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medicines optimisation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303618/australian-mental-health-consumers-and-carers-expect-more-health-management-information-from-community-pharmacy
#1
Jasmina Fejzic, Kathy Knox, Hendrika Laetitia Hattingh, Amary Mey, Denise McConnell, Amanda J Wheeler
OBJECTIVE: To identify the health management information needs of Australian mental health consumers and carers and explore the role of community pharmacy in meeting those needs. METHOD: Interviews and focus groups were conducted with a purposive convenience sample of 74 mental health consumers and carers across three Australian states, representing metropolitan, rural and remote settings, including those with culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Recruitment and interviews continued until data saturation was reached...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292257/medical-appropriateness-of-adult-calls-to-danish-out-of-hours-primary-care-a-questionnaire-based-survey
#2
Karen Busk Nørøxe, Linda Huibers, Grete Moth, Peter Vedsted
BACKGROUND: Optimal utilisation of the out-of-hours primary care (OOH-PC) services remains a concern in public health policy. We need more knowledge on potentially avoidable contacts. This study examines the frequency of medically assessed inappropriate OOH-PC calls from adults, explores factors associated with such assessment, and examines the relation to patient-assessed severity of health problem and fulfilment of expectations. METHODS: We performed secondary analyses of data from a large cross-sectional survey on contacts to Danish OOH-PC...
March 14, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290273/from-the-ebm-pyramid-to-the-greek-temple-a-new-conceptual-approach-to-guidelines-as-implementation-tools-in-mental-health
#3
L Salvador-Carulla, S Lukersmith, W Sullivan
Guideline methods to develop recommendations dedicate most effort around organising discovery and corroboration knowledge following the evidence-based medicine (EBM) framework. Guidelines typically use a single dimension of information, and generally discard contextual evidence and formal expert knowledge and consumer's experiences in the process. In recognition of the limitations of guidelines in complex cases, complex interventions and systems research, there has been significant effort to develop new tools, guides, resources and structures to use alongside EBM methods of guideline development...
April 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288634/understanding-the-implementation-and-adoption-of-a-technological-intervention-to-improve-medication-safety-in-primary-care-a-realist-evaluation
#4
Mark Jeffries, Denham L Phipps, Rachel L Howard, Anthony J Avery, Sarah Rodgers, Darren M Ashcroft
BACKGROUND: Monitoring for potentially hazardous prescribing is increasingly important to improve medication safety. Healthcare information technology can be used to achieve this aim, for example by providing access to prescribing data through surveillance of patients' electronic health records. The aim of our study was to examine the implementation and adoption of an electronic medicines optimisation system that was intended to facilitate clinical audit in primary care by identifying patients at risk of an adverse drug event...
March 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283408/development-and-evaluation-of-an-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-the-detection-of-antibodies-to-a-common-urogenital-derivative-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-plasmid-encoded-pgp3
#5
Catherine E Winstanley, Kyle H Ramsey, Peter Marsh, Ian N Clarke
BACKGROUND: Urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the developed world. Accurate measurement and therefore understanding the seroprevalence of urogenital C. trachomatis infections requires a rigorously optimised and validated ELISA. Previous ELISAs based on the C. trachomatis plasmid-encoded protein, PGP3, have been described but lack standardisation and critical controls or use a less common PGP3 as the capture antigen...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278664/ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-rapid-separation-and-identification-of-main-constituents-in-chinese-herbal-formula-xuan-hu-suo-san
#6
Huaqi Tang, Xinyue Zhang, Shilin Luo, Fei Shang, Jianping Chen, Jinghong Wang, Xiaojie Duan, Xiaoyan Gao, Yikun Sun
Xuan Hu Suo San (XHSS) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been extensively applied in the treatment of osteoarthritis for many years, however, its chemical composition has not yet been elucidated. Thus, a rapid, efficient, and precise method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied in both positive- and negative-ion modes to rapidly separate and identify the main chemical ingredients in XHSS for the first time. Finally, with the optimised separation and detection method, a total of 57 compounds were simultaneously separated within 13 min, among which 14 compounds were confirmed by comparing retention time and MS data with reference standards and others were tentatively identified by comparing with reference literatures...
February 15, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270656/raising-awareness-of-bronchiectasis-in-primary-care-overview-of-diagnosis-and-management-strategies-in-adults
#7
James D Chalmers, Sanjay Sethi
Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disease characterised by recurrent infection, inflammation, persistent cough and sputum production. The disease is increasing in prevalence, requiring a greater awareness of the disease across primary and secondary care. Mild and moderate cases of bronchiectasis in adults can often be managed by primary care clinicians. Initial assessments and long-term treatment plans that include both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, however, should be undertaken in collaboration with a secondary care team that includes physiotherapists and specialists in respiratory medicine...
