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Parkinson's disease cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916627/interactions-between-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-dorsomedial-striatum-are-necessary-for-odor-span-capacity-in-rats-role-of-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptors
#1
Don A Davies, Quentin Greba, Jantz C Selk, Jillian K Catton, Landon D Baillie, Sean J Mulligan, John G Howland
Working memory is involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information essential for complex cognition. While the neural substrates underlying working memory capacity have been studied in humans, considerably less is known about the circuitry mediating working memory capacity in rodents. Therefore, the present experiments tested the involvement of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal striatum (STR) in the odor span task (OST), a task proposed to assay working memory capacity in rodents. Initially, Long Evans rats were trained to dig in scented sand for food following a serial delayed nonmatching-to-sample rule...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914737/evidence-of-semantic-processing-impairments-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Katheryn A Q Cousins, Murray Grossman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Category-specific impairments caused by brain damage can provide important insights into how semantic concepts are organized in the brain. Recent research has demonstrated that disease to sensory and motor cortices can impair perceptual feature knowledge important to the representation of semantic concepts. This evidence supports the grounded cognition theory of semantics, the view that lexical knowledge is partially grounded in perceptual experience and that sensory and motor regions support semantic representations...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912672/maximizing-the-potential-of-longitudinal-cohorts-for-research-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-community-perspective
#3
Catherine J Moody, Derick Mitchell, Grace Kiser, Dag Aarsland, Daniela Berg, Carol Brayne, Alberto Costa, Mohammad A Ikram, Gail Mountain, Jonathan D Rohrer, Charlotte E Teunissen, Leonard H van den Berg, Joanna M Wardlaw
Despite a wealth of activity across the globe in the area of longitudinal population cohorts, surprisingly little information is available on the natural biomedical history of a number of age-related neurodegenerative diseases (ND), and the scope for intervention studies based on these cohorts is only just beginning to be explored. The Joint Programming Initiative on Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND) recently developed a novel funding mechanism to rapidly mobilize scientists to address these issues from a broad, international community perspective...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912150/-18-f-fdg-pet-in-parkinsonism-differential-diagnosis-and-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Philipp T Meyer, Lars Frings, Gerta Rücker, Sabine Hellwig
Accurate differential diagnosis of parkinsonism is of a paramount therapeutic and prognostic importance. In addition, with the development of invasive therapies and novel disease-specific therapies, strategies for patient enrichment in trial populations are of growing importance. Imaging disease-specific patterns of regional glucose metabolism with positron emission tomography and [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) allows for a highly accurate distinction between Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS) including multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911965/physiological-roles-of-cns-muscarinic-receptors-gained-from-knockout-mice
#5
REVIEW
Morgane Thomsen, Gunnar Sørensen, Ditte Dencker
Because the five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes have overlapping distributions in many CNS tissues, and because ligands with a high degree of selectivity for a given subtype long remained elusive, it has been difficult to determine the physiological functions of each receptor. Genetically engineered knockout mice, in which one or more muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype has been inactivated, have been instrumental in identifying muscarinic receptor functions in the CNS, at the neuronal, circuit, and behavioral level...
September 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904971/cognitive-or-cognitive-motor-executive-function-tasks-evaluating-verbal-fluency-measures-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa, Mariana Callil Voos, Janini Chen, Debora Cristina Valente Francato, Carolina de Oliveira Souza, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Hsin Fen Chien, Letícia Lessa Mansur
INTRODUCTION: Executive function deficits are observed in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) from early stages and have great impact on daily living activities. Verbal fluency and oral diadochokinesia involve phonarticulatory coordination, response inhibition, and phonological processing and may also be affected in people with PD. This study aimed to describe the performance of PD patients and an age- and education-matched control group on executive function, verbal fluency, and oral diadochokinesia tests and to investigate possible relationships between them...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904449/james-wenceslaus-papez-his-circuit-and-emotion
#7
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
James Papez worked on the anatomical substrates of emotion and described a circuit, mainly composed of the hippocampus, thalamus and cingulum, and published his observations in 1937. However, such an idea existed before him, as evidenced by the rudimentary indications from Paul Broca, and Paul MacLean added some other structures like, septum, amygdala, and hypothalamus in its ambit and called it the limbic system. Paul Ivan Yakovlev, proposed a circuit which also referred to orbitofrontal, insular, anterior temporal lobe, and other nuclei of thalamus...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903059/cognitive-flexibility-in-neurological-disorders-cognitive-components-and-event-related-potentials
#8
REVIEW
Florian Lange, Caroline Seer, Bruno Kopp
Performance deficits on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in patients with prefrontal cortex (PFC) lesions are traditionally interpreted as evidence for a role of the PFC in cognitive flexibility. However, WCST deficits do not occur exclusively after PFC lesions, but also in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. We propose a multi-component approach that can accommodate this pattern of omnipresent WCST deficits: the WCST is not a pure test of cognitive flexibility, but relies on the effective functioning of multiple dissociable cognitive components...
