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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434558/resistance-profiles-and-risk-factors-of-resistant-microorganisms-in-bacteraemia-of-abdominal-origin
#1
J Martín Jaramago, R Armero Ibáñez, J J Camarena Miñana, M Morales Suárez-Varela
OBJECTIVE: The presence of resistant microorganisms is a major cause of failure in initial empirical antimicrobial therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the resistance profile of microorganisms that cause bacteraemia of abdominal origin and to identify whether the previous use of antibiotics and the place of acquisition of bacteraemia are risk factors associated with the presence of resistant organisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A clinical, observational, epidemiological, retrospective cohort study was conducted with all the adult patients admitted to a university hospital from 2011-2013...
April 20, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415969/carbapenem-resistance-inappropriate-empiric-treatment-and-outcomes-among-patients-hospitalized-with-enterobacteriaceae-urinary-tract-infection-pneumonia-and-sepsis
#2
Marya D Zilberberg, Brian H Nathanson, Kate Sulham, Weihong Fan, Andrew F Shorr
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance among gram-negative pathogens is a risk factor for inappropriate empiric treatment (IET), which in turn increases the risk for mortality. We explored the impact of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) on the risk of IET and of IET on outcomes in patients with Enterobacteriaceae infections. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in Premier Perspective database (2009-2013) of 175 US hospitals. We included all adult patients with community-onset culture-positive urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia, or sepsis as a principal diagnosis, or as a secondary diagnosis in the setting of respiratory failure, treated with antibiotics within 2 days of admission...
April 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412382/use-of-nebulized-antimicrobials-for-the-treatment-of-respiratory-infections-in-invasively-mechanically-ventilated-adults-a-position-paper-from-the-european-society-of-clinical-microbiology-and-infectious-diseases
#3
Jordi Rello, Candela Solé-Lleonart, Jean-Jacques Rouby, Jean Chastre, Stijn Blot, Garyfallia Poulakou, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Jordi Riera, Lucy B Palmer, Jose M Pereira, Tim Felton, Jayesh Dhanani, Matteo Bassetti, Tobias Welte, Jason A Roberts
With an established role in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis, nebulized antibiotics are increasingly being used to treat respiratory infections in critically ill invasively mechanically ventilated adult patients. Although there is limited evidence describing their efficacy and safety, in an era of need for new strategies to enhance antibiotic effectiveness because of a shortage of new agents and increases in antibiotic resistance, the potential of nebulization of antibiotics to optimize therapy is considered of high interest, particularly in patients infected with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407054/procalcitonin-as-a-marker-of-etiology-in-adults-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#4
Wesley H Self, Robert A Balk, Carlos G Grijalva, Derek J Williams, Yuwei Zhu, Evan J Anderson, Grant W Waterer, D Mark Courtney, Anna M Bramley, Christopher Trabue, Sherene Fakhran, Anne J Blaschke, Seema Jain, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink
Background: Recent trials suggest procalcitonin-based guidelines can reduce antibiotic use for respiratory infections. However, the accuracy of procalcitonin to discriminate between viral and bacterial pneumonia requires further dissection. Methods: We evaluated the association between serum procalcitonin concentration at hospital admission with pathogens detected in a multicenter prospective surveillance study of adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397477/real-time-pcr-detection-of-the-most-common-bacteria-and-viruses-causing-meningitis
#5
Oya Akkaya, Hulya Iren Guvenc, Serife Yuksekkaya, Aysegul Opus, Asuman Guzelant, Meral Kaya, Muhammet Guzel Kurtoglu, Nurettin Kaya
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections require prompt diagnosis, as the clinical condition progresses rapidly and may lead to severe permanent sequelae or death. The causative agents include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study, samples with the diagnosis of CNS infection based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sent to us from other hospitals/labs, were studied by multiplex real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate, retrospectively, the most common bacteria and viruses causing meningitis and seasonal distribution of these agents using the multiplex real-time PCR method in CSF samples...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382572/current-clinical-trials-on-the-use-of-ceftaroline-in-the-pediatric-population
#6
REVIEW
Adam Corey, Tsz-Yin So
The rate of antibiotic resistance in children continues to rise requiring the use of new antibiotics. Ceftaroline fosamil, a newer-generation cephalosporin, was recently approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in children aged >2 months. Ceftaroline provides coverage against staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376809/molecular-characterization-of-penicillin-non-susceptible-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-before-and-after-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-implementation-in-casablanca-morocco
#7
Idrissa Diawara, Abouddihaj Barguigua, Khalid Katfy, Kaotar Nayme, Houria Belabbes, Mohammed Timinouni, Khalid Zerouali, Naima Elmdaghri
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among children and the elderly. The ability to effectively treat pneumococcal infection has been compromised due to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance, particularly to β-lactam drugs. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and molecular evolution of penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSP) isolated from invasive diseases before and after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation in Casablanca, Morocco...
