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Delusions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449271/delusional-and-psychotic-disorders-in-juvenile-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#1
Delphine Jacobs, Diane Willekens, Christine de Die-Smulders, Jean-Pierre Frijns, Jean Steyaert
We investigated the clinically derived hypothesis of a relatively high incidence of delusional and psychotic disorders in adolescents with juvenile Myotonic Dystrophy type-1 (DM1). Twenty-seven subjects of age 16-25 with juvenile DM1 and their parents were invited to have a clinical psychiatric interview, and to complete an ASEBA behavior checklist (YSR, ASR, CBCL, and ABCL). We diagnosed a Delusional Disorder in 19% of our patients and a Psychotic Disorder not otherwise specified in another 19%. These two groups of patients had a significantly worse level of clinically defined general functioning...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448827/dopamine-cognitive-biases-and-assessment-of-certainty-a-neurocognitive-model-of-delusions
#2
REVIEW
Annabel Broyd, Ryan P Balzan, Todd S Woodward, Paul Allen
This paper examines the evidence that delusions can be explained within the framework of a neurocognitive model of how the brain assesses certainty. Here, 'certainty' refers to both low-level interpretations of one's environment and high-level (conscious) appraisals of one's beliefs and experiences. A model is proposed explaining how the brain systems responsible for assigning certainty might dysfunction, contributing to the cause and maintenance of delusional beliefs. It is suggested that delusions arise through a combination of perturbed striatal dopamine and aberrant salience as well as cognitive biases such as the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC) and hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437056/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-schizophrenia
#3
Alaina L Edmunds
Schizophrenia is the most common psychotic illness, typically appearing between the late teenage years and the mid-30s. The first episode of psychosis may be preceded by a prodromal period. Schizophrenia symptoms fall into six common symptom clusters: delusions and hallucinations, disorganization of speech, cognitive dysfunction, negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and motor system abnormalities. The diagnosis is based on criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, including exclusion of other possible medical or psychiatric etiologies of psychosis...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424054/an-unusual-delusion-of-duplication-in-a-patient-affected-by-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#4
Paolo Solla, Gioia Mura, Antonino Cannas, Gianluca Floris, Davide Fonti, Gianni Orofino, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Francesco Marrosu
BACKGROUND: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most frequent diagnosis of progressive degenerative dementia in older people. Delusions are common features in DLB and, among them, Capgras syndrome represents the most frequent disturbance, characterized by the recurrent and transient belief that a familiar person, often a close family member or caregiver, has been replaced by an identical-looking imposter. However, other delusional conditions near to misidentification syndromes can occur in DLB patients and may represent a major psychiatric disorder, although rarely studied systematically...
April 19, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422607/delusional-disorder-arising-from-a-cns-neoplasm
#5
John Stupinski, Jihye Kim, Dimitry Francois
Erotomania arising from a central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm has not been previously described. Here, we present the first known case, to our knowledge, of erotomania with associated persecutory delusions arising following diagnosis and treatment of a left frontal lobe brain tumor.
2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421896/anosognosia-and-its-relation-to-psychiatric-symptoms-in-early-onset-alzheimer-disease
#6
MULTICENTER STUDY
Bora Yoon, Yong S Shim, Yun Jeong Hong, Seong Hye Choi, Hee Kyung Park, Sun Ah Park, Jee Hyang Jeong, Soo Jin Yoon, Dong-Won Yang
BACKGROUND: We investigated differences in the prevalence of anosognosia and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) characteristics according to disease severity in patients with early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD). METHODS: We recruited 616 patients with EOAD. We subdivided participants into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of anosognosia and then again by Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. We compared the differences in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) scores according to anosognosia and disease severity...
May 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421867/symptom-related-attributional-biases-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#7
Nicole Sanford, Todd S Woodward
INTRODUCTION: Biases in causal attributions and evidence integration have been implicated in delusions, but have not been investigated simultaneously to examine additive or multiplicative effects. It was hypothesised that paranoid delusions would correlate with self-serving and personalising biases ("defence" model of paranoia), particularly when these biases were disconfirmed. METHODS: Constrained principal component analysis was used to investigate differences between schizophrenia patients (paranoid vs...
