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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766653/organic-psychosis-the-pathobiology-and-treatment-of-delusions
#1
REVIEW
Eileen Maria Joyce
Organic or secondary psychosis can be seen in diverse conditions such as toxic/metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative disease, and stroke. Poststroke psychosis is a rare phenomenon, but its study has significantly contributed to the understanding of delusion formation. The evidence from case studies of patients with focal strokes shows that delusions develop following unilateral damage of the right hemisphere. The majority of patients with right hemisphere stroke do not develop delusions however, and advanced neuroimaging analysis has elucidated why this symptom develops in only a small proportion...
May 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755713/a-mobile-multimedia-reminiscence-therapy-application-to-reduce-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-in-persons-with-alzheimer-s
#2
Danish Imtiaz, Arshia Khan, Adriana Seelye
The goal of this project is to develop a novel and innovative mobile solution to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) that occur in individuals with Alzheimer's. BPSD can include agitation, restlessness, aggression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive and repetitive behaviors, hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and wandering. Alzheimer's currently affects 5.4 million adults in the United States and that number is projected to increase to 14 million by 2050. Almost 90% of all affected with AD experience BPSD, resulting in increased healthcare costs, heavier burden on caregivers, poor patient outcomes, early nursing home placement, long-term hospitalizations, and misuse of medications...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754115/delusional-misidentifications-in-a-procrustean-bed
#3
EDITORIAL
G N Christodoulou, M Margariti, N Christodoulou
The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes (DMSs) are characterized by defective integration of the normally The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes (DMSs) are characterized by defective integration of the normally fused functions of perception and recognition. The classical sub-types are: the syndromes of Capgras, Fregoli,Intermetamorphosis (mentioned in 3) and Subjective doubles. These syndromes occur in a clear sensorium and shouldbe differentiated from the banal transient misidentifications occurring in confusional states and in mania and from thenon-delusional misidentifications (e...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749042/miscommunication-in-doctor-patient-communication
#4
Rose McCabe, Patrick G T Healey
The effectiveness of medical treatment depends on the quality of the patient-clinician relationship. It has been proposed that this depends on the extent to which the patient and clinician build a shared understanding of illness and treatment. Here, we use the tools of conversation analysis (CA) to explore this idea in the context of psychiatric consultations. The CA "repair" framework provides an analysis of the processes people use to deal with problems in speaking, hearing, and understanding. These problems are especially critical in the treatment of psychosis where patients and health care professionals need to communicate about the disputed meaning of hallucinations and delusion...
April 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744124/neurological-disorders-caused-by-two-cerebral-alveolar-hydatid-cysts-in-an-old-woman-a-rare-case-report
#5
Hossein Mokhtari, Mohammadamin Sadeghdoust, Farnaz Aligolighasemabadi, Amirhossein Hashemiattar, Vahid Ariabod, Saied Rahighi
Alveolar hydatid disease, caused by Echinococcus multilocularis , is a life-threatening infectious disease which primarily occurs in the liver. Intracranial hydatid disease is a rare presentation with reported incidence of ~1% of all cases. Here we reported a 60-year-old woman, with the past history of hydatid cysts in her liver, who was presented to us with progressive symptoms consist of headaches, diminished vision, cognitive disorders and delusion. She was disoriented in time, space and person. Bilateral mild papilledema and exaggerated reflexes were observed...
August 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742332/clinical-features-of-auditory-hallucinations-in-patients-with-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-soundtrack-of-visual-hallucinations
#6
Naoko Tsunoda, Mamoru Hashimoto, Tomohisa Ishikawa, Ryuji Fukuhara, Seiji Yuki, Hibiki Tanaka, Yutaka Hatada, Yusuke Miyagawa, Manabu Ikeda
OBJECTIVE: Auditory hallucinations are an important symptom for diagnosing dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), yet they have received less attention than visual hallucinations. We investigated the clinical features of auditory hallucinations and the possible mechanisms by which they arise in patients with DLB. METHODS: We recruited 124 consecutive patients with probable DLB (diagnosis based on the DLB International Workshop 2005 criteria; study period: June 2007-January 2015) from the dementia referral center of Kumamoto University Hospital...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730540/towards-a-reliable-repeated-measures-beads-task-for-assessing-the-jumping-to-conclusions-bias
#7
Benjamin F McLean, Julie K Mattiske, Ryan P Balzan
The jumping to conclusions bias (JTC), in which some people gather less information than others before making a decision, has been linked to delusions in psychosis. JTC is usually identified via the beads task, in which a sequence of beads (the "target" sequence) is used to measure the amount of evidence participants require before making a decision. Yet, despite its common use, the reliability of the task has never been properly investigated. We investigated its reliability, and tested an alternate version which used distractor sequences to obfuscate the target sequence...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719360/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-induced-by-large-doses-of-nitrous-oxide-inhalation-a-case-report
#8
Tianzhen Chen, Na Zhong, Haifeng Jiang, Min Zhao, Zhikang Chen, Haiming Sun
Nitrous Oxide, which is also called laughing gas, now ranks as the 7th most popular drug in the world. Nitrous oxide mainly disturbs B12 metabolism and damages nerves, followed by apparent neuropsychiatric symptoms. It's beneficial to the prognosis of patients if we identify and treat their symptoms early. This case report describes a 19-year-old male who presented with auditory hallucination, persecutory delusions and unstable emotions after abuse of nitrous oxide over the course of half a year. Moreover, neurological signs such as weakness and hyperesthesia also appeared...
