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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444349/suicidal-ideation-in-first-episode-psychosis-fep-examination-of-symptoms-of-depression-and-psychosis-among-individuals-in-an-early-phase-of-treatment
#1
Lindsay A Bornheimer
First-episode psychosis (FEP) is a particularly high-risk period for suicide, in which risk elevates by 60% within a first year of treatment as compared to later stages of illness. To date, much of the literature has focused on individuals with a longer duration of psychosis; thus, there is an urgency for research to examine suicide risk among individuals in FEP in the beginning stage of treatment. This study aimed to identify the relationships between demographic characteristics, symptoms of depression, psychosis (particularly positive symptoms of psychosis), and suicidal ideation among individuals in FEP...
February 14, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441665/cortical-thickness-abnormalities-in-bipolar-disorder-patients-with-a-lifetime-history-of-auditory-hallucinations
#2
Lynn Mørch-Johnsen, Stener Nerland, Kjetil N Jørgensen, Kåre Osnes, Cecilie B Hartberg, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle, Ragnar Nesvåg, Ingrid Agartz
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate morphometric correlates of auditory hallucinations in bipolar disorder (BD) by comparing cortical thickness and cortical surface area in bipolar disorder patients with (BD+) and without (BD-) a lifetime history of auditory hallucinations. Based on previous findings in schizophrenia patients, we hypothesized that the cortex would be thinner in the auditory cortex in BD+ compared to BD-. METHODS: Bipolar disorder spectrum (n = 157) patients and healthy controls (n = 279) underwent 1...
February 13, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439334/what-do-we-know-about-behavioral-crises-in-dementia-a-systematic-review
#3
Tamara Backhouse, Julieta Camino, Eneida Mioshi
BACKGROUND: Behavioral crises in dementia are represented by a wide variety of symptoms, regularly require external intervention from professionals, and are reported as a risk factor for hospital admission. Little is known about the factors that are associated with them. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with dementia-related behavioral crises. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and AMED databases. An additional lateral search including reference lists was conducted...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439326/is-there-a-characteristic-clinical-profile-for-patients-with-dementia-and-sundown-syndrome
#4
David Angulo Sevilla, María Teresa Carreras Rodríguez, Patricia Heredia Rodríguez, Marisa Fernández Sánchez, José Aurelio Vivancos Mora, Ana Beatriz Gago-Veiga
BACKGROUND: Sundown syndrome (SS) is the onset or worsening of behavioral symptoms in the evening in patients with dementia. OBJECTIVE: To identify the differential clinical profile of patients with dementia who present SS. METHODS: A cross-sectional, case-control observational study was conducted by retrospectively reviewing the medical records of patients with dementia in a specialized Memory Unit. We compared the characteristics of patients with and without SS, including sociodemographic variables, etiology, and severity of the dementia, behavioral symptoms, sleep disorders (considering insomnia and hypersomnia), other diseases and treatments employed...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439083/psychological-outcomes-following-a-nurse-led-preventative-psychological-intervention-for-critically-ill-patients-poppi-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-clinical-trial-of-a-complex-intervention
#5
Alvin Richards-Belle, Paul R Mouncey, Dorothy Wade, Chris R Brewin, Lydia M Emerson, Richard Grieve, David A Harrison, Sheila Harvey, David Howell, Monty Mythen, Zia Sadique, Deborah Smyth, John Weinman, John Welch, Kathryn M Rowan
INTRODUCTION: Acute psychological stress, as well as unusual experiences including hallucinations and delusions, are common in critical care unit patients and have been linked to post-critical care psychological morbidity such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. Little high-quality research has been conducted to evaluate psychological interventions that could alleviate longer-term psychological morbidity in the critical care unit setting. Our research team developed and piloted a nurse-led psychological intervention, aimed at reducing patient-reported PTSD symptom severity and other adverse psychological outcomes at 6 months, for evaluation in the POPPI trial...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436999/pharmacoinformatics-and-molecular-docking-studies-reveal-potential-novel-compounds-against-schizophrenia-by-target-syn-ii
#6
Rana Adnan Tahir, Sheikh Arslan Sehgal
BACKGROUND: Synapsin II regulates neurotransmitter release from mature nerve terminals and plays important role in the formation of new nerve terminals. The associations of SYN II are identified in various studies that are linked to the onset of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is characterized by abnormal behavior like obsession, dampening of emotions and auditory hallucination. METHODS: The bioinformatics approaches were utilized for structural modeling and docking analyses of SYN II followed by pharmacophore generation to identify potent inhibitors...
