disease. Emerging data suggest a possible role for vaccination as an adjuvant treatment for individuals with HPV-related clinical disease. Objective: To systematically review the literature regarding HPV vaccination for secondary disease prevention after treatment of active clinical disease across disease sites to serve as a platform for the management of HPV-related disease of the head and neck...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322122/a-survey-of-wisconsin-pediatricians-knowledge-and-practices-regarding-the-human-papillomavirus-vaccine
#7
Marc R Rohrbach, Aaron M Wieland
Objective The human papillomavirus (HPV) is common and carries a significant burden of disease. This is increasingly apparent in males with the rising incidence of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. Unfortunately, vaccination rates remain poor and are lowest in males. It is unclear if pediatricians are aware of the alarming rise of HPV-mediated head and neck cancers and the disproportionate effect on males. Study Design This investigation used a cross-sectional descriptive survey research design. Setting The survey was developed by investigators in the University of Wisconsin Division of Otolaryngology...
March 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295222/traf3-cyld-mutations-identify-a-distinct-subset-of-human-papilloma-virus-associated-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Michael Hajek, Andrew Sewell, Susan Kaech, Barbara Burtness, Wendell G Yarbrough, Natalia Issaeva
BACKGROUND: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated (HPV-positive) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the oropharynx has dramatically increased over the last decade and continues to rise. Newly diagnosed HPV-positive HNSCCs in the United States currently outnumber any other HPV-associated cancers, including cervical cancer. Despite introduction of the HPV vaccine, the epidemic of HPV-positive HNSCC is expected to continue for approximately 60 years. Compared with patients who have tobacco-associated HNSCC, those who have HPV-positive HNSCC have better overall survival and response to treatment...
March 13, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263449/ahns-series-do-you-know-your-guidelines-management-of-head-and-neck-cancer-in-the-era-of-human-papillomavirus-educating-our-patients-on-human-papillomavirus
#9
Theresa Guo, David Goldenberg, Carole Fakhry
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has changed the face of head and neck cancer over the past 2 decades. No longer is this solely a disease of older patients with a history of heavy tobacco and alcohol use. Patients with HPV-related head and neck cancers tend to be younger, healthier, and have an improved prognosis, compared with those with HPV-negative tumors. As more patients are diagnosed with HPV-related head and neck cancer, physicians have important topics to consider. These include prevalence, transmission, and natural history of HPV, the role of screening, vaccines, and HPV testing in head and neck cancer...
May 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228086/clinical-trials-with-oncolytic-measles-virus-current-status-and-future-prospects
#10
Pavlos Msaouel, Mateusz Opyrchal, Angela Dispenzieri, Kah Whye Peng, Mark J Federspiel, Stephen J Russell, Evanthia Galanis
Attenuated Edmonston lineage measles virus (MV-Edm) vaccine strains can preferentially infect and lyse a wide variety of cancer cells. Oncolytic MV-Edm derivatives genetically engineered to expressed the human carcinoembryonic antigen (MV-CEA virus) or the human sodium iodide symporter (MV-NIS virus) and are currently being tested in clinical trials against ovarian cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, multiple myeloma, mesothelioma, head and neck cancer, breast cancer and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors...
February 22, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215050/racial-disparities-in-preventable-risk-factors-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#11
Sunshine Dwojak, Neil Bhattacharyya
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To demonstrate racial differences in preventable risk behaviors/practices that contribute to head and neck cancer (HNCA). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of large national risk factor survey. METHODS: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2013 was analyzed. Demographic data were extracted, including age, sex, and race. Social habits considered risk factors for HNCA were also extracted, including alcohol consumption, smoking, and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination status...
May 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176136/human-papillomavirus-associated-cancers-of-the-head-and-neck-an-australian-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Marwah Abbas Hassan Aldalwg, Brian Brestovac
Human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), have become a serious global health problem. Despite decreases in HPV-negative HNSCCs, the prevalence of HPV-positive HNSCCs has significantly increased. HPV-positive cancers are associated with superior survival outcomes when compared to HPV-negative cancers, which appears likely to be associated with differences in the molecular pathogenesis of the two diseases. While therapies are still problematic, the current HPV vaccine programs hold a promise for the primary prevention of HPV-related HNSCCs and since Australia was the first to introduce a nationwide HPV vaccine program, it is in a unique position to observe the effects of the vaccine on HNSCCs...
