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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932297/flow-cytometry-in-detecting-resistant-e-coli-strains
#1
Lyudmila Akhmaltdinova, Alyona Lavrinenko, Ilya Belyayev
Antibacterial drugs are the most consumed group of drugs in the modern hospitals. Standard methods of antibiotic sensitivity are labour and time-consuming, taking up to 24 hours after the pure culture is isolated (the analysis typically lasts up to 72 hours). Working out express diagnostic methods is of importance, and studies are made in various directions. Flow cytometry in detecting resistant E. coli strains was used. Flow cytometry fluorescent dyes were used to stain viable and dead cells. For method validation, relative accuracy, relative susceptibility, relative specificity and Cohen's kappa test were determined compared to the delusion test...
August 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931444/treatment-effects-of-ginkgo-biloba-extract-egb-761%C3%A2-on-the-spectrum-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
Egemen Savaskan, Heiko Mueller, Robert Hoerr, Armin von Gunten, Serge Gauthier
BACKGROUND: In randomized controlled trials, Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® has been found to be effective in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). METHODS: To assess the effects of EGb 761® on specific BPSD, we analyzed data from all randomized, placebo-controlled, at least 20-week, trials of EGb 761® enrolling patients with dementia (probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), probable vascular dementia or probable AD with cerebrovascular disease) who had clinically significant BPSD (Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) total score at least 6)...
September 21, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929996/why-are-psychotic-experiences-associated-with-self-injurious-thoughts-and-behaviours-a-systematic-review-and-critical-appraisal-of-potential-confounding-and-mediating-factors
#3
E Hielscher, J E DeVylder, S Saha, M Connell, J G Scott
Psychotic experiences (PEs), including hallucination- and delusion-like experiences, are robustly associated with self-injurious thoughts and behaviours (SITB) in the general population. However, it remains unclear as to why there is an association. The purpose of this systematic review was to elucidate the role of other factors that influence the association between PEs and SITB and, in doing so, highlight potential mechanisms underlying the relationship. A search of electronic international databases was undertaken, including PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE, and eligible studies were grouped according to seven confounder categories: sociodemographics, mental disorders, alcohol and substance use, environmental, psychological, intervention and family history/genetic factors...
September 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927863/fast-and-slow-thinking-in-distressing-delusions-a-review-of-the-literature-and-implications-for-targeted-therapy
#4
Thomas Ward, Philippa A Garety
The recent literature on reasoning biases in psychosis and delusions is reviewed. The state-of-the-art knowledge from systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the evidence for jumping to conclusions is briefly summarised, before a fuller discussion of the more recent empirical literature on belief flexibility as applied to delusions. The methodology and evidence in relation to studies of belief flexibility and the Bias Against Disconfirmatory Evidence (BADE) across the delusional continuum will be critically appraised, and implications drawn for improving cognitive therapy...
September 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923963/mistiming-of-thought-and-perception-predicts-delusionality
#5
Adam Bear, Rebecca G Fortgang, Michael V Bronstein, Tyrone D Cannon
The timing of thoughts and perceptions plays an essential role in belief formation. Just as people can experience in-the-moment perceptual illusions, however, they can also be deceived about how events unfold in time. Here, we consider how a particular type of temporal distortion, in which the apparent future influences "earlier" events in conscious awareness, might affect people's most fundamental beliefs about themselves and the world. Making use of a task that has been shown to elicit such reversals in the temporal experience of prediction and observation, we find that people who are more prone to think that they predicted an event that they actually already observed are also more likely to report holding delusion-like beliefs...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918417/-clinical-features-of-psychotic-and-non-psychotic-bipolar-patients
#6
Zsuzsanna Belteczki, Zoltan Rihmer, Julia Ujvari
BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are common in the case of manic, depressive and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder; however, the assessment of delusions and hallucinations is frequently improper, thus the patients presenting also psychotic symptoms are treated based on their diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or paranoia. Psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder result less favourable outcomes and course of illness. METHODS: 365 patients (106 males, 259 females) were hospitalized in or institution from January 1st 2015 to September 30th 2016, who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder according to the ICD-10 criteria...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899583/what-could-be-learned-from-a-decade-with-standardized-remission-criteria-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-an-exploratory-follow-up-study
#7
Madeleine Johansson, Fredrik Hjärthag, Lars Helldin
A decade has passed since the standardized remission criteria of schizophrenia spectrum disorders-the Andreasen Criteria-were defined. Over 2000 studies have been published, but only a few describe symptomatic remission over time. In this prospective study we followed patients for 3 and 5years, respectively. The aim was to investigate how different symptoms affect the occurrence of remission and how the remission cut-off level affects remission sustainability. The participants were patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (DSM-IV)...
