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Matteo Paoletti, Ana Bacila, Anna Pichiecchio, Lisa Maria Farina, Elisa Rognone, Riccardo Cremascoli, Simona Fanucchi, Raffaele Manni, Stefano Bastianello
Common postictal MRI findings include transient cortical T2 hyperintensity, restricted diffusion, and gyral and/or adjacent leptomeningeal contrast enhancement. In certain uncommon pathological conditions, other signal abnormalities can be present, suggesting a different underlying pathogenic mechanism. We report the case of a 66-year-old man, recently diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2, presenting with new-onset visual and auditory hallucinations, "absence" seizures, and repeated peaks of hyperglycaemia without hyperketonaemia or increased serum osmolarity...
June 15, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Hiroshi Nagafuji, Hidenori Yokoi, Masachika Fujiwara, Dai Sato, Koichiro Saito
RATIONALE: Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is a rare disorder of the nervous system associated with malignant disease. It has a subacute onset with the following symptoms: cognitive dysfunction, seizures, irritability, hallucinations, and short-term memory loss. Herein, we report the case of a 35-year-old man with PLE, an olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) admixed with craniopharyngioma, and serum anti-Hu antibodies. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient presented with generalized seizures, short-term memory loss, and a polypoid mass located high in the nasal cavity...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Koji Kasanuki, Keith A Josephs, Tanis J Ferman, Melissa E Murray, Shunsuke Koga, Takuya Konno, Nobutaka Sakae, Adam Parks, Ryan J Uitti, Jay A Van Gerpen, Neill R Graff-Radford, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and pathologic characteristics of diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) manifesting as corticobasal syndrome (CBS). METHODS: In 523 autopsy-confirmed cases of DLBD, we identified 11 patients diagnosed with CBS. For comparison, we studied 22 DLBD brains with antemortem presentation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Given previous studies suggesting the importance of pathology in peri-Rolandic cortices in CBS, we used digital pathology to count Lewy bodies and to quantify intracytoplasmic and neuritic α-synuclein and phospho-tau burden in the motor cortex...
June 13, 2018: Neurology
Sonia Dollfus, Nemat Jaafari, Olivier Guillin, Benoit Trojak, Marion Plaze, Ghassen Saba, Cécilia Nauczyciel, Aurélie Montagne Larmurier, Nathalie Chastan, Vincent Meille, Marie-Odile Krebs, Samar S Ayache, Jean Pascal Lefaucheur, Annick Razafimandimby, Elise Leroux, Rémy Morello, Jean Marie Batail, Perrine Brazo, Nicolas Lafay, Issa Wassouf, Ghina Harika-Germaneau, Remy Guillevin, Carole Guillevin, Emmanuel Gerardin, Maud Rotharmel, Benoit Crépon, Raphael Gaillard, Christophe Delmas, Gael Fouldrin, Guillaume Laurent, Clément Nathou, Olivier Etard
INTRODUCTION: Despite extensive testing, the efficacy of low-frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of temporo-parietal targets for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia is still controversial, but promising results have been reported with both high-frequency and neuronavigated rTMS. Here, we report a double-blind sham-controlled study to assess the efficacy of high-frequency (20 Hz) rTMS applied over a precise anatomical site in the left temporal region using neuronavigation...
April 6, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Shengfeng Liu, Haiying Wang, Ming Song, Luxian Lv, Yue Cui, Yong Liu, Lingzhong Fan, Nianming Zuo, Kaibin Xu, Yuhui Du, Qingbao Yu, Na Luo, Shile Qi, Jian Yang, Sangma Xie, Jian Li, Jun Chen, Yunchun Chen, Huaning Wang, Hua Guo, Ping Wan, Yongfeng Yang, Peng Li, Lin Lu, Hao Yan, Jun Yan, Huiling Wang, Hongxing Zhang, Dai Zhang, Vince D Calhoun, Tianzi Jiang, Jing Sui
Multimodal fusion has been regarded as a promising tool to discover covarying patterns of multiple imaging types impaired in brain diseases, such as schizophrenia (SZ). In this article, we aim to investigate the covarying abnormalities underlying SZ in a large Chinese Han population (307 SZs, 298 healthy controls [HCs]). Four types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, including regional homogeneity (ReHo) from resting-state functional MRI, gray matter volume (GM) from structural MRI, fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion MRI, and functional network connectivity (FNC) resulted from group independent component analysis, were jointly analyzed by a data-driven multivariate fusion method...