February 25, 2018: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707400/-capgras-delusions-involving-belongings-not-people-and-evolving-visual-hallucinations-associated-with-occipital-lobe-seizures
#9
Brandon Lilly, Erika Maynard, Kelly Melvin, Suzanne Holroyd
Capgras syndrome is characterized by the delusional belief that a familiar person has been replaced by a visually similar imposter or replica. Rarely, the delusional focus may be objects rather than people. Numerous etiologies have been described for Capgras to include seizures. Similarly, visual hallucinations, both simple and complex, can occur secondary to seizure activity. We present, to our knowledge, the first reported case of visual hallucinations and Capgras delusions for objects that developed secondary to new onset occipital lobe epilepsy...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704415/ways-of-understanding-of-religious-delusions-associated-with-a-change-of-identity-on-the-example-of-identification-with-jesus-christ
#10
REVIEW
Krzysztof Dyga, Radosław Stupak
Identification with Christ among psychiatric patients is an example of a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. As a delusion it includes a misidentification (change of identity) in the layer of content and, usually, grandiosity and/or paranoid traits in the formal aspect. What is more, it fits in the category of religious delusions, which are perhaps the most controversial type of delusions and as such require special sensitivity as well as knowledge beyond psychology or psychiatry. The aim of the articleis to show the phenomenon of identification with Christ among psychiatric patients, taking into account different ways of its explaining and understanding...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703662/dysregulation-of-auditory-neuroplasticity-in-schizophrenia
#11
Patrice Voss, Maryse E Thomas, Gerson D Guercio, Etienne de Villers-Sidani
Schizophrenia is a complex brain syndrome characterized by an array of positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech), negative symptoms (alogia, apathy, avolition) and cognitive impairments (memory, executive functions). Although investigations of the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have primarily concentrated on disturbances affecting higher-order cognitive processes, there is an increasing realization that schizophrenia also affects early sensory processing, which might, in fact, play a significant role in the development of higher-order cognitive impairments...
April 24, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701596/voluntary-or-involuntary-acute-psychiatric-hospitalization-in-norway-a-24h-follow-up-study
#12
Kjetil Hustoft, Tor Ketil Larsen, Kolbjørn Brønnick, Inge Joa, Jan Olav Johannessen, Torleif Ruud
The Norwegian Mental Health Care Act states that patients who are involuntarily admitted to a hospital must be reevaluated by a psychiatrist or a specialist in clinical psychology within 24h to assess whether the patient fulfills the legal criteria for the psychiatric status and symptoms. International research on the use of coercive hospitalization in psychiatry is scarce, and an investigation of Norway's routine re-evaluation of involuntarily referred patients may expand knowledge about this aspect of psychiatric treatment...
January 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694935/does-dissociation-mediate-the-relationship-between-childhood-trauma-and-hallucinations-delusions-in-first-episode-psychosis
#13
Pamela Sun, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez, Katrina Simpson, Katherine Lawrence, Natalie Peach, Sarah Bendall
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma has been linked to the presence of delusions and hallucinations in psychosis, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship require elucidation. Dissociation, characterized by disruptions to the integrative functioning of several core mental domains, has emerged as a potential mechanism. There is a paucity of research using a clinician-rated measure of dissociation to test the indirect effect of dissociation on the relationship between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms...