September 9, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887803/psychosis-in-spinocerebellar-ataxias-a-case-series-and-study-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-in-substantia-nigra
#8
Katherine W Turk, Margaret E Flanagan, Samuel Josephson, C Dirk Keene, Suman Jayadev, Thomas D Bird
Spinocerebellar ataxias are a genetically heterogeneous group of degenerative diseases typically characterized by progressive ataxia and to various degrees, neuropathy, amyotrophy, and ocular abnormalities. There is increasing evidence for non-motor manifestations associated with cerebellar syndromes including cognitive and psychiatric features. We studied a retrospective clinical case series of eight subjects with spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) 2, 3, 7, and 17, all displaying features of psychosis, and also measured tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) staining of the substantia nigra (SN) at autopsy, among four of the subjects...
September 8, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886978/nursing-home-residents-with-dementia-and-very-frequent-agitation-a-particular-group
#9
Annelies E Veldwijk-Rouwenhorst, Martin Smalbrugge, Roland Wetzels, Hans Bor, Sytse U Zuidema, Raymond T C M Koopmans, Debby L Gerritsen
OBJECTIVE: Although many nursing home residents with dementia show agitation, hardly any literature is published about very frequent agitation. The WAALBED-III study focuses on the 2-week prevalence and correlates of very frequent agitation in these residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using combined data of four studies. SETTING: One hundred nineteen dementia special care units in twenty-six nursing homes in The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand seventy-four residents with dementia...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880359/-a-young-boy-with-periodic-strange-behavior-and-hypersomnia-kleine-levin-syndrome
#10
F Dauwe, L Imeraj, K Dhondt
Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare neuro-psychiatric disease. Most of the young patients are males who present with hypersomnia, cognitive dysfunction, altered perception, eating disorder (e.g. hyperphagia) or disinhibited behaviour (e.g. hypersexuality). Psychiatric symptoms such as apathy, delusions and hallucinations, depressed mood and compulsive behaviours also appear often and result frequently in a psychiatric referral. These symptoms, however, should be distinguished from those of psychiatric diseases as early as possible in order to ensure that patients do not receive the wrong treatment...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878698/synthetic-cathinone-and-cannabinoid-designer-drugs-pose-a-major-risk-for-public-health
#11
REVIEW
Aviv M Weinstein, Paola Rosca, Liana Fattore, Edythe D London
As part of an increasing worldwide use of designer drugs, recent use of compounds containing cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids is especially prevalent. Here, we reviewed current literature on the prevalence, epidemiology, bio-behavioral effects, and detection of these compounds. Gender differences and clinical effects will also be examined. Chronic use of synthetic cathinone compounds can have major effects on the central nervous system and can induce acute psychosis, hypomania, paranoid ideation, and delusions, similar to the effects of other better-known amphetamine-type stimulants...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874252/-neurosyphilis-as-differential-diagnosis-in-psychiatry
#12
Rikke Maria Nielsen, Elena Sadovina
A 46-year-old previously healthy man was referred to a psychiatric department after debuting with persecutory delusions. He had symptoms of Parkinson's disease as well as a significant impairment of memory and cognitive function. Neurological tests detected discrete balance and rigidity problems. Paraclinical tests were normal, and neurologists explained the symptoms as side effects to the antipsychotic medication. A lumbar puncture showed high concentrations of leukocytes and protein, and syphilis screening was positive...
September 4, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870686/-risk-factors-related-to-homicide-in-moroccan-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
A Kachouchi, M Sebbani, S Salim, I Adali, F Manoudi, M Amine, F Asri
BACKGROUND: Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime - 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. The relationship between schizophrenia and homicide is complex and cannot be reduced to a simple causal link. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics of homicide in Moroccan patients suffering from schizophrenia and to determine the correlated sociodemographic, clinical and toxic variables...
September 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869228/symptom-profile-as-assessed-on-delirium-rating-scale-revised-98-of-delirium-in-respiratory-intensive-care-unit-a-study-from-india
#14
Akhilesh Sharma, Savita Malhotra, Sandeep Grover, S K Jindal
AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the phenomenology of delirium in patients admitted in a Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU). METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted to RICU were screened for delirium using Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), Confusion Assessment Method for ICU (CAM-ICU) assessment tool and those found positive for delirium were evaluated by a psychiatrist to confirm the diagnosis. Those with a diagnosis of delirium as per the psychiatrist were evaluated on Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98) to study phenomenology...