December 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263169/unraveling-the-gordian-knot-red-blood-cell-storage-lesion-and-transfusion-outcomes
#8
REVIEW
Vassilis L Tzounakas, Anastasios G Kriebardis, Jerard Seghatchian, Issidora S Papassideri, Marianna H Antonelou
What is following the impressive progress that has been made? During the last couple of years several tremors have shaken the field of Transfusion Medicine. The epicentres of those tremors were located on novel insights into the RBC storage lesion, on emerging connections between storage lesion and post-transfusion performance and effects, and on acknowledging that storage time is only one (rather than the most prominent) of the parameters which contribute to the progression of storage lesion in any given unit of blood...
March 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238038/bluegenics-bioactive-natural-products-of-medicinal-relevance-and-approaches-to-their-diversification
#9
Joseph S Zarins-Tutt, Emily R Abraham, Christopher S Bailey, Rebecca J M Goss
Nature provides a valuable resource of medicinally relevant compounds, with many antimicrobial and antitumor agents entering clinical trials being derived from natural products. The generation of analogues of these bioactive natural products is important in order to gain a greater understanding of structure activity relationships; probing the mechanism of action, as well as to optimise the natural product's bioactivity and bioavailability. This chapter critically examines different approaches to generating natural products and their analogues, exploring the way in which synthetic and biosynthetic approaches may be blended together to enable expeditious access to new designer natural products...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228341/doctors-and-nurses-perceptions-of-military-pre-hospital-emergency-care-when-training-becomes-reality
#10
REVIEW
Sten-Ove Andersson, Lars Lundberg, Anders Jonsson, Pia Tingström, Madeleine Abrandt Dahlgren
The aim of this study was to identify physicians' and nurses' perceptions of military pre-hospital emergency care before and after an international mission. A qualitative empirical study with a phenomenographic approach was used. The results after pre-deployment training can be categorised as (1) learning about military medicine and (2) taking care of the casualty. The results after an international mission can be categorised as (1) collaborating with others, (2) providing general health care and (3) improving competence in military medicine...
February 19, 2017: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219959/randomised-prospective-medico-economic-nationwide-french-study-of-islet-transplantation-in-patients-with-severely-unstable-type-1-diabetes-the-stabilot-study-protocol
#11
Sandrine Lablanche, Sandra David-Tchouda, Jennifer Margier, Edith Schir, Anne Wojtusciszyn, Sophie Borot, Laurence Kessler, Emmanuel Morelon, Charles Thivolet, François Pattou, Marie Christine Vantyghem, Thierry Berney, Pierre-Yves Benhamou
INTRODUCTION: Islet transplantation may be an appropriate treatment option for patients with severely unstable type 1 diabetes experiencing major glucose variability with severe hypoglycaemia despite intensive insulin therapy. Few data are available on the costs associated with islet transplantation in relation to its benefits. The STABILOT study proposes to assess the economic impact of islet transplantation in comparison with the current best medical treatment defined as sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy...
February 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215660/progress-in-evidence-based-medicine-a-quarter-century-on
#12
REVIEW
Benjamin Djulbegovic, Gordon H Guyatt
In response to limitations in the understanding and use of published evidence, evidence-based medicine (EBM) began as a movement in the early 1990s. EBM's initial focus was on educating clinicians in the understanding and use of published literature to optimise clinical care, including the science of systematic reviews. EBM progressed to recognise limitations of evidence alone, and has increasingly stressed the need to combine critical appraisal of the evidence with patient's values and preferences through shared decision making...
February 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214724/where-biomedicalisation-and-magic-meet-therapeutic-innovations-of-elite-sports-injury-in-british-professional-football-and-cycling
#13
Alex Faulkner, Michael McNamee, Catherine Coveney, Jonathan Gabe
Injury is a conspicuous feature of the practice and public spectacle of contemporary elite sports. The paper argues that the 'biomedicalisation' thesis (medico-industrial nexus, techno-scientific drivers, medical optimisation, biologisation, the rise of evidence and health surveillance) goes some way to capturing the use in elite sports injury of some highly specialised mainstream therapies and some highly maverick biological therapies, which are described. Nevertheless, these main strands of biomedicalisation do not capture the full range of these phenomena in the contexts of sports medicine and athletes' practices in accessing innovative, controversial therapies...
April 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205026/common-strategic-research-agenda-for-radiation-protection-in-medicine
#14
(no author information available yet)
Reflecting the change in funding strategies for European research projects, and the goal to jointly improve medical radiation protection through sustainable research efforts, five medical societies involved in the application of ionising radiation (European Association of Nuclear Medicine, EANM; European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. EFOMP; European Federation of Radiographer Societies, EFRS; European Society of Radiology, ESR; European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology, ESTRO) have identified research areas of common interest and developed this first edition of the Common Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for medical radiation protection...
