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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108020/hallucinations-and-the-spectrum-of-psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Karen Frei, Daniel D Truong
Hallucinations and psychosis can be a part of Parkinson's disease and are considered to be a nonmotor symptom or a neuropsychiatric complication of the disease. Hallucinations of different modalities and delusions can occur beyond the common visual hallucinations. The various types of hallucinations and psychotic symptoms comprising the spectrum of Parkinson's disease psychosis is the subject of this review article.
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106066/the-psychosis-spectrum-in-parkinson-disease
#2
REVIEW
Dominic H Ffytche, Byron Creese, Marios Politis, K Ray Chaudhuri, Daniel Weintraub, Clive Ballard, Dag Aarsland
In 2007, the clinical and research profile of illusions, hallucinations, delusions and related symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD) was raised with the publication of a consensus definition of PD psychosis. Symptoms that were previously deemed benign and clinically insignificant were incorporated into a continuum of severity, leading to the rapid expansion of literature focusing on clinical aspects, mechanisms and treatment. Here, we review this literature and the evolving view of PD psychosis. Key topics include the prospective risk of dementia in individuals with PD psychosis, and the causal and modifying effects of PD medication...
January 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100927/resolution-of-morphology-based-taxonomic-delusions-acrocordiella-basiseptospora-blogiascospora-clypeosphaeria-hymenopleella-lepteutypa-pseudapiospora-requienella-seiridium-and-strickeria
#3
W M Jaklitsch, A Gardiennet, H Voglmayr
Fresh material, type studies and molecular phylogeny were used to clarify phylogenetic relationships of the nine genera Acrocordiella, Blogiascospora, Clypeosphaeria, Hymenopleella, Lepteutypa, Pseudapiospora, Requienella, Seiridium and Strickeria. At first sight, some of these genera do not seem to have much in common, but all were found to belong to the Xylariales, based on their generic types. Thus, the most peculiar finding is the phylogenetic affinity of the genera Acrocordiella, Requienella and Strickeria, which had been classified in the Dothideomycetes or Eurotiomycetes, to the Xylariales...
December 2016: Persoonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099631/associations-of-cerebrovascular-metabolism-genotypes-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-age-at-onset-of-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#4
Fabricio F de Oliveira, Elizabeth S Chen, Marilia C Smith, Paulo H Bertolucci
Objective: To study associations of cerebrovascular metabolism genotypes and haplotypes with age at Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) onset and with neuropsychiatric symptoms according to each dementia stage. Methods: Consecutive outpatients with late-onset AD were assessed for age at dementia onset and Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores according to Clinical Dementia Rating scores, apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) haplotypes, angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) variants rs1800764 and rs4291, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol receptor gene (LDLR) variants rs11669576 and rs5930, cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene (CETP) variants I422V and TaqIB, and liver X receptor beta gene (NR1H2) polymorphism rs2695121...
January 12, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097738/enhanced-predictive-signalling-in-schizophrenia
#5
Katharina Schmack, Marcus Rothkirch, Josef Priller, Philipp Sterzer
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations are thought to arise from an alteration in predictive mechanisms of the brain. Here, we empirically tested the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with an enhanced signalling of higher-level predictions that shape perception into conformity with acquired beliefs. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and twenty-eight healthy controls matched for age and gender took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that assessed the effect of an experimental manipulation of cognitive beliefs on the perception of an ambiguous visual motion stimulus...
January 18, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092756/effects-of-assisted-outpatient-treatment-and-health-care-services-on-psychotic-symptoms
#6
Andres R Schneeberger, Christian G Huber, Undine E Lang, Kristina H Muenzenmaier, Dorothy Castille, Matthias Jaeger, Azizi Seixas, Julia Sowislo, Bruce G Link
RATIONALE: An ongoing debate concerns acceptability, benefits, and shortcomings of coercive treatment such as assisted outpatient treatment (AOT). The hypothesis that involuntary commitment to outpatient treatment may lead to a better clinical outcome for a subgroup of persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is controversial. Nonetheless, positive effects of AOT may be mediated by an increased availability of healthcare resources or increased service use. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the course of delusions, hallucinations, and negative symptoms among patients with SMI receiving AOT compared to patients receiving non-compulsory treatment (NCT)...