April 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Tina Gupta, Nicholas J Kelley, Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Vijay A Mittal
Schizophrenia is a chronic, debilitating condition that affects approximately 1% of the population. Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia typically exhibit positive (e.g., hallucinations) and negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia) and impairments in cognitive function. Given the limitations of antipsychotic medication and psychotherapy in fully treating psychosis symptomatology, there has been increasing interest in other interventions such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique, that is safe, cost-effective, and widely accessible...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yoshiyuki Nishio, Kayoko Yokoi, Kazumi Hirayama, Toshiyuki Ishioka, Yoshiyuki Hosokai, Miyeong Gang, Makoto Uchiyama, Toru Baba, Kyoko Suzuki, Atsushi Takeda, Etsuro Mori
OBJECTIVE: To identify the phenomenological features and neural correlates of visual illusions in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Ninety-three patients with PD were assessed via questionnaires regarding visual illusions and behavioral symptoms, and neuropsychological tests, motor assessments and 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) were performed. The relationship between visual illusions or hallucinations and regional cerebral glucose metabolism was investigated using partial least squares (PLS) correlation and conventional mass-univariate analyses...
May 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Mi-Jung Kim, Shin-Bi Oh, Juyeon Kim, Kiju Kim, Ho-Sung Ryu, Min Sun Kim, Scott Ayton, Ashley I Bush, Joo-Yong Lee, Sun Ju Chung
INTRODUCTION: While metals have been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), the clinical evidence is scarce. Further, the contribution of metals for the risk or clinical presentation of PD remains to be explored. METHODS: To investigate the associations between the level of metals in blood serum and PD risk or clinical presentation, including sex-related differences, we studied 325 PD patients and age- and sex-matched 304 controls. We collected clinical data of the PD patients, including age at onset, PD duration, levodopa-equivalent dose (LED), Hoehn and Yahr stage (H-Y stage), presence of motor fluctuation, levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID), freezing of gait, hallucination, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score...
May 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Maria Ruiz, Alfonso Arias, Ernesto Sánchez-Llanos, Maria Pilar Gil, Ricard López-Ortega, Faridé Dakterzada, Francisco Purroy, Gerard Piñol-Ripoll
BACKGROUND: Hallucinations may have a broad spectrum and include so-called minor hallucinations (MHs). MH includes passage hallucinations (PHs), visual illusions, and presence hallucinations (PrHs). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of MH in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients, and to describe their potential relationship with cognition, behavioral symptoms, and use of psychoactive drugs. METHODS: We have recruited prospectively and consecutively 268 subjects (90 AD mild-moderate drug-naïve patients, 78 aMCI, and 100 controls)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Estrella Morenas-Rodríguez, Isabel Sala, Andrea Subirana, Elba Pascual-Goñi, MaBelén Sánchez-Saudinós, Daniel Alcolea, Ignacio Illán-Gala, María Carmona-Iragui, Roser Ribosa-Nogué, Valle Camacho, Rafael Blesa, Juan Fortea, Alberto Lleó
BACKGROUND: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a heterogeneous disease in which clinical presentation, symptoms, and evolution widely varies between patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the existence of clinical subtypes in DLB based on the initial clinical presentation. METHODS: 81 patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable DLB were consecutively included. All patients underwent a neurological evaluation including a structured questionnaire about neuropsychiatric symptoms and sleep, an assessment of motor impairment (Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale subscale III), and a formal neuropsychological evaluation...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Elionor Nehme, Sahar Obeid, Souheil Hallit, Chadia Haddad, Wael Salame, Fouad Tahan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of psychosis on prognosis as measured by the course of a manic episode, symptoms severity and time to remission and identify existing differences in positive and negative symptoms between psychotic and non-psychotic patients. STUDY DESIGN: 40 bipolar patients presenting with a diagnosis of acute mania were enrolled (18 psychotic patients and 22 non psychotic patients) in this cross-sectional study. Subjects were required to complete two self-reported questionnaires, the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) for manic symptoms, and Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) for psychotic symptoms...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Tomoe Yanagishita, Susumu Ito, Yui Ohtani, Kaoru Eto, Takashi Kanbayashi, Hirokazu Oguni, Satoru Nagata
Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis, and can occur with or without cataplexy. Here, we report two children with narcolepsy presenting with cataplexy mimicking epileptic seizures as determined by long-term video-electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) monitoring. Case 1 was a 15-year-old girl presenting with recurrent episodes of "convulsions" and loss of consciousness, who was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of epilepsy showing "convulsions" and "complex partial seizures"...