April 4, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353452/molecular-characterization-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-haemophilus-influenzae-clinical-isolates
#8
Hüseyin K L Ç, Selcan Akyol, Õmür Mustafa Parkan, Gõkçen Dinç, Hafize Sav, Gonca Aydemir
Haemophilus influenzae can cause invasive and severe infections in both adults and children such as otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia. The emerging antibiotic resistance in recent years against ampicillin and several other antibiotics among strains of H. influenzae gives cause for serious concern. Here, we investigate ß-lactamase (BL) activity in clinical isolates of H. influenzae, profile their resistance to antibiotics, and characterize the clonal relationship of the isolates...
March 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341979/are-third-generation-cephalosporins-unavoidable-for-empirical-therapy-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adult-patients-who-require-icu-admission-a-retrospective-study
#9
Geoffroy Hariri, Jacques Tankovic, Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Vincent Dubée, Guillaume Leblanc, Claire Pichereau, Simon Bourcier, Naike Bigé, Jean-Luc Baudel, Arnaud Galbois, Hafid Ait-Oufella, Eric Maury
BACKGROUND: Third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) are recommended for empirical antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in patients requiring ICU admission. However, their extensive use could promote the emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Our aim was to assess whether the use of 3GCs in patients with CAP requiring ICU admission was justified. METHODS: We assessed all patients with CAP who required ICU admission during a 7-year period...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336384/predictors-for-individual-patient-antibiotic-treatment-effect-in-hospitalised-community-acquired-pneumonia-patients
#10
Antonella F Simonetti, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Valentijn A Schweitzer, Diego Viasus, Jordi Carratalà, Douwe F Postma, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert, Marc J M Bonten
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify clinical predictors of antibiotic treatment effects in non-ICU hospitalised CAP patients. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of three prospective cohorts (from the Netherlands and Spain) of CAP adult patients admitted to a non-ICU having received either beta-lactam monotherapy (BL), beta-lactam + macrolide (BLM), or fluoroquinolone-based therapy (FQL) as empiric antibiotic treatment. We evaluated candidate clinical predictors of treatment effects in multiple mixed-effects models by including interactions of the predictors with empiric antibiotic choice and using 30-day mortality, ICU admission, and length of hospital stay (LOS) as outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335198/gold-nanoparticles-an-efficient-antimicrobial-agent-against-enteric-bacterial-human-pathogen
#11
Shahzadi Shamaila, Noshin Zafar, Saira Riaz, Rehana Sharif, Jawad Nazir, Shahzad Naseem
Enteric bacterial human pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are the major cause of diarrheal infections in children and adults. Their structure badly affects the human immune system. It is important to explore new antibacterial agents instead of antibiotics for treatment. This project is an attempt to explain how gold nanoparticles affect these bacteria. We investigated the important role of the mean particle size, and the inhibition of a bacterium is dose-dependent...
April 14, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321515/isolated-optic-neuritis-associated-with-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#12
Seo-Young Choi, You-Jin Choi, Jae-Hwan Choi, Kwang-Dong Choi
Mycoplasma pneumonia is a major pathogen of primary atypical pneumonia and has been known to cause various kinds of extrapulmonary manifestations involving almost all organs of the human body. Optic neuritis associated with M. pneumoniae infection has rarely been described and mostly, it combined other neurological complications including meningitis, meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and peripheral neuropathy. We report two patients who presented with isolated optic neuritis due to M. pneumoniae infection, and reviewed the literatures on five additional patients...
March 20, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314671/a-case-of-pulmonary-hypertension-due-to-fistulas-between-multiple-systemic-arteries-and-the-right-pulmonary-artery-in-an-adult-discovered-for-occulted-dyspnoea
#13
Ji-Feng Li, Zhen-Guo Zhai, Tu-Guang Kuang, Min Liu, Zhan-Hong Ma, Yi-Dan Li, Yuan-Hua Yang
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can be caused by a fistula between the systemic and pulmonary arteries. Here, we report a case of PH due to multiple fistulas between systemic arteries and the right pulmonary artery where the ventilation/perfusion scan showed no perfusion in the right lung. METHODS: A 32-year-old male patient was hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia. After treatment with antibiotics, the pneumonia was alleviated but dyspnoea persisted...
February 22, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303826/prevalence-of-pneumococcal-serotypes-in-adults-%C3%A2-50-years-of-age
#14
Chand Wattal, Neeraj Goel, S P Byotra
CONTEXT: Currently, majority of studies on antibiotic resistance and serotype prevalence in Streptococcus pneumoniae are in paediatric population and there is limited epidemiologic data pertaining to elderly Indian population. AIMS: This study was undertaken to assess antibiotic resistance pattern and the coverage of the polysaccharide vaccine 23 (PPV23) in the elderly population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective 2-year pneumococcal surveillance study in patients with community-acquired pneumococcal infections of ≥