September 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901627/microstructural-white-matter-alterations-in-patients-with-drug-induced-parkinsonism
#9
Yoonju Lee, Yong Ho Choi, Jae Jung Lee, Hye Sun Lee, Young H Sohn, Jong-Min Lee, Phil Hyu Lee
Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is the second most common etiology of parkinsonism. And yet, there is little information on structural imaging in DIP to elucidate the accurate underlying pathomechanisms. To investigate microstructural white matter (WM) in patients with DIP using diffusion tensor image and to determine its relationship to severity of parkinsonian motor symptoms and cognitive function. A total of 42 patients with DIP, 65 with Parkinson's disease, and 33 control subjects were recruited from a movement disorders outpatient clinic...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899662/baseline-association-of-motoric-cognitive-risk-syndrome-with-sustained-attention-memory-and-global-cognition
#10
Fiachra J Maguire, Isabelle Killane, Andrew P Creagh, Orna Donoghue, Rose Anne Kenny, Richard B Reilly
OBJECTIVES: Slow gait has been shown to be a good predictor of declining cognitive function in healthy older adults. Motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome is a new construct incorporating slow gait and subjective cognitive complaints in individuals without dementia who have preserved activities of daily living. This analysis investigated the prevalence of MCR and factors associated with MCR in a nationally representative population. In addition, cross-sectional associations between MCR and cognitive domains, an relationship yet to be fully elucidated in literature, was investigated...
September 9, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895316/action-observation-produces-motor-resonance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Judith Bek, Emma Gowen, Stefan Vogt, Trevor Crawford, Ellen Poliakoff
Observation of movement activates the observer's own motor system, influencing the performance of actions and facilitating social interaction. This motor resonance is demonstrated behaviourally through visuomotor priming, whereby response latencies are influenced by the compatibility between an intended action and an observed (task-irrelevant) action. The impact of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) on motor resonance is unclear, as previous studies of visuomotor priming have not separated imitative compatibility (specific to human movement) from general stimulus-response compatibility effects...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890931/rotigotine-transdermal-patch-and-sleep-in-parkinson-s-disease-where-are-we-now
#12
REVIEW
Miguel Rosa-Grilo, Mubasher A Qamar, Raquel N Taddei, Javier Pagonabarraga, Jaime Kulisevsky, Anna Sauerbier, K Ray Chaudhuri
A wide range of sleep dysfunction complicates Parkinson's disease during its course from prodromal to palliative stage. It is now increasingly acknowledged that sleep disturbances are thus integral to the disease and pose a significant burden impacting on quality of life of patients. Sleep fragmentation, restless legs syndrome, nocturia, and nocturnal pain are regarded as one of the main components of night-time sleep dysfunction with possible secondary impact on cognition and well-being. The role of dopaminergic therapies, particularly using a continuous drug delivery strategy in managing some of these sleep issues, have been reported but the overall concept remains unclear...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890043/a-migration-case-of-kii-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-parkinsonism-dementia-complex-with-the-shortest-stay-in-the-endemic-area-and-the-longest-incubation-to-develop-the-disease
#13
Keiichiro Tsunoda, Toru Yamashita, Hitoshi Shimada, Emi Nomura, Yoshiaki Takahashi, Jingwei Shang, Kota Sato, Mami Takemoto, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Makoto Higuchi, Tetsuya Suhara, Yasumasa Kokubo, Shigeki Kuzuhara, Koji Abe
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC) is an endemic disease observed in the Kii peninsula, Guam, and Papua. We report a case of a 76-year old man with ALS/PDC of the Kii peninsula of Japan (Kii ALS/PDC). The patient was born and grew up in the Kii peninsula. He moved out at age three, and developed symptoms 73years later. He showed pyramidal sign, parkinsonian symptoms, and mildly impaired cognitive function. (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy showed decreased cardiac sympathetic nerve function, and dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography imaging showed decreased (123)I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane accumulation...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887694/contribution-of-auditory-p300-test-to-the-diagnosis-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Fikriye Tüter Yilmaz, Sehür Siber Özkaynak, Ebru Barçin
Abnormalities in auditory P300 test have been observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to investigate whether or not additional electrophysiological tests assist in making the clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI), and we evaluated P300 changes in patients with non-demented PD and analyzed the correlation between the cognitive features and P300 changes. Twenty patients with PD who had been diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI group) according to the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) 2012 PD-MCI level II criteria, 21 patients with PD without cognitive impairment (PD-Normal group), and 20 control subjects (control group) who were neurologically normal were examined by the standard auditory oddball paradigm...