April 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420824/dynamic-changes-in-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-findings-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#8
Tsuyoshi Hatakeyama, Yasuto Kunii, Itaru Miura, Shuntaro Itagaki, Soichi Kono, Tetsuya Shiga, Sachie Oshima, Keiko Nozaki, Rieko Suzuki, Hirooki Yabe
The clinical course of schizophrenia is characterized by recurrence and chronicity and has a large burden on society. Nevertheless, diagnosis of schizophrenia is based only on distinctive symptoms and the disease course. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a useful method for measuring changes in the hemoglobin concentration in the cortical surface area and reflects brain function. We measured NIRS four times during the clinical course in a patient with first-episode schizophrenia.A 17-year-old woman admitted to our hospital because of hallucinations, delusions and appetite loss...
April 15, 2017: Fukushima Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409714/psychotic-depression-and-suicidal-behavior
#9
Kristin J Fredriksen, Helle K Schoeyen, Jan O Johannessen, Fredrik A Walby, Larry Davidson, Margrethe A Schaufel
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated how severely depressed individuals experienced the relationship between psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and behavior. METHOD: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of nine inpatients from a psychiatric university hospital between September 2012 and May 2013 fulfilling diagnostic criteria for a psychotic depressive episode as part of a unipolar or bipolar disorder. Analysis was conducted using systematic text condensation...
2017: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408165/alterations-in-protein-phosphorylation-in-the-amygdala-of-the-5xfamilial-alzheimer-s-disease-animal-model
#10
Eun-Jeong Yang, Usman Mahmood, Hyunju Kim, Moonseok Choi, Yunjung Choi, Jean-Pyo Lee, Moon-Jeong Chang, Hye-Sun Kim
Alzheimer's disease is the most common disease underlying dementia in humans. Two major neuropathological hallmarks of AD are neuritic plaques primarily composed of amyloid beta peptide and neurofibrillary tangles primarily composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. In addition to impaired memory function, AD patients often display neuropsychiatric symptoms and abnormal emotional states such as confusion, delusion, manic/depressive episodes and altered fear status. Brains from AD patients show atrophy of the amygdala which is involved in fear expression and emotional processing as well as hippocampal atrophy...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399309/transdiagnostic-extension-of-delusions-schizophrenia-and-beyond
#11
Paul Bebbington, Daniel Freeman
Delusion is central to the conceptualization, definition, and identification of schizophrenia. However, in current classifications, the presence of delusions is neither necessary nor sufficient for the diagnosis of schizophrenia, nor is it sufficient to exclude the diagnosis of some other psychiatric conditions. Partly as a consequence of these classification rules, it is possible for delusions to exist transdiagnostically. In this article, we evaluate the extent to which this happens, and in what ways the characteristics of delusions vary according to diagnostic context...
March 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393609/overvalued-ideas-or-delusions-in-anorexia-nervosa
#12
Andrea Phillipou, Rachel L Mountjoy, Susan Lee Rossell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393489/grouped-factors-of-the-ssade-signs-and-symptoms-accompanying-dementia-while-eating-and-nutritional-status-an-analysis-of-older-people-receiving-nutritional-care-in-long-term-care-facilities-in-japan
#13
Kento Takada, Kazumi Tanaka, Mihoko Hasegawa, Michiko Sugiyama, Nobuo Yoshiike
BACKGROUND: Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are very common among older people, and previous studies showed that BPSD affects eating behaviour negatively, possibly resulting in undernutrition. In a previous study, we constructed a set of 11 items based on direct observations of older people with dementia during mealtime and named them 'SSADE: signs and symptoms accompanying dementia while eating'. AIMS: This study aimed to conduct a factor analysis to clarify the structure of the set of 11 SSADE items and to analyse the relationship of the SSADE with nutritional status...
April 9, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387211/olanzapine-induced-pancytopenia-a-rare-but-worrying-complication
#14
N Pang, N Thrichelvam, K O Naing
Unlike clozapine, and despite its structural similarities, olanzapine is not usually associated with haematological suppression. Nonetheless this case report highlights an incident of olanzapine-induced thrombocytopenia and neutropenia in a first-contact patient. We report on a 50-year-old male who presented with 7 years of delusions and hallucinations. A diagnosis of schizophrenia was made in the absence of any suggestive features of mood disorders, substance abuse or organicity, and olanzapine as second-line treatment...
