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Corpus callosum development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092278/delayed-onset-central-pain-due-to-degeneration-of-ischemic-transcallosal-fibers-after-corpus-callosum-hemorrhage
#1
Sung Ho Jang, Chul Hoon Chang, Young Jin Jung, Han Do Lee
AIMS: A patient developed delayed-onset central pain due to degeneration of the spinothalamic tract resulting from degeneration of the ischemic transcallosal fibers, in the aftermath of a corpus callosum (CC) hemorrhage. The detection and diagnosis of these lesions using diffusion tensor tractography are described. METHODS: A 59-yr-old man underwent conservative management for hemorrhages in the CC and lateral ventricle that resulted from hitting his head against a wall while falling...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089768/sleep-problems-in-children-with-agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum
#2
David G Ingram, Shervin S Churchill
BACKGROUND: Very little is known about sleep habits in children with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate sleep problems in children with ACC and examine the association with quality of life. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional, anonymous, internet-based survey offered to parents of children with ACC, aged five to 18 years. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and pediatric quality of life (PedsQL) were used to assess sleep habits and quality of life, respectively...
October 8, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087836/neuropathological-consequences-of-gestational-exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-fine-and-ultrafine-particles-in-the-mouse
#3
Carolyn Klocke, Joshua L Allen, Marissa Sobolewski, Margot Mayer-Pröschel, Jason L Blum, Dana Lauterstein, Judith T Zelikoff, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Increasing evidence indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) is a target of air pollution. We previously reported that postnatal exposure of mice to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (UFP; ≤100nm) via the University of Rochester HUCAPS system during a critical developmental window of CNS development, equivalent to human 3(rd) trimester, produced male-predominant neuropathological and behavioral characteristics common to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in humans...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077718/integrin-linked-kinase-ilk-deletion-disrupts-oligodendrocyte-development-by-altering-cell-cycle
#4
Rashad Hussain, Wendy B Macklin
: During development, oligodendrocytes are initially specified, after which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) migrate and proliferate before differentiating into myelinating cells. Lineage-specific programming of oligodendrocytes results from sensing environmental cues through membrane-bound receptors and related intracellular signaling molecules. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an important protein that is expressed at the inner margins of the plasma membrane and can mediate some of these signals...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074379/neuroimaging-findings-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection-a-pictorial-essay
#5
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Andrea Poretti, Thierry A G M Huisman, Heron Werner, Elham Keshavarz, Edward Araujo Júnior
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It had caused several epidemics since its discovery in 1947, but there was no significant attention to this virus until the recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. The main concern is the causal relationship between prenatal ZIKV infection and congenital microcephaly, which has been confirmed recently. Moreover, ZIKV may cause other central nervous system abnormalities such as brain parenchymal atrophy with secondary ventriculomegaly, intracranial calcification, malformations of cortical development (such as polymicrogyria, and lissencephaly-pachygyria), agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia, sensorineural hearing-loss, and ocular abnormalities as well as arthrogryposis in the infected fetuses...
January 10, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069530/structural-changes-in-functionally-illiterate-adults-after-intensive-training
#6
Melanie Boltzmann, Bahram Mohammadi, Amir Samii, Thomas F Münte, Jascha Rüsseler
About 7.5million adults in Germany cannot read and write properly despite attending school for several years. They are considered to be functional illiterates. Since the ability to read and write is crucial for being employed and socially accepted, we developed a literacy training to overcome these deficits. In this study, we investigate the structural changes induced by the training. A group of 20 functional illiterates and 20 adult normal readers participated in the study. Group differences as well as intervention-related changes in gray (voxel-based morphometry, VBM) and white matter (Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, TBSS, applied to fractional anisotropy, FA, obtained with diffusion tensor imaging, DTI) were assessed in functional illiterates and normal reading controls...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068296/orientation-selective-deep-brain-stimulation
#7
Lauri J Lehto, Julia P Slopsema, Matthew D Johnson, Artem Shatillo, Benjamin A Teplitzky, Lynn Utecht, Gregor Adriany, Silvia Mangia, Alejandra Sierra, Walter C Low, Olli Gröhn, Shalom Michaeli
OBJECTIVE: Target selectivity of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is critical, as the precise locus and pattern of the stimulation dictates the degree to which desired treatment responses are achieved and adverse side effects are avoided. There is a clear clinical need to improve DBS technology beyond currently available stimulation steering and shaping approaches. We introduce orientation selective neural stimulation as a concept to increase the specificity of target selection in DBS...