February 12, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436797/a-case-of-kleine-levin-syndrome-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge
#7
Marino Marčić, Ljiljana Marčić, Marina Titlić
Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare sleep disorder mainly affecting teenage boys in which the main features are intermittent hypersomnolence, behavioral and cognitive disturbances, hyperphagia, and in some cases hyper sexuality. Etiology is unknown, and there is no specific clinical or imaging test for this syndrome even though the illness has well-defined clinical features. Also, there is no effective treatment for KLS. KLS is self-limited, so the prognosis for these patients is not so bad. This study presents our case report and comprehensive workout that led to diagnosis which is primarily clinical...
January 2018: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433107/alcohol-withdrawal-hallucinations-in-the-general-population-an-epidemiological-study
#8
Massoud Stephane, Bachaar Arnaout, Gihyun Yoon
Hallucinations are sometimes encountered in the course of alcohol withdrawal; however, both the factors predisposing to alcohol withdrawal hallucinations (AWH) and the implications of AWH with respect to the mechanisms of hallucinations remain unclear. To clarify these issues, we used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the demographic correlates, alcohol-use clinical patterns, and psychiatric comorbidities in two groups: drinkers with and without a history of AWH...
February 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430180/color-preferences-in-participants-with-high-or-low-hypnotic-susceptibility
#9
Enyan Yu, Junpeng Zhu, Yunfei Tan, Zhengluan Liao, Yaju Qiu, Bingren Zhang, Chu Wang, Wei Wang
Purpose: Color preferences vary among normal individuals and psychiatric patients, and this might be related to their different levels of hypnotic susceptibility. We hypothesized that individuals with higher hypnotic susceptibility prefer more arousing colors such as red. Patients and methods: Out of 440 participants, we selected 70 with higher (HIGH) and 66 with lower (LOW) hypnotic susceptibilities, and asked them to undergo the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC) test, then to order their preferences of 11 colors...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430009/real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-to-down-regulate-superior-temporal-gyrus-activity-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-auditory-hallucinations-a-proof-of-concept-study
#10
Natasza D Orlov, Vincent Giampietro, Owen O'Daly, Sheut-Ling Lam, Gareth J Barker, Katya Rubia, Philip McGuire, Sukhwinder S Shergill, Paul Allen
Neurocognitive models and previous neuroimaging work posit that auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) arise due to increased activity in speech-sensitive regions of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG). Here, we examined if patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and AVH could be trained to down-regulate STG activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF). We also examined the effects of rtfMRI-NF training on functional connectivity between the STG and other speech and language regions...
February 12, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429645/daytime-sleepiness-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-is-associated-with-neuronal-depletion-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert
#11
Koji Kasanuki, Tanis J Ferman, Melissa E Murray, Michael G Heckman, Otto Pedraza, Fadi S Hanna Al-Shaikh, Takayasu Mishima, Nancy N Diehl, Jay A van Gerpen, Ryan J Uitti, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Neill R Graff-Radford, Dennis W Dickson
INTRODUCTION: Excessive daytime sleepiness is a commonly reported clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) that can occur early in the disease. Cholinergic depletion is known to be severe in DLB, even when dementia severity is mild. The nucleus basalis of Meynert serves as a primary source of cortical acetylcholine, and has a role in facilitating cortical activation and arousal. We sought to determine whether daytime sleepiness at the initial evaluation of patients with DLB was associated with neuronal loss in the nucleus basalis of Meynert...
February 3, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413808/efficacy-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-on-the-symptom-dimensions-of-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
Nigel I Kennedy, Won Hee Lee, Sophia Frangou
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have shown promise in the treatment of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the efficacy of double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCT) of tDCS and rTMS for the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and identify significant moderators relating to patient-related features and stimulation parameters. METHODS: Systemic review and meta-analyses of the relevant literature published until February 1st, 2017 to assess treatment efficacy and quantify the contribution of potential moderator variables...
January 27, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409548/a-clinimetric-analysis-of-a-bprs-6-scale-for-schizophrenia-severity
#13
Per Bech, Stephen F Austin, Nina Timmerby, Thomas A Ban, Stine Bjerrum Møller
OBJECTIVE: A restricted Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-6) with the six schizophrenia specific items from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) has been investigated. These six items from the PANSS have recently been found to have both clinical validity and 'unidimensionality' in measuring the severity of schizophrenic states. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical validity of the BPRS-6. The secondary objective was to evaluate the 'unidimensionality' of the BPRS-6 by an 'item response theory' model...