January 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088312/dementia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Hasmet A Hanagasi, Zeynep Tufekcioglu, Murat Emre
Dementia can occur in a substantial number of patients with Parkinson's disease with a point prevalence close to 30%. The cognitive profile is characterized by predominant deficits in executive, visuospatial functions, attention and memory. Behavioral symptoms are frequent such as apathy, visual hallucinations and delusions. The most prominent associated pathology is Lewy body-type and biochemical deficit is cholinergic. Placebo-controlled randomized trials with cholinesterase inhibitors demonstrated modest but significant benefits in cognition, behavioral symptoms and global functions...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075189/11-analytically-confirmed-cases-of-mexedrone-use-among-polydrug-users
#8
Liam Roberts, Loretta Ford, Neel Patel, J Allister Vale, Sally M Bradberry
INTRODUCTION: Mexedrone, 3-methoxy-2-(methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)propan-1-one, is the alpha-methoxy-derivative of mephedrone (4-methyl-N-methyl cathinone). Mexedrone inhibits the re-uptake of serotonin and dopamine in a dose-dependent manner and has affinity for serotonin and dopamine membrane transporters and receptors (5-HT2 and D2 receptors), producing sympathomimetic effects similar to amfetamines. To date there are no published clinical reports on mexedrone use that are analytically confirmed...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072812/is-kratom-the-new-legal-high-on-the-block-the-case-of-an-emerging-opioid-receptor-agonist-with-substance-abuse-potential
#9
George C Chang-Chien, Charles A Odonkor, Prin Amorapanth
Kratom is an unscheduled opioid receptor agonist that comes in the form of dietary supplements currently being abused by chronic pain patients on prescription opioids. Active alkaloids isolated from kratom such as mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are thought to act on mu- and delta-opioid receptors as well as alpha-2 adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors. Animal studies suggest that kratom may be more potent than morphine. Consequently, kratom consumption produces analgesic and euphoric feelings among users. In particular, some chronic pain patients on opioids take kratom to counteract the effects of opioid withdrawal...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067961/quality-of-life-in-relation-to-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-alzheimer-s-disease-5-year-prospective-alsova-cohort-study
#10
Kristiina Hongisto, Ilona Hallikainen, Tuomas Selander, Soili Törmälehto, Saku Väätäinen, Janne Martikainen, Tarja Välimäki, Sirpa Hartikainen, Jaana Suhonen, Anne M Koivisto
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) with self- and caregiver-rated Quality of Life (QoL) for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) during a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: The ALSOVA 5-year follow-up study included, at baseline, 236 patients with either very mild (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) 0.5), or mild (CDR 1) AD, together with their caregivers from three Finnish hospital districts. QoL was evaluated using patient self-reported, and caregiver-rated, QoL in AD (QoL-AD) scores...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065176/behavioural-and-psychological-symptoms-in-general-hospital-patients-with-dementia-distress-for-nursing-staff-and-complications-in-care-results-of-the-general-hospital-study
#11
J B Hessler, M Schäufele, I Hendlmeier, M N Junge, S Leonhardt, J Weber, H Bickel
AIMS: Little is known about how behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) manifest in the general hospital. The aim was to examine the frequency of BPSD in general hospitals and their associations with nursing staff distress and complications in care. METHODS: Cross-sectional representative study with 1469 patients aged ≥65, including 270 patients with dementia, of 33 randomly selected general hospitals in Germany. BPSD and complications were reported by nurses...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061429/the-not-so-strange-body-in-the-mirror-a-principal-components-analysis-of-direct-and-mirror-self-observation
#12
Paul M Jenkinson, Catherine Preston
In this study we adopted a psychometric approach to examine how the body is subjectively experienced in a mirror. One hundred and twenty-four healthy participants viewed their body for five minutes directly or via a mirror, and then completed a 20-item questionnaire designed to capture subjective experiences of the body. PCA revealed a two-component structure for both direct and mirror conditions, comprising body evaluations (and alienation) and unusual feelings and perceptions. The relationship between these components and pre-existing tendencies for appearance anxiety, body dysmorphic-type beliefs, dissociative symptomatology, self-objectification and delusion ideation further supported the similarity between direct and mirror conditions; however, the occurrence of strange experiences like those reported to occur during prolonged face viewing was not confirmed...
January 3, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056884/secondary-psychotic-features-in-refugees-diagnosed-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Mette Nygaard, Charlotte Sonne, Jessica Carlsson
BACKGROUND: A substantial amount of refugees (10-30%) suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In Denmark there are different facilities specialised in psychiatric treatment of trauma-affected refugees. A previously published case report from such a facility in Denmark shows that some patients suffer from secondary psychotic symptoms alongside their PTSD. The aim of this study was to illustrate the characteristics and estimate the prevalence of psychotic features in a clinical population of trauma-affected refugees with PTSD...