June 6, 2018: Brain & Development
Bo Chen
OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia is a predominant product of pathological alterations distributed throughout interconnected neural systems. Functional connections (FCs) methodology is an effective lever to investigate macroscopic neural activity patterns underlying critical aspects of cognition and behavior. However, region properties of brain architecture have been less investigated by special markers of dynamical graph in general mental disorders. METHODS: Embracing the eigenvector centrality in holism significance, our important process is to uncover noticeable edges and regions with antagonistic stance between morbid and normal FCs of 67 healthy controls (HCs) and 53 chronic schizophrenia patients (SZs)...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
K Hager, T Temps, O Krause
BACKGROUND: Antidementia drugs, antidepressants and antipsychotics are among the most frequently prescribed medication in old and multimorbid patients. Due to side effects (e. g. prolonged QTc interval) in emergency medicine/intensive care unit or patients' wishes the question is often raised whether these drugs can be stopped and how this may be done. ANTIDEMENTIA DRUGS: If the cognition is stable under antidementia drugs or if the patient is in favour of the medication, it should be continued...
June 6, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Darren F Hight, Jamie Sleigh, Joel D Winders, Logan J Voss, Amy L Gaskell, Amy D Rodriguez, Paul S García
Background: Assessment of patients for delirium in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) is confounded by the residual effects of the varied anesthetic and analgesic regimens employed during surgery and by the physiological consequences of surgery such as pain. Nevertheless, delirium diagnosed at this early stage has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The last decade has seen the emergence of the confusion assessment method-intensive care unit (CAM-ICU) score as a quick practical method of detecting delirium in clinical situations...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
R C Hamdy, A Kinser, Tracey Kendall-Wilson, A Depelteau, R Copeland, K Whalen, J Culp
Visual well-formed hallucinations, fluctuations in the level of cognition, and alertness and extrapyramidal signs are core features of dementia with Lewy bodies. Some patients realize that what they are seeing or hearing are just hallucinations and learn to accept them. Others, however experience these hallucinations as quite real and cannot be dissuaded from the firm belief that they are. In fact, efforts to dissuade them often serve only to confirm the often associated paranoid delusions and this may lead to a catastrophic ending...
January 2018: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
Raffaele Manni, Gianpaolo Toscano, Michele Terzaghi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to discuss the currently available pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment options for parasomnias. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent pathophysiological findings about sleep structure in parasomnias helped understanding several drug mechanisms of action. Serotoninergic theory accounts for the effect of serotoninergic drugs. Study about spectral analysis of sleep showed the effect of clonazepam on spectral bands. Cannabinoids proved to be effective in some of parasomnias, as in many other neurological disorders...
June 5, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Marco Sarà, Riccardo Cornia, Massimiliano Conson, Antonio Carolei, Simona Sacco, Francesca Pistoia
Previous evidence suggests that hallucinations and delusions may be detected in patients with the most severe forms of motor disability including locked-in syndrome (LIS). However, such phenomena are rarely described in LIS and their presence may be underestimated as a result of the severe communication impairment experienced by the patients. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical history and the neuroimaging data of a cohort of patients with LIS in order to recognize the presence of hallucinations and delusions and to correlate it with the pontine damage and the presence of any cortical volumetric changes...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Cassie M Hazell, Kathryn Greenwood, Sarah Fielding-Smith, Aikaterini Rammou, Leanne Bogen-Johnston, Clio Berry, Anna-Marie Jones, Mark Hayward
The experience of hearing voices ('auditory hallucinations') can cause significant distress and disruption to quality of life for people with a psychosis diagnosis. Psychological therapy in the form of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for psychosis is recommended for the treatment of positive symptoms, including distressing voices, but is rarely available to patients in the United Kingdom. CBT for psychosis has recently evolved with the development of symptom-specific therapies that focus upon only one symptom of psychosis at a time...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jan Dirk Blom, Esmeralda Mangoenkarso
Background: Sexual hallucinations are probably the most neglected types of hallucination, even in psychiatric settings. They are often multimodal in nature, and their prevalence rate is unknown. For other types of hallucination, notably auditory hallucinations, childhood trauma is an important risk factor. However, whether this also applies to sexual hallucinations is unexplored. Objective: To establish the prevalence rate of sexual hallucinations in a clinical sample of patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, to describe their phenomenological characteristics, and to estimate their relationship with childhood trauma...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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