March 2017: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385039/evidence-based-review-of-pharmacotherapy-used-for-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#15
Kyle John Wilby, Eric G Johnson, Hannah E Johnson, Mary H H Ensom
OBJECTIVE: To summarize and evaluate the existing literature regarding medications to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) psychosis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1946 to March 2017), EMBASE (1980 to March 2017), CINAHL (1982 to March 2017), and PsychInfo (1887 to March 2017) were searched using the following terms: Parkinson disease, Parkinson's disease, psychotic disorders, psychosis, delusions, and hallucinations. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The search was limited to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting human outcomes...
April 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375719/predictive-processing-source-monitoring-and-psychosis
#16
Juliet D Griffin, Paul C Fletcher
A comprehensive understanding of psychosis requires models that link multiple levels of explanation: the neurobiological, the cognitive, the subjective, and the social. Until we can bridge several explanatory gaps, it is difficult to explain how neurobiological perturbations can manifest in bizarre beliefs or hallucinations, nor how trauma or social adversity can perturb lower-level brain processes. We propose that the predictive processing framework has much to offer in this respect.Weshow how this framework may underpin and complement source monitoring theories of delusions and hallucinations and how, when considered in terms of a dynamic and hierarchical system, it may provide a compelling model of several key clinical features of psychosis...
March 30, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375643/pimavanserin
#17
Kevin M Bozymski, Denise K Lowe, Kiersten M Pasternak, Travis L Gatesman, Ericka L Crouse
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and place in therapy of pimavanserin for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions of Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP). DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive PubMed search (1966 to January 2017) was conducted using the search terms Parkinson's disease psychosis, hallucinations, delusions, pimavanserin, and ACP-103. Additional data were obtained from references of identified articles, governmental sources, manufacturer product labeling and website, and Clinicaltrials...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353292/psychosis-management-in-patients-with-hiv-case-report
#18
M Pilar Calvo-Rivera, Alejandro Porras, Marta Trigo-Rodríguez, José M Martínez-Ortega, Luis Gutiérrez-Rojas
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can cause neuropsychiatric disorders such as cognitive impairment, behavioural difficulties or psychiatric symptoms –for instance, mania and psychosis. HIV patients with psychiatric comorbidities need an appropriate treatment which tackles the HIV infection as much as the particular mental symptoms. Here we present the case of a patient suffering from delusions, which turned out to be caused by encephalitis secondary to a previously unknown HIV infection. A review of psychosis in HIV-infected patients is also presented...
March 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353290/validation-of-the-portuguese-version-of-the-psychotic-symptom-rating-scales-psyrats
#19
Diogo Telles-Correia, Nuno Barbosa-Rocha, João Gama-Marques, Ana L Moreira, Cátia Alves-Moreira, Sérgio Saraiva, Filipa Antunes, Carolina Almeida, Sérgio Machado, Gillian Haddock
The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) is a clinical assessment tool that focuses on the detailed measurement of delusions and hallucinations in patients with psychosis. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the PSYRATS. A sample of 92 outpatients suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders and presenting persistent psychotic symptoms was assessed using the PSYRATS and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Good inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity and internal consistency were found...
March 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347214/delusions-and-the-right-hemisphere-a-review-of-the-case-for-the-right-hemisphere-as-a-mediator-of-reality-based-belief
#20
Lindsey Gurin, Sonja Blum
Delusions are beliefs that remain fixed despite evidence that they are incorrect. Although the precise neural mechanism of delusional belief remains to be elucidated, there is a predominance of right-hemisphere lesions among patients with delusional syndromes accompanied by structural pathology, suggesting that right-hemisphere lesions, or networks with key nodes in the right hemisphere, may be playing a role. The authors discuss the potential theoretical basis and empiric support for a specific right-hemisphere role in delusion production, drawing on its roles in pragmatic communication; perceptual integration; attentional surveillance and anomaly/novelty detection; and belief updating...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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