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hiv haematological manifestations

Hannah M Sebitloane, Dhayendre Moodley
HIV is the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in resource constrained countries. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) initiated in pregnancy has now almost eliminated mother to child transmission of the virus, and is beginning to show the desired effect of reducing HIV related maternal mortality. By modulating host immunological responses HAART has the potential to alter infections during pregnancy, in addition to modifying clinical conditions such as preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence of the benefits of HAART given to pregnant women, however there is paucity of data that distinguishes HIV or HAART as the cause or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions or conditions specific to pregnancy...
March 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Sarah A Schmalzle, Ulrike K Buchwald, Bruce L Gilliam, David J Riedel
Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic invasive fungal infection that is well described and easily recognised when it occurs as meningitis in HIV-infected persons. Malignancy and its treatment may also confer a higher risk of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, but this association has not been as well described. A case of cryptococcosis in a cancer patient is presented, and all cases of coincident C. neoformans infection and malignancy in adults published in the literature in English between 1970 and 2014 are reviewed...
September 2016: Mycoses
Prakash Vishnu, David M Aboulafia
Early in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, infected patients presented to medical attention with striking abnormalities in each of the major blood cell lineages. The reasons for these derangements remain complex and multifactorial. HIV infects multipotent haematopoietic progenitor cells and establish latent cellular reservoirs, disturbs the bone marrow microenvironment and also causes immune dysregulation. These events lead to cytokine imbalances and disruption of other factors required for normal haematopoiesis...
December 2015: British Journal of Haematology
Maria Saito-Benz, Helen Elizabeth Miller, Mary Judith Berry
A preterm neonate at 29-week gestational age was born with intrauterine growth restriction, severe pancytopaenia and gross skeletal dysplasia. Antenatal screening bloods, TORCH/parvovirus tests and karyotype were unremarkable. Postnatally, he had normal microarray comparative genomic hybridization and serum B12/folate levels, and human immunodeficiency virus and cytomegalovirus polymerase chain reaction and antoimmune screening were negative. Targeted gene testing for Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) revealed the pathognomic mutation (c...
December 2015: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Sisir Kumar Patra, Manoj Soren, Anjan Kumar Das, Srishtidhar Mangal
Non-hodgkin`s lymphoma (NHL) is the most common haematological malignancy which is seen in HIV infected patients. Among NHLs, immunoblastic lymphomas are most common and a majority of these are diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Multiple myeloma is a disease of the elderly. It is extremely rare below 30 years of age. On the other hand, in HIV infected individuals, the average age of presentation with plasma cell disorders is 33 years, which is far younger than the average age of presentation in general population...
January 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Neelima Tirumalasetti, P Prema Latha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Lymphadenopathy and haematological alterations are the earliest manifestations with other associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. Hence, there is a need for simple investigations like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for evaluation of HIV lymphadenopathy and a haemogram to interpret the haematological alterations. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytological patterns of lymph node lesions in HIV/AIDS patients, to compare with available clinico-pathological and haematological parameters to segregate lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation...
February 2014: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Larissa Tene, Claude T Tagny, Annick Mintya-Ndoumba, Victor N Fossi, Dora Mbanya
Bleeding disorders are haematological manifestations that are frequently observed during HIV infection. This study intends to describe the haemostatic trends in HIV-infected patients in Cameroon. This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at the haematology unit of the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital from March to June 2012. It included consenting HIV-positive patients, aged 18 years and above, naive to antiretroviral treatment or not. The coagulation profile was measured with Stago reagents (Stago Diagnostics, Asnières sur Seine, France) using a chronometric technique on a semi-automate (Stago Diagnostics)...
July 2014: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
S Fujiwara, Y Yokokawa, K Morino, K Hayasaka, M Kawabata, T Shimizu
In 1978, the first case of hepatitis E was identified as non-A, non-B hepatitis. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is believed to be one of the common causes of enterically transmitted acute hepatitis in developing countries and is rare in developed countries, except in patients with a history of travel. However, an increasing number of chronic HEV infection cases have recently been reported in developed countries. In these countries, immunosuppressed patients with HEV infection, such as organ transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or patients with haematological malignancies, could develop chronic hepatitis E (CHE) infection...
February 2014: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Muttineni Radhakrishna, Kharidehal Durga, Ravilla Kondal Rao, Doodipala Mallikarjuna Reddy, Anand Kumar Kondapi
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Survival pattern among children infected with the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) follows a bimodel distribution. Some children survive beyond 9 years age and are known as long term survivors (LTS) while others had a more rapid course to death during the first few years of life. In the LTS group of children, two sub-populations have emerged, the long term non-progressors (LTNP) who have remained asymptomatic over a period of years and those who have survived despite clinical and laboratory evidence of disease progression, the long term progressors (LTP)...
September 2013: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Bartholomew Okecuhukwu Ibeh, Olushola D Omodamiro, Urenna Ibeh, Josiah Bitrus Habu
BACKGROUND: Hematological and biochemical abnormalities are among the most common clinicopathological manifestations of HIV patients on ART. Consequently, the development and assessment of indigenous antiretroviral drugs with minimal abnormalities becomes a necessity. The objective of this investigation was to assess potential haematological and biochemical abnormalities that may be associated with the administration of Winniecure ART in HIV patients undergoing treatment in Nigeria. Fifty (50) confirmed HIV positive ART naïve patients aged 36 ± 10 were observed for haematological and biochemical responses for 12 weeks...