February 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061362/developing-easy-to-perform-routine-mri-measurements-as-potential-surrogates-for-cognitive-impairment-in-ms
#8
Sarah A Morrow, Suresh Menon, Heather Rosehart, Manas Sharma
OBJECTIVES: One of the most frequently disabling symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is cognitive impairment which is often insidious in onset and therefore difficult to recognize in the early stages, for both persons with MS and clinicians. A biomarker that would help identify those at risk of cognitive impairment, or with only mild impairment, would be a useful tool for clinicians. Using MRI, already an integral tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity in MS, would be ideal...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046426/th-cd-206-06-regularized-composite-shape-prior-encoding-shape-relevance-in-variational-image-segmentation
#9
T Zhao, D Ruan
PURPOSE: Variational image segmentation incorporating regularized composite shape prior (RCSP) based on a shape dictionary has demonstrated benefits in robustness and accuracy. However, it still has the risk of local minimum in a non-convex optimization setting. This study aims to drive the variational segmentation towards global optimum by introducing hyper prior on the composite weights of RCSP, which encode the shape priors' relevance to the specific segmentation task. METHODS: In addition to using a RCSP to regularize the variational segmentation, where the RCSP is constructed by a linear combination of the shape dictionary, this study introduces a hyper prior on the linear weights of this shape composite...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013305/development-of-the-corpus-callosum-an-mri-study
#10
Robert C Vannucci, Todd F Barron, Susan J Vannucci
The size and shape of the corpus callosum and its major components (genu, body, and splenium) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 118 normocephalic individuals aged from 1 postnatal week to 18.7 years. Genu, body, splenial, and total corpus callosal areas increased by 40-100% during the first year of life (p < 0.05). The genu expanded to a greater extent than the splenium during the first 6 years, while the splenium expanded to a greater extent between 7 and 18 years. The age-related difference in the maximal expansion of these structures indicated an anterior to posterior wave of corpus callosal enlargement during maturation, probably the consequence of differential axonal myelination...
December 24, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009019/label-free-multi-scale-imaging-of-ex-vivo-mouse-brain-using-spatial-light-interference-microscopy
#11
Eunjung Min, Mikhail E Kandel, CheMyong J Ko, Gabriel Popescu, Woonggyu Jung, Catherine Best-Popescu
Brain connectivity spans over broad spatial scales, from nanometers to centimeters. In order to understand the brain at multi-scale, the neural network in wide-field has been visualized in detail by taking advantage of light microscopy. However, the process of staining or addition of fluorescent tags is commonly required, and the image contrast is insufficient for delineation of cytoarchitecture. To overcome this barrier, we use spatial light interference microscopy to investigate brain structure with high-resolution, sub-nanometer pathlength sensitivity without the use of exogenous contrast agents...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001323/prenatal-transplantation-of-epidermal-neural-crest-stem-cells-in-malformation-of-cortical-development-mouse-model
#12
Ameneh Omidi, Mohammad Akbari, Keywan Mortezaee, Ehsan Eqlimi, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendedel, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani
Prenatal interventions may offer an immense opportunity in therapeutic protocols of malformations of cortical development (MCD). Epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSCs) of the hair follicle bulge exhibit features of both embryonic and adult stem cells; these cells maintain their neurologic differentiation capability because of their neural crest origin. However, it is unknown if prenatal use of EPI-NCSCs could be beneficial in targeting methylazoxymethanol (MAM)-induced MCD, which further addressed in the present work...
December 21, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999893/lifespan-development-of-the-bilateral-deficit-in-a-simple-reaction-time-task
#13
Solveig Vieluf, Gisa Aschersleben, Stefan Panzer
Performing an action at a maximum speed or with a maximum strength simultaneously with two limbs leads to a lower performance than the sum of unimanual performances. This phenomenon is known as bilateral deficit. There is some evidence that the bilateral deficit changes over the lifespan, in a way that children and older adults show lower deficits than young adults. Inverse developmental changes of childrens' and older adults' brain structures connecting both hemispheres, i.e., the corpus callosum, might importantly contribute to this phenomenon...
December 20, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989972/frontal-lobe-decortication-frontal-lobectomy-with-ventricular-preservation-in-epilepsy-part-1-anatomical-landmarks-and-surgical-technique
#14
Hung Tzu Wen, Leila Maria Da Róz, Albert L Rhoton, Luiz Henrique Martins Castro, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
BACKGROUND: An extensive frontal resection is a frequently performed neurosurgical procedure, especially for treating brain tumor and refractory epilepsy. However, there is paucity of reports available regarding its surgical anatomy and technique. OBJECTIVES: To present the anatomical landmarks and surgical technique of the frontal lobe decortication (FLD) in epilepsy. The goals are to maximize the gray matter removal, spare primary and supplementary motor areas, and preserving frontal horn...