September 8, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882161/general-anesthesia-versus-local-anesthesia-in-stereotaxy-galaxy-for-parkinson-s-disease-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
R A Holewijn, D Verbaan, R M A de Bie, P R Schuurman
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to investigate if deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for Parkinson's disease (PD) under general anesthesia further improves outcome by lessening postoperative cognitive, mood, and behavioral adverse effects; shorten surgical time and hospital admittance; and produce comparable symptomatic and functional improvement to surgery under local anesthesia. METHODS/DESIGN: The study will be a single-center, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint trial comparing DBS under general anesthesia with DBS under local anesthesia...
September 7, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881253/5-substituted-2-benzylidene-1-tetralone-analogues-as-a1-and-or-a2a-antagonists-for-the-potential-treatment-of-neurological-conditions
#16
H D Janse van Rensburg, G Terre'Blanche, M M van der Walt, L J Legoabe
Adenosine A1 and A2A receptors are attracting great interest as drug targets for their role in cognitive and motor deficits, respectively. Antagonism of both these adenosine receptors may offer therapeutic benefits in complex neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to explore the affinity and selectivity of 2-benzylidene-1-tetralone derivatives as adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists. Several 5-hydroxy substituted 2-benzylidene-1-tetralone analogues with substituents on ring B were synthesized and assessed as antagonists of the adenosine A1 and A2A receptors via radioligand binding assays...
August 30, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880354/-pimavanserin-a-new-treatment-for-the-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#17
J H Duits, M S Ongering, H J M Martens, P F J Schulte
Clozapine is an effective drug for treating psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PDP) and is registered as such in the Netherlands. However, clozapine can have adverse effects, including agranulocytosis. The new drug pimavanserin was recently registered in the United States for the treatment of PDP.<br/> AIM: To review the literature on pimavanserin and discuss the position it currently occupies in the Netherlands as a potential treatment for PDP.<br/> METHOD: Systematic search of the literature.<br/> RESULTS: We found reports on four randomised controlled trials (RCTs), one review and six articles about the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pimavanserin...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879438/do-cognition-and-other-non-motor-symptoms-decline-similarly-among-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-motor-subtypes-findings-from-a-5-year-prospective-study
#18
L Arie, Talia Herman, S Shema-Shiratzky, N Giladi, J M Hausdorff
Among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), a wide range of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) are evident. PD is often divided into tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD) motor subtypes. We evaluated the effect of disease duration and aimed to characterize whether there are differences in the deterioration of cognitive function and other NMS between the PIGD and TD subtypes. Sixty-three subjects were re-evaluated at the follow-up visit about 5 years after baseline examination...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879018/are-we-missing-non-motor-seizures-in-parkinson-s-disease-two-case-reports
#19
Andre Y Son, Alberto Cucca, Shashank Agarwal, Anli Liu, Alessandro Di Rocco, Milton C Biagioni
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is predominantly recognized for its motor symptoms, but patients struggle from a morbid and heterogeneous collection of non-motor symptoms (NMS-PD) that can affect their quality of life even more. NMS-PD is a rather generalized term and the heterogeneity and non-specific nature of many symptoms poses a clinical challenge when a PD patient presents with non-motor complaints that may not be NMS-PD. CASE PRESENTATION: We report two patients with idiopathic PD who presented with acute episodes of cognitive changes...
2017: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877857/reduced-mind-wandering-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Tal Geffen, Avner Thaler, Gadi Gilam, Eti Ben Simon, Nimrod Sarid, Tanya Gurevich, Nir Giladi, Hertzel Shabtai, Jennifer Zitser, Eduardo A Schilman, Haggai Sharon
BACKGROUND: Mind Wandering (MW) refers to the process of disengaging from the immediate external environment and participating in internally driven mentation. This process has been suggested to be supported by a distributed set of brain regions, collectively referred to as the Default Mode Network (DMN). Recently, reduced recruitment and connectivity of the DMN has been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared to healthy controls. We thus aimed to explore whether PD patients with normal cognitive test scores show differential MW capabilities compared to healthy controls...
September 1, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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