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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228341/doctors-and-nurses-perceptions-of-military-pre-hospital-emergency-care-when-training-becomes-reality
#1
REVIEW
Sten-Ove Andersson, Lars Lundberg, Anders Jonsson, Pia Tingström, Madeleine Abrandt Dahlgren
The aim of this study was to identify physicians' and nurses' perceptions of military pre-hospital emergency care before and after an international mission. A qualitative empirical study with a phenomenographic approach was used. The results after pre-deployment training can be categorised as (1) learning about military medicine and (2) taking care of the casualty. The results after an international mission can be categorised as (1) collaborating with others, (2) providing general health care and (3) improving competence in military medicine...
February 19, 2017: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219959/randomised-prospective-medico-economic-nationwide-french-study-of-islet-transplantation-in-patients-with-severely-unstable-type-1-diabetes-the-stabilot-study-protocol
#2
Sandrine Lablanche, Sandra David-Tchouda, Jennifer Margier, Edith Schir, Anne Wojtusciszyn, Sophie Borot, Laurence Kessler, Emmanuel Morelon, Charles Thivolet, François Pattou, Marie Christine Vantyghem, Thierry Berney, Pierre-Yves Benhamou
INTRODUCTION: Islet transplantation may be an appropriate treatment option for patients with severely unstable type 1 diabetes experiencing major glucose variability with severe hypoglycaemia despite intensive insulin therapy. Few data are available on the costs associated with islet transplantation in relation to its benefits. The STABILOT study proposes to assess the economic impact of islet transplantation in comparison with the current best medical treatment defined as sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy...
February 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215660/progress-in-evidence-based-medicine-a-quarter-century-on
#3
REVIEW
Benjamin Djulbegovic, Gordon H Guyatt
In response to limitations in the understanding and use of published evidence, evidence-based medicine (EBM) began as a movement in the early 1990s. EBM's initial focus was on educating clinicians in the understanding and use of published literature to optimise clinical care, including the science of systematic reviews. EBM progressed to recognise limitations of evidence alone, and has increasingly stressed the need to combine critical appraisal of the evidence with patient's values and preferences through shared decision making...
February 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214724/where-biomedicalisation-and-magic-meet-therapeutic-innovations-of-elite-sports-injury-in-british-professional-football-and-cycling
#4
Alex Faulkner, Michael McNamee, Catherine Coveney, Jonathan Gabe
Injury is a conspicuous feature of the practice and public spectacle of contemporary elite sports. The paper argues that the 'biomedicalisation' thesis (medico-industrial nexus, techno-scientific drivers, medical optimisation, biologisation, the rise of evidence and health surveillance) goes some way to capturing the use in elite sports injury of some highly specialised mainstream therapies and some highly maverick biological therapies, which are described. Nevertheless, these main strands of biomedicalisation do not capture the full range of these phenomena in the contexts of sports medicine and athletes' practices in accessing innovative, controversial therapies...
February 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205026/common-strategic-research-agenda-for-radiation-protection-in-medicine
#5
(no author information available yet)
: Reflecting the change in funding strategies for European research projects, and the goal to jointly improve medical radiation protection through sustainable research efforts, five medical societies involved in the application of ionising radiation (European Association of Nuclear Medicine, EANM; European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. EFOMP; European Federation of Radiographer Societies, EFRS; European Society of Radiology, ESR; European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology, ESTRO) have identified research areas of common interest and developed this first edition of the Common Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for medical radiation protection...
February 15, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202365/optimising-the-use-of-medicines-to-reduce-acute-kidney-injury-in-children-and-babies
#6
REVIEW
L Oni, D B Hawcutt, M A Turner, M W Beresford, S McWilliam, C Barton, B K Park, P Murray, B Wilm, I Copple, R Floyd, M Peak, A Sharma, D J Antoine
The majority of medications in children are administered in an unlicensed or off-label manner. Paediatricians are obliged to prescribe using the limited evidence available. The 2007 EU regulation on the use of paediatric drugs means pharmaceutical companies are now obliged to (and receive incentives for) contributing to paediatric drug data and carrying out paediatric clinical trials. This is important, as the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of medicines vary across childhood. Additionally, there are significant age-related changes in the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic activity of many drugs...