February 7, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974927/development-of-new-immunotherapy-treatments-in-different-cancer-types
#13
REVIEW
D L Stanculeanu, Zob Daniela, A Lazescu, R Bunghez, R Anghel
Cancer immunotherapy involves the use of therapeutic modalities that determine a manipulation of the immune system by using immune agents such as cytokines, vaccines, cell therapies and humoral, transfection agents. Immunotherapy of cancer has to stimulate the host's anti-tumor response by increasing the effector cell number and the production of soluble mediators and decrease the host's suppressor mechanisms by inducing tumor killing environment and by modulating immune checkpoints. Immunotherapy seems to work better in more immunogenic tumors...
July 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932207/the-current-state-of-therapeutic-and-t-cell-based-vaccines-against-human-papillomaviruses
#14
REVIEW
Andrew Yang, Emily Farmer, John Lin, T-C Wu, Chien-Fu Hung
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be a necessary factor for many gynecologic malignancies and is also associated with a subset of head and neck malignancies. This knowledge has created the opportunity to control these HPV-associated cancers through vaccination. However, despite the availability of prophylactic HPV vaccines, HPV infections remain extremely common worldwide. In addition, while prophylactic HPV vaccines have been effective in preventing infection, they are ineffective at clearing pre-existing HPV infections...
March 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901642/a-generic-rna-pulsed-dc-based-approach-for-developing-therapeutic-intervention-against-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#15
Rajeev K Tyagi, Rajesh Parmar, Naisargee Patel
The recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma of head-and-neck cancers pathology showed unique symptoms and clinical characteristics. The complexity of pathology poses challenges for developing therapeutic interventional approaches against nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The conventional treatment regimens offer limited local control and survival, which, leads to adverse delayed complications. Our study present a generic monocyte derived dendritic cell (MoDC) vaccine strategy for NPC in which RNA is used as a source of tumor-associated antigens (TAAgs)...
April 3, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892990/zika-virus-what-the-otolaryngologist-should-know-a-review
#16
Demetri Arnaoutakis, Tapan Padhya
Importance: Initially discovered in 1947, Zika virus infection received little notoriety as a tropical disease until 2015 when an outbreak of microcephaly cases was reported in Brazil. Zika is a single-stranded RNA arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. The primary source of infection in humans stems from Aedes aegypti mosquito bites but can also occur through sexual, blood, and perinatal transmission. With expectations that 3 to 4 million people across the Americas will be infected over the next year, the World Health Organization has declared this event a Public Health Emergency of International Concern...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879558/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-selected-head-and-neck-infections-in-hospitalized-israeli-children
#17
Tal Marom, Shiran Bookstein Peretz, Orna Schwartz, Abraham Goldfarb, Yahav Oron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of pediatric head and neck infections (HNIs), for example, acute otitis media (AOM), acute mastoiditis, acute bacterial sinusitis and meningitis. The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of pneumococcal HNIs (pHNIs) before, during and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODS: Children 0-16 years of age, who were hospitalized with HNIs in the pediatrics department in a general hospital between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2014, were retrospectively identified...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869439/immunology-update-long-term-care-of-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#18
S Paul Starr
Nearly 31,000 US patients received solid organ transplants in 2015 and the number is increasing. Care of transplant recipients includes management of a variety of common posttransplantation issues. Skin cancers are common because of immunosuppression and require skin examinations at intervals. Patients should be educated about the need to report new skin lesions. The rates of other cancers also are increased, including cancers of the head and neck, lung, esophagus, cervix, and urinary tract. Osteoporosis is common in transplant recipients; monitoring and early therapy are important...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863623/tuberculous-lymphadenitis-of-the-head-and-neck-in-canadian-children-experience-from-a-low-burden-region
#19
Jason J Xu, Shazia Peer, Blake C Papsin, Ian Kitai, Evan J Propst
BACKGROUND: Children are more likely than adults to develop extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which often presents as cervical lymphadenopathy. The role of surgery in management is uncertain. We reviewed all head and neck EPTB cases presenting to our tertiary care pediatric institution over a twelve-year period. METHODS: All children 18 years of age and younger with EPTB involving the head and neck were included. We recorded clinical data and age at diagnosis, birth country, BCG vaccination status, as well as radiographic, surgical, histological, and microbiological results...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772624/human-papillomavirus-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#20
REVIEW
Peter V Chin-Hong
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common infection in kidney transplant recipients. HPV causes cervical, anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and head and neck cancers. Kidney transplant recipients have a disproportionate burden of disease given prolonged immunosuppression. Given the long pre-invasive state of precancer lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) most HPV-cancers are preventable with screening and targeted treatment of disease. Pre-transplant vaccination of age-eligible kidney transplant recipients is otherwise ideal...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
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