September 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858444/a-population-approach-to-guide-amisulpride-dose-adjustments-in-older-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Suzanne Reeves, Julie Bertrand, Emma McLachlan, Fabrizia D'Antonio, Stuart Brownings, Akshay Nair, Suki Greaves, Alan Smith, Joel T Dunn, Paul Marsden, Robert Kessler, Hiroyuki Uchida, David Taylor, Robert Howard
OBJECTIVE: We have previously reported high dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancies at low amisulpride concentrations in older people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), during off-label treatment of AD-related psychosis. This post hoc analysis explored pharmacokinetic (concentration) and pharmacodynamic (prolactin, D2/3 occupancy) contributions to symptom reduction and extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) to inform AD-specific dose adjustments. METHODS: Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models were developed by combining pharmacokinetic data from a phase 1 study in 20 healthy older people with pharmacokinetic prolactin, [¹⁸F]fallypride D2/3 receptor imaging, and clinical outcome data from 28 older patients prescribed open amisulpride (25-75 mg/d) to treat AD-related psychosis...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852250/delusion-of-triplet-pregnancy-in-abdominal-cavity-a-case-report-with-a-review-of-literature
#16
Shri Gopal Goyal, Ananya Mahapatra, Priti Kumari Goyal, Sudhir Kumar Khandelwal
The two terms, pseudocyesis and delusion of pregnancy, were frequently used for pseudopregnancy. Delusion of pregnancy is a special form of hypochondriacal/somatic delusion reported in various psychiatric and organic disorders. The origin of the delusion of pregnancy in schizophrenia has often been explained by psycho-analytic interpretations attributing wish fulfilling, protective role to false beliefs, and mother establishes an undisturbed union with her fetus during pregnancy, which eliminate loneliness and helplessness...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844638/a-state-independent-network-of-depressive-negative-and-positive-symptoms-in-male-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#17
Geeske van Rooijen, Adela-Maria Isvoranu, Olle H Kruijt, Claudia D van Borkulo, Carin J Meijer, Johanna T W Wigman, Henricus G Ruhé, Lieuwe de Haan
Depressive symptoms occur frequently in patients with schizophrenia. Several factor analytical studies investigated the associations between positive, negative and depressive symptoms and reported difficulties differentiating between these symptom domains. Here, we argue that a network approach may offer insights into these associations, by exploring interrelations between symptoms. The aims of current study were to I) construct a network of positive, negative and depressive symptoms in male patients with schizophrenia to investigate interactions between individual symptoms; II) identify the most central symptoms within this network and III) examine group-level differences in network connectivity between remitted and non-remitted patients...
August 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844432/do-trauma-focussed-psychological-interventions-have-an-effect-on-psychotic-symptoms-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Rachel M Brand, Carla McEnery, Susan Rossell, Sarah Bendall, Neil Thomas
There is growing recognition of the relationship between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychosis. There may be overlaps in casual mechanisms involved in the development of PTSD and psychosis following traumatic or adverse events. Trauma-focussed treatments found to be effective in treating PTSD may therefore represent a new direction in the psychological treatment of psychosis. This systematic review examined the literature on trauma-focussed treatments conducted with people with schizophrenia spectrum or psychotic disorders to determine effects on psychotic symptoms...
August 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840642/the-predictive-value-of-early-maladaptive-schemas-in-paranoid-responses-to-social-stress
#19
Johanna Sundag, Leonie Ascone, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND: Social stress and negatively valenced cognitive representations of the self (self-schemas) play an important role in the formation of delusions. However, it has not been investigated whether and which self-schemas explain paranoid responses to social stress. Building on the framework of schema theory, the aim of this study was thus to investigate whether more pronounced early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) were associated with increased paranoid ideation after a social stress induction in patients with persecutory delusions (PD)...
August 25, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833984/psychosis-in-bipolar-disorder-does-it-represent-a-more-severe-illness
#20
Cynthia Z Burton, Kelly A Ryan, Masoud Kamali, David F Marshall, Gloria Harrington, Melvin G McInnis, Ivy F Tso
OBJECTIVES: Although there is a common clinical assumption that bipolar disorder with psychotic features reflects greater severity than bipolar disorder without psychosis, the existing empirical literature is mixed. This study investigated the phenomenology of psychosis as well as demographic, clinical, functional, and neuropsychological features in a large, cross-sectional sample of participants with bipolar disorder divided by history of psychosis. METHODS: In a large single study, 168 affective-only bipolar disorder (BP-A) participants and 213 bipolar disorder with a history of psychosis (BP-P) participants completed a comprehensive clinical diagnostic interview and neuropsychological testing...
August 23, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
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