February 12, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196948/medical-students-opportunities-to-participate-and-learn-from-activities-at-an-internal-medicine-ward-an-ethnographic-study
#7
A Hägg-Martinell, H Hult, P Henriksson, A Kiessling
OBJECTIVES: To optimise medical students' early clerkship is a complex task since it is conducted in a context primarily organised to take care of patients. Previous studies have explored medical students' perceptions of facilitation and hindrance of learning. However, the opportunities for medical student to learn within the culture of acute medicine care have not been fully investigated. This study aimed to explore how medical students approach, interact and socialise in an acute internal medicine ward context, and how spaces for learning are created and used in such a culture...
February 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183240/pharmacotherapy-of-persons-with-dementia-in-long-term-care-in-australia-a-descriptive-audit-of-central-nervous-system-medications
#8
Wendy Moyle, Najwan El Saifi, Brian Draper, Cindy Jones, Elizabeth Beattie, David Shum, Lukman Thalib, Cindy Mervin, Siobhan O Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia are often treated through the prescription of one or more psychotropic medications. However, limited efficacy and potential harmful side-effects has resulted in efforts to reduce the use of psychotropic medication in this population, particularly for those living in long-term care. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the pattern of central nervous system medication usage in older adults with dementia living in long-term care; assess the appropriateness of prescribing against Beers criteria; and detect potential drug interactions from co-administered medications...
February 9, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158283/characterisation-of-zinc-delivery-from-a-nipple-shield-delivery-system-using-a-breastfeeding-simulation-apparatus
#9
Rebekah L Scheuerle, Sylvaine F A Bruggraber, Stephen E Gerrard, Richard A Kendall, Catherine Tuleu, Nigel K H Slater
Zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system (NSDS), a novel platform for administering medicines to infants during breastfeeding, was characterised using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus. In this study, human milk at flow rates and pressures physiologically representative of breastfeeding passed through the NSDS loaded with zinc-containing rapidly disintegrating tablets, resulting in release of zinc into the milk. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was used to detect the zinc released, using a method that does not require prior digestion of the samples and that could be applied in other zinc analysis studies in breast milk...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124081/lifestyle-and-precision-diabetes-medicine-will-genomics-help-optimise-the-prediction-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-through-lifestyle-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Paul W Franks, Alaitz Poveda
Precision diabetes medicine, the optimisation of therapy using patient-level biomarker data, has stimulated enormous interest throughout society as it provides hope of more effective, less costly and safer ways of preventing, treating, and perhaps even curing the disease. While precision diabetes medicine is often framed in the context of pharmacotherapy, using biomarkers to personalise lifestyle recommendations, intended to lower type 2 diabetes risk or to slow progression, is also conceivable. There are at least four ways in which this might work: (1) by helping to predict a person's susceptibility to adverse lifestyle exposures; (2) by facilitating the stratification of type 2 diabetes into subclasses, some of which may be prevented or treated optimally with specific lifestyle interventions; (3) by aiding the discovery of prognostic biomarkers that help guide timing and intensity of lifestyle interventions; (4) by predicting treatment response...
January 25, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087312/immunisation-choice-of-host-adjuvants-and-boosting-schedules-with-emphasis-on-polyclonal-antibody-production
#11
REVIEW
Philippe Delahaut
Polyclonal antibodies are frequently used as immunodiagnostic tools in fundamental research. They are also used for routine diagnostic purposes in human and veterinary medicine and for quality control procedures in the food-processing industry. The antibody is a major component of the detection system. It binds with the molecule to be identified. This conjugate is subsequently revealed by means of binding the antibody with a radio-isotope, a fluorescent substance, an enzyme inducing a color change, or a biosensor based analytical system...
January 10, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062471/pharmacological-guidelines-for-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-comparison-of-recommendations-for-the-first-episode
#12
Dolores Keating, Stephen McWilliams, Ian Schneider, Caroline Hynes, Gráinne Cousins, Judith Strawbridge, Mary Clarke
OBJECTIVES: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) support the translation of research evidence into clinical practice. Key health questions in CPGs ensure that recommendations will be applicable to the clinical context in which the guideline is used. The objectives of this study were to identify CPGs for the pharmacological treatment of first-episode schizophrenia; assess the quality of these guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument; and compare recommendations in relation to the key health questions that are relevant to the pharmacological treatment of first-episode schizophrenia...
January 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040600/predictive-and-prognostic-biomarkers-in-colorectal-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-recent-advances-and-challenges
#13
REVIEW
Vishal Das, Jatin Kalita, Mintu Pal
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Since CRC is largely asymptomatic until alarm features develop to advanced stages, the implementation of the screening programme is very much essential to reduce cancer incidence and mortality rates. CRC occurs predominantly from accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells, which later gets transformed into adenocarcinomas. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The current challenges of screening paradigm and diagnostic ranges are from semi-invasive methods like colonoscopy to non-invasive stool-based test, have resulted in over-diagnosis and over-treatment of CRC...