October 27, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982679/postnatal-alteration-of-monocarboxylate-transporter-1-expression-in-the-rat-corpus-callosum
#15
Fuxing Dong, Yaping Liu, Zhenzhong Zhang, Rui Guo, Li Ma, Xuebin Qu, Hongli Yu, Hongbin Fan, Ruiqin Yao
In the central nervous system (CNS), monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is expressed in astrocytes and endothelial cells but also in oligodendroglia. Oligodendroglia support neurons and axons through lactate transportation by MCT1. Limited information is available on the MCT1 expression changes in candidate cells in the developing rat brain, especially in corpus callosum which is the most vulnerable area in demyelinating diseases. In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern of MCT1 during postnatal development in the rat corpus callosum using immunofluorescene staining, western blotting analysis and RT-PCR...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979685/nervous-system-abnormalities-and-legionnaire-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
John J Halperin
Although patients with Legionnaire's disease frequently develop alterations of consciousness, this is no more frequent than in patients hospitalized with other, equally severe forms of bacterial pneumonia. Legionella meningitis occurs rarely, if ever. Patients with Legionnaire's are susceptible to critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy, as are other critically ill patients. Legionnaire's patients may develop MRI hyperdensities in the splenium of the corpus callosum, as may other patients with severe infections...
December 12, 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978593/fetal-neurosonogaphy-ultrasound-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-competition
#17
S Tercanli, F Prüfer
Both in routine diagnostics and detailed, highly specialized workups, major advances have been observed in many areas of ultrasound due to an increase in expertise and improved technology in recent years. This is particularly true in the case of fetal neurosonography 1 2 3 4. Malformations of the CNS together with fetal heart defects are among the most common congenital anomalies. From the embryonic phase to the late third trimester, the CNS undergoes extensive development and maturation processes. The diagnosis of CNS anomalies is therefore primarily dependent on the time at which the examination is performed and the experience of the examiner...
December 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976377/association-between-corpus-callosum-development-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-neonates-born-very-preterm
#18
Anna M Malavolti, Vann Chau, Meisan Brown-Lum, Kenneth J Poskitt, Rollin Brant, Anne Synnes, Ruth E Grunau, Steven P Miller
AIM: To characterize corpus callosum development in neonates born very preterm from early in life to term-equivalent age and its relationship with neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months corrected age. METHOD: In a prospective cohort of 193 neonates born preterm, 24 to 32 weeks' gestation, we used magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging acquired early in life (n=193) and at term-equivalent age (n=159) to measure corpus callosum development: mid-sagittal area (including corpus callosum subdivisions) and length, and fractional anisotropy from the genu and splenium...
December 14, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974125/-clinical-features-of-mild-encephalitis-encephalopathy-with-a-reversible-splenial-lesion-in-children
#19
Yin Liu, Guang-Min Li, Shu-Hua Li, Xiao-Qing Wang, Su-Rong Li, Jing Zhang, Hong-Fang Wang, Bao-Dong Pang, Jia-Hua Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) in children. METHODS: The clinical data of 8 children with MERS were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of onset was 5 years and 2 months (range 10 months to 12 years). The major clinical features included a history of prodromal infection, and among these children, 5 had pyrexia and 4 had vomiting. Of all the children, 6 were manifested as convulsion and 3 each were manifested as disturbance of consciousness and paroxysmal paropsia...
December 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964749/truncating-de-novo-mutations-in-the-kr%C3%A3-ppel-type-zinc-finger-gene-znf148-in-patients-with-corpus-callosum-defects-developmental-delay-short-stature-and-dysmorphisms
#20
Servi J C Stevens, Anthonie J van Essen, Conny M A van Ravenswaaij, Abdallah F Elias, Jaclyn A Haven, Stefan H Lelieveld, Rolph Pfundt, Willy M Nillesen, Helger G Yntema, Kees van Roozendaal, Alexander P Stegmann, Christian Gilissen, Han G Brunner
BACKGROUND: Krüppel-type zinc finger genes (ZNF) constitute a large yet relatively poorly characterized gene family. ZNF genes encode proteins that recognize specific DNA motifs in gene promotors. They act as transcriptional co-activators or -repressors via interaction with chromatin remodeling proteins and other transcription factors. Only few ZNF genes are currently linked to human disorders and identification of ZNF gene-associated human diseases may help understand their function...
December 13, 2016: Genome Medicine
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