February 7, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409164/reliability-and-structural-validity-of-the-chinese-version-of-the-neuropsychiatric-inventory-nursing-home-version
#14
Suhong Chen, Kai Lin, Hanxiao Wang, Miyae Yamakawa, Kiyoko Makimoto, Xiaoyan Liao
BACKGROUND: With the increasing number of dementia patients in China, there is a pressing need for a reliable and valid Chinese instrument that can measure neuropsychiatric symptoms in institutionalized dementia patients. This study examined the reliability and structural validity of the Chinese version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Nursing Home version (NPI-NH), in a sample of institutionalized dementia patients in China. METHODS: A total of 112 residents with dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating = 1: 10...
February 6, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406964/comparison-of-clinical-features-among-parkinson-s-disease-subtypes-a-large-retrospective-study-in-a-single-center
#15
Takuya Konno, Angela Deutschländer, Michael G Heckman, Maryam Ossi, Emily R Vargas, Audrey J Strongosky, Jay A van Gerpen, Ryan J Uitti, Owen A Ross, Zbigniew K Wszolek
INTRODUCTION: Tremor dominant (TD), postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD), and akinetic-rigid (AR) subtypes are widely used in classifying patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We compared clinical characteristics between PD subtypes in a large retrospective cohort. Between 1998 and 2016, we included a total of 1003 patients with PD in this retrospective study. Six hundred ninety-four patients had more than one visit. Data were collected regarding motor/non-motor symptoms at the initial/final visits...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404960/associations-and-hallucinations-in-mice-and-men
#16
Dominic M Dwyer
Powers et al. (2017, Science, 357(6351), 596-600) report that Pavlovian conditioning can result in the perception of a stimulus in its absence, and that this effect is related to hallucinations outside the laboratory. Considered alongside similar studies in animals, this suggests that associatively produced perceptual processing offers a means to study hallucination-like behaviour in the animal laboratory.
February 5, 2018: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402582/birth-experiences-trauma-responses-and-self-concept-in-postpartum-psychotic-like-experiences
#17
Lyndsey Holt, William Sellwood, Pauline Slade
The frequency of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) amongst new mothers is beginning to be explored but the mechanisms underlying such experiences are yet to be understood. First time mothers (N=10,000) receiving maternity care via the UK National Health Service were contacted postnatally via Emma's Diary, an online resource for mothers. Measures assessed birth experience, trauma appraisals, post-traumatic stress symptoms, adjustment to motherhood, self-concept clarity and PLEs (in the form of hallucinations and delusions)...
February 2, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398218/a-perceptual-inference-mechanism-for-hallucinations-linked-to-striatal-dopamine
#18
Clifford M Cassidy, Peter D Balsam, Jodi J Weinstein, Rachel J Rosengard, Mark Slifstein, Nathaniel D Daw, Anissa Abi-Dargham, Guillermo Horga
Hallucinations, a cardinal feature of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, are known to depend on excessive striatal dopamine. However, an underlying cognitive mechanism linking dopamine dysregulation and the experience of hallucinatory percepts remains elusive. Bayesian models explain perception as an optimal combination of prior expectations and new sensory evidence, where perceptual distortions such as illusions and hallucinations may occur if prior expectations are afforded excessive weight. Such excessive weight of prior expectations, in turn, could stem from a gain-control process controlled by neuromodulators such as dopamine...
February 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395749/reduced-white-matter-connectivity-associated-with-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-first-episode-and-chronic-schizophrenia-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#19
Xiaoling Zhang, Jie Gao, Feng Zhu, Wei Wang, Yajuan Fan, Qingyan Ma, Xiancang Ma, Jian Yang
This study aims to explore whether auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are associated with the white matter abnormalities in tracts connecting language, auditory and memory/limbic networks in first-episode and chronic schizophrenia patients. 21 first-episode (FE-AVH) and 12 chronic (chronic-AVH group) patients who suffered from auditory verbal hallucinations and 26 healthy controls (HC group) were enrolled. Diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics was performed to assess the white matter changes between the two patient groups and HC group...
January 25, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386980/rare-clinical-presentation-of-tuberculous-meningitis-a-case-report
#20
Jian Liang Tan, Sudzilla Nordin, Alwi Muhd Besari
Introduction: Tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death under the category of infectious diseases, after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) constitutes about 5% of all extrapulmonary disease worldwide. This report describes a case of Tuberculous meningitis with rare presentation in a 28-year-old woman, who was treated based on a collection of her social background, clinical findings and Multiplex PCR of tuberculosis. Case presentation: A 28-year-old Malay woman with no significant medical history presented to HUSM with one month history of on and off fever, two weeks history of generalised limbs weakness and one week history of dysphagia...
October 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
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