March 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039181/sports-biostatistician-a-critical-member-of-all-sports-science-and-medicine-teams-for-injury-prevention
#14
REVIEW
Martí Casals, Caroline F Finch
Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted...
December 30, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036043/concentration-of-tea-extracts-by-osmotic-evaporation-optimisation-of-process-parameters-and-effect-on-antioxidant-activity
#15
Marisa P Marques, Vítor D Alves, Isabel M Coelhoso
In this work, the concentration process of three different tea extracts (medicinal Rosil No. 6, Black, and Forest Fruit teas) using the osmotic evaporation (OE) process, was studied. The effect of the OE process on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The concentration process was carried out in a hollow-fibre membrane contactor with an effective surface area of 0.54 m². The tea extract was circulated through the shell side of the contactor, while a concentrated osmotic solution (CaCl₂ 5 M) was circulated inside the fibres...
December 28, 2016: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012176/selection-and-early-clinical-evaluation-of-the-brain-penetrant-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-11%C3%AE-hsd1-inhibitor-ue2343-xanamem%C3%A2
#16
Scott P Webster, Andrew McBride, Margaret Binnie, Karen Sooy, Jonathan R Seckl, Ruth Andrew, T David Pallin, Hazel J Hunt, Trevor R Perrior, Vincent S Ruffles, J William Ketelbey, Alan Boyd, Brian R Walker
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reducing glucocorticoid exposure in the brain via intracellular inhibition of the cortisol-regenerating enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) has emerged as a therapeutic strategy to treat cognitive impairment in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to discover novel, brain-penetrant 11β-HSD1 inhibitors as potential medicines for the treatment of AD. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Medicinal chemistry optimization of a series of amido-thiophene analogues was performed to identify potent and selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitors with optimized oral pharmacokinetics able to access the brain...
March 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982051/novel-inhibitors-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-guab2-identified-by-a-target-based-high-throughput-phenotypic-screen
#17
Jonathan A G Cox, Grace Mugumbate, Laura Vela-Glez Del Peral, Monika Jankute, Katherine A Abrahams, Peter Jervis, Stefan Jackenkroll, Arancha Perez, Carlos Alemparte, Jorge Esquivias, Joël Lelièvre, Fernando Ramon, David Barros, Lluis Ballell, Gurdyal S Besra
High-throughput phenotypic screens have re-emerged as screening tools in antibiotic discovery. The advent of such technologies has rapidly accelerated the identification of 'hit' compounds. A pre-requisite to medicinal chemistry optimisation programmes required to improve the drug-like properties of a 'hit' molecule is identification of its mode of action. Herein, we have combined phenotypic screening with a biased target-specific screen. The inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) protein GuaB2 has been identified as a drugable target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, however previously identified compounds lack the desired characteristics necessary for further development into lead-like molecules...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959354/delivering-comprehensive-geriatric-assessment-in-new-settings-advice-for-frontline-clinicians
#18
J R Gladman
Over the decades, as the principles of comprehensive geriatric assessment have been established, there have been attempts to apply its principles to settings other than acute hospital medical wards or the general communitydwelling older population, for example, to other settings where older people with infirmity are found. The purpose of this paper is to describe and reflect upon the application of and evidence for comprehensive geriatric assessment in these new settings and give some advice to clinicians about how to optimise their contributions to these processes...
September 2016: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956450/medical-problems-in-pregnancy
#19
Bhaskar Narayan, Catherine Nelson-Piercy
The prevalence of medical problems in pregnancy is increasing because of a complex interplay between demographic and lifestyle factors, and developments in modern medicine. Maternal mortality and morbidity resulting from treatable medical conditions, such as venous thromboembolism, epilepsy and autoimmune disease, have not decreased in recent years. This is despite a marked decrease in overall maternal mortality. It is vital that all physicians acquire a basic knowledge and understanding of medical problems in pregnancy...
December 2016: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955738/evidence-based-paediatric-surgical-oncology
#20
Paul D Losty
Surgeons play a pivotal role in the decision-making and multidisciplinary management of childhood solid tumours.(1) Evidence-based medicine-"aims to optimise decision making by emphasising on the use of best evidence from well-designed conducted research." This article offers a brief overview in an effort to demonstrate how a selection of well-conducted, recently published studies can help address some topical and controversial themes in paediatric surgical oncology practice.
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
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