January 5, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050187/detection-of-borna-disease-virus-bdv-in-patients-with-first-episode-of-schizophrenia
#14
Hasan Soltani, Serwa Mohammadzadeh, Manoochehr Makvandi, Siroos Pakseresht, Alireza Samarbaf-Zadeh
Objective: Schizophrenia is a complex widespread neuropsychiatric disorder. This illness encompasses a complex debilitating mental disorder causing illusion, delusion, disturbed relationship, low motivation and decline of emotion. Viral infection of the brain including Borna Disease Virus (BDV) may play a role in transient or permanent neurological and behavioral abnormalities. This role of Borna virus has not been resolved outright yet, and based on published papers investigation examining the role of this virus in schizophrenia is in progress worldwide...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041541/-electroconvulsive-therapy-is-efficient-in-treating-cotard-s-syndrome
#15
Tatiana Mamaeva, Ditte Sigaard Christensen, Connie Thurøe Nielsen
Cotard's syndrome is a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by nihilistic delusions in which the patient is convinced that death has occurred or the internal organs have perished. The treatment of Cotard's syndrome requires monotherapy or combination therapy with antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood-stabilizing drugs or electroconvulsive treatment (ECT). We describe a woman with severe depression and Cotard's syndrome who responded well to ECT. This case is not only an example of a patient with Cotard's syndrome, but also an example of how quickly and severely a delirium can develop...
December 19, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035924/the-effect-of-the-association-between-donepezil-and-choline-alphoscerate-on-behavioral-disturbances-in-alzheimer-s-disease-interim-results-of-the-ascomalva-trial
#16
Anna Carotenuto, Raffaele Rea, Enea Traini, Angiola Maria Fasanaro, Giovanna Ricci, Valentino Manzo, Francesco Amenta
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a group of psychological reactions, psychiatric symptoms, and behaviors commonly found in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Four clusters of BPSD have been described: mood disorders (depression, anxiety, and apathy), psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations), aberrant motor behaviors (pacing, wandering, and other purposeless behaviors), and inappropriate behaviors (agitation, disinhibition, and euphoria). Most of them are attributed to acetylcholine deficiency...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003827/when-the-patient-believes-that-the-organs-are-destroyed-manifestation-of-cotard-s-syndrome
#17
Leonardo Machado, Luiz Evandro de Lima Filho, Liliane Machado
Cotard's Syndrome (CS) is a rare clinical event described for the first time in 1880 by the neurologist and psychiatrist Jules Cotard and characterized by negation delusions (or nihilists). Immortality and hypochondriac delusions are also typical. Nowadays, it is known that CS can be associated with many neuropsychiatric conditions. In this article, we describe the case of a patient that believed not having more organs and having the body deformed and whose CS was associated with a bigger depressive disorder...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003468/the-clinical-features-of-paranoia-in-the-20th-century-and-their-representation-in-diagnostic-criteria-from-dsm-iii-through-dsm-5
#18
Kenneth S Kendler
This review traces, through psychiatric textbooks, the history of the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia in the 20th century and then relates the common reported symptoms and signs to the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder in DSM-III through DSM-5. Clinical descriptions of paranoia appearing in 10 textbooks, published 1899 to 1970, revealed 11 prominent symptoms and signs reported by 5 or more authors. Three symptoms (systematized delusions, minimal hallucinations, and prominent ideas of reference) and 2 signs (chronic course and minimal affective deterioration) were reported by 8 or 9 of the authors...
December 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995564/a-review-of-the-functional-and-anatomical-default-mode-network-in-schizophrenia
#19
REVIEW
Mao-Lin Hu, Xiao-Fen Zong, J John Mann, Jun-Jie Zheng, Yan-Hui Liao, Zong-Chang Li, Ying He, Xiao-Gang Chen, Jin-Song Tang
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by impaired perception, delusions, thought disorder, abnormal emotion regulation, altered motor function, and impaired drive. The default mode network (DMN), since it was first proposed in 2001, has become a central research theme in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. In this review, first we define the DMN and describe its functional activity, functional and anatomical connectivity, heritability, and inverse correlation with the task positive network...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975355/-christmas-from-an-allergist-s-perspective
#20
Bettina Wedi
The customs and traditions associated with Christmas may result in allergic reactions to allergens that are typical for this period. On the one hand the rise in prevalence of allergic diseases has continued in the industrialized world for the last decades and allergies are regarded as widespread diseases. On the other hand the 21th century is a time of "allergy delusion". This review summarizes the facts about allergic reactions to Christmas typical decoration, food and behavior. Taken together, allergic reactions to Christmas tree, poinsettia, Christmas cactus, perfumed candles, Christmas typical food, common gifts like mobile phones and laptops, frankincense, myrrh and pollens have been described but in very rare instances...
December 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
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