April 11, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685325/emotion-perception-and-overconfidence-in-errors-under-stress-in-psychosis
#14
Ulf Köther, Tania M Lincoln, Steffen Moritz
Vulnerability stress models are well-accepted in psychosis research, but the mechanisms that link stress to psychotic symptoms remain vague. Little is known about how social cognition and overconfidence in errors, two putative mechanisms for the pathogenesis of delusions, relate to stress. Using a repeated measures design, we tested four groups (N=120) with different liability to psychosis (schizophrenia patients [n=35], first-degree relatives [n=24], participants with attenuated positive symptoms [n=19] and healthy controls [n=28]) and depression patients (n=14) as a clinical control group under three randomized experimental conditions (no stress, noise and social stress)...
March 21, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683518/the-function-and-failure-of-sensory-predictions
#15
REVIEW
Sonia Bansal, Judith M Ford, Miriam Spering
Humans and other primates are equipped with neural mechanisms that allow them to automatically make predictions about future events, facilitating processing of expected sensations and actions. Prediction-driven control and monitoring of perceptual and motor acts are vital to normal cognitive functioning. This review provides an overview of corollary discharge mechanisms involved in predictions across sensory modalities and discusses consequences of predictive coding for cognition and behavior. Converging evidence now links impairments in corollary discharge mechanisms to neuropsychiatric symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions...
April 23, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680513/the-relationship-between-illicit-amphetamine-use-and-psychiatric-symptom-profiles-in-schizophrenia-and-affective-psychoses
#16
Alexandra Voce, Rebecca McKetin, Richard Burns, David Castle, Bianca Calabria
This study examines whether illicit amphetamine use is associated with differences in the prevalence of specific psychiatric symptoms in a community sample of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or affective psychotic disorders. Data was drawn from the Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis. The Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis was used to measure substance use and psychiatric symptoms. Participants had used amphetamine within their lifetime and had an ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 347) or an affective psychotic disorder (n = 289)...
April 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674982/delusional-themes-across-affective-and-non-affective-psychoses
#17
Angelo Picardi, Laura Fonzi, Mauro Pallagrosi, Antonella Gigantesco, Massimo Biondi
The current debate about the diagnostic significance of delusion revolves around two positions. The neurocognitive position conceives delusion as a non-specific, though polymorphic, symptom. The psychopathological position views features of delusion such as content and structure as having meaningful connections with diagnostic entities. This study aims at contributing to this debate by examining the association between delusional themes and diagnosis in a sample of 830 adult psychotic patients. All diagnoses were made by experienced psychiatrists according to DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria, and in 348 patients were established with the SCID-I...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672108/a-greater-tendency-for-representation-mediated-learning-in-a-ketamine-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#18
Ming Teng Koh, Paige S Ahrens, Michela Gallagher
Representation mediated learning is a behavioral paradigm that could be used to potentially capture psychotic symptoms including hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia. In studies of mediated learning, representations of prior experience can enter into current associations. Using a ketamine model of schizophrenia, we investigated whether mice exposed to ketamine during late adolescence subsequently showed an increased tendency to use a representation of a prior gustatory experience to form associations in learning...
April 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671935/a-data-driven-investigation-of-relationships-between-bipolar-psychotic-symptoms-and-schizophrenia-genome-wide-significant-genetic-loci
#19
Ganna Leonenko, Arianna Di Florio, Judith Allardyce, Liz Forty, Sarah Knott, Lisa Jones, Katherine Gordon-Smith, Michael J Owen, Ian Jones, James Walters, Nick Craddock, Michael C O'Donovan, Valentina Escott-Price
The etiologies of bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia include a large number of common risk alleles, many of which are shared across the disorders. BD is clinically heterogeneous and it has been postulated that the pattern of symptoms is in part determined by the particular risk alleles carried, and in particular, that risk alleles also confer liability to schizophrenia influence psychotic symptoms in those with BD. To investigate links between psychotic symptoms in BD and schizophrenia risk alleles we employed a data-driven approach in a genotyped and deeply phenotyped sample of subjects with BD...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669410/relationship-between-delusion-of-theft-and-cognitive-functions-in-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Hae-Ran Na, Dong Woo Kang, Young-Sup Woo, Won-Myong Bahk, Chang-Uk Lee, Hyun Kook Lim
Although delusion of theft (DT) is the most frequent type of delusion in Alzheimer's disease (AD), its relationship to cognitive functions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between DT and cognitive functions in mild AD. Two hundred eighty-nine mild AD patients were enrolled in this study. These subjects were classified into three groups: patients with no delusions (ND, n=82), patients with paranoid delusions (PD, n=114) and patients with DT (n=93). Cognitive functions and their associations with the degree of delusion were compared among the three groups...
April 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
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