2013: Journal of Biomedical Science
M Rangaswamy, Prabhu, N M Nandini, G V Manjunath
Pancytopenia is defined by reduction of all the three formed elements of blood below the normal reference. It may be a manifestation of a wide variety of disorders, which primarily or secondarily affect the bone marrow. Haematological investigation forms the bedrock in the management of patients with pancytopenia and therefore needs detailed study. The total number of cases studied were 100 over a period of two years in the department of pathology, JSS Hospital, Mysore. Megaloblastic anaemia (33%) was the commonest cause of pancytopenia...
August 2012: Journal of the Indian Medical Association
G Pugnet, C Pagnoux, H Bézanahary, K H Ly, E Vidal, L Guillevin
Progressive multifocal encephalopathy (PML) is a rare demyelinating disorder targeting the central nervous system and resulting from JC virus reactivation. PML occurs in patients immunocompromised because of haematological malignancies, HIV infection or treatment with cytotoxic drugs. Herein, we describe PML occurring in 2 granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener) patients treated with steroids and cyclophosphamide. The outcome was progressively favourable after immunosuppressant discontinuation for 1 patient and fatal for the other...
January 2013: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Elisaphane Munyazesa, Ivan Emile, Eugene Mutimura, Donald R Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Aileen P McGinn, Stephenson Musiime, Fred Muhairwe, Alfred Rutagengwa, Jean Claude Dusingize, Kathryn Anastos
OBJECTIVES: Although haematological abnormalities are common manifestations of HIV infection, few studies on haematological parameters in HIV-infected persons have been undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors assessed factors associated with haematological parameters in HIV-infected antiretroviral-naïve and HIV-uninfected Rwandan women. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal cohort. SETTING: Community-based women's associations...
2012: BMJ Open
Ss Parinitha, Mh Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with a wide range of haematological abnormalities. METHODS AND OBJECTIVES: The objectives in this study were to study haematological changes in HIV patients and to correlate them with CD4 cell counts. Two hundred and fifty HIV positive patients referred to the haematology laboratory section for complete haemogram in whom CD4 count was done were included in the study. Haematologic parameters and CD4 counts were studied in each of these patients...
2012: Australasian Medical Journal
Jessica Opie
South Africa is in the midst of the world's largest human immune deficiency virus (HIV) epidemic with an estimated 5.6 million people infected. Haematological manifestations of HIV are common and diverse, occurring at all stages of infection. Haematological emergencies occurring in this setting include the high-grade lymphomas, particularly Burkitt lymphoma, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), opportunistic infections and drug side-effects are also frequent causes of cytopenias...
June 2012: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Emilia Hardak, Ami Neuberger, Mordechai Yigla, Gidon Berger, Renato Finkelstein, Hannah Sprecher, Ilana Oren
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (PCP) in patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with high mortality. The diagnosis of PCP at our institution is based on detection of DNA using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations, outcomes and factors associated with mortality due to PCP, as diagnosed by PCR, in patients without HIV infection. METHODS: Over a 6-year period, all HIV-negative immunocompromised patients suspected of having an opportunistic pulmonary infection underwent diagnostic bronchoscopy...
May 2012: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Roos J Leguit, Jan G van den Tweel
An important indication for bone marrow investigation is the presence of bone marrow failure, which manifests itself as (pan)cytopenia. The causes of cytopenia are varied and differ considerably between childhood and adulthood. In the paediatric age group inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are important causes of bone marrow failure, but they play only a minor role in later life. This review gives a comprehensive overview of bone marrow failure disorders in children and adults. We classified the causes of bone marrow failure according to the main presenting haematological abnormality, i...
November 2010: Histopathology
Myles Connor
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes stroke through several mechanisms. Stroke results from opportunistic infection and neoplasia, HIV induced cardiac disease, HIV associated cerebral vasculopathy, and perhaps of HIV induced facilitation of some forms of systemic vasculitis and prothrombotic haematological conditions. HIV causes more ischaemic stroke than cerebral haemorrhage. Although stroke is currently a relatively infrequent manifestation of HIV infection, the incidence of stroke in HIV infected individuals is likely to increase with current combination antiretroviral therapy...
April 2010: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Richard D Pitcher, Elizabeth Goddard, Marc Hendricks, John Lawrenson
Respiratory infections are the commonest cause of pulmonary change on chest radiographs of HIV-infected children. However, HIV-related neurological, oropharyngeal, oesophageal, cardiac and haematological abnormalities may also manifest with pulmonary changes and must be considered in the interpretation of the chest radiograph in HIV-infected children.
June 2009: Pediatric Radiology
Cornelia Speth, Günter Rambach, Reinhard Würzner, Cornelia Lass-Flörl
Fungal infections are a serious complication in immunocompromised patients such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, patients with organ transplantations or with haematological neoplasia. The lethality of opportunistic fungal infection is high despite a growing arsenal of antimycotic drugs, implying the urgent need for supportive immunological therapies to strengthen the current inefficient antimicrobial defences of the immunocompromised host. Therefore, increasing effort has been directed to investigating the interplay between fungi and the host immunity and thus to find starting points for additional therapeutic approaches...
November 2008: Mycoses
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