April 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202365/optimising-the-use-of-medicines-to-reduce-acute-kidney-injury-in-children-and-babies
#15
REVIEW
L Oni, D B Hawcutt, M A Turner, M W Beresford, S McWilliam, C Barton, B K Park, P Murray, B Wilm, I Copple, R Floyd, M Peak, A Sharma, D J Antoine
The majority of medications in children are administered in an unlicensed or off-label manner. Paediatricians are obliged to prescribe using the limited evidence available. The 2007 EU regulation on the use of paediatric drugs means pharmaceutical companies are now obliged to (and receive incentives for) contributing to paediatric drug data and carrying out paediatric clinical trials. This is important, as the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of medicines vary across childhood. Additionally, there are significant age-related changes in the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic activity of many drugs...
February 12, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196948/medical-students-opportunities-to-participate-and-learn-from-activities-at-an-internal-medicine-ward-an-ethnographic-study
#16
A Hägg-Martinell, H Hult, P Henriksson, A Kiessling
OBJECTIVES: To optimise medical students' early clerkship is a complex task since it is conducted in a context primarily organised to take care of patients. Previous studies have explored medical students' perceptions of facilitation and hindrance of learning. However, the opportunities for medical student to learn within the culture of acute medicine care have not been fully investigated. This study aimed to explore how medical students approach, interact and socialise in an acute internal medicine ward context, and how spaces for learning are created and used in such a culture...
February 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183240/pharmacotherapy-of-persons-with-dementia-in-long-term-care-in-australia-a-descriptive-audit-of-central-nervous-system-medications
#17
Wendy Moyle, Najwan El Saifi, Brian Draper, Cindy Jones, Elizabeth Beattie, David Shum, Lukman Thalib, Cindy Mervin, Siobhan O Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia are often treated through the prescription of one or more psychotropic medications. However, limited efficacy and potential harmful side-effects has resulted in efforts to reduce the use of psychotropic medication in this population, particularly for those living in long-term care. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the pattern of central nervous system medication usage in older adults with dementia living in long-term care; assess the appropriateness of prescribing against Beers criteria; and detect potential drug interactions from co-administered medications...
February 9, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158283/characterisation-of-zinc-delivery-from-a-nipple-shield-delivery-system-using-a-breastfeeding-simulation-apparatus
#18
Rebekah L Scheuerle, Sylvaine F A Bruggraber, Stephen E Gerrard, Richard A Kendall, Catherine Tuleu, Nigel K H Slater
Zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system (NSDS), a novel platform for administering medicines to infants during breastfeeding, was characterised using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus. In this study, human milk at flow rates and pressures physiologically representative of breastfeeding passed through the NSDS loaded with zinc-containing rapidly disintegrating tablets, resulting in release of zinc into the milk. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was used to detect the zinc released, using a method that does not require prior digestion of the samples and that could be applied in other zinc analysis studies in breast milk...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124081/lifestyle-and-precision-diabetes-medicine-will-genomics-help-optimise-the-prediction-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-through-lifestyle-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Paul W Franks, Alaitz Poveda
Precision diabetes medicine, the optimisation of therapy using patient-level biomarker data, has stimulated enormous interest throughout society as it provides hope of more effective, less costly and safer ways of preventing, treating, and perhaps even curing the disease. While precision diabetes medicine is often framed in the context of pharmacotherapy, using biomarkers to personalise lifestyle recommendations, intended to lower type 2 diabetes risk or to slow progression, is also conceivable. There are at least four ways in which this might work: (1) by helping to predict a person's susceptibility to adverse lifestyle exposures; (2) by facilitating the stratification of type 2 diabetes into subclasses, some of which may be prevented or treated optimally with specific lifestyle interventions; (3) by aiding the discovery of prognostic biomarkers that help guide timing and intensity of lifestyle interventions; (4) by predicting treatment response...
January 25, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087312/immunisation-choice-of-host-adjuvants-and-boosting-schedules-with-emphasis-on-polyclonal-antibody-production
#20
REVIEW
Philippe Delahaut
Polyclonal antibodies are frequently used as immunodiagnostic tools in fundamental research. They are also used for routine diagnostic purposes in human and veterinary medicine and for quality control procedures in the food-processing industry. The antibody is a major component of the detection system. It binds with the molecule to be identified. This conjugate is subsequently revealed by means of binding the antibody with a radio-isotope, a fluorescent substance, an enzyme inducing a color change, or a biosensor based analytical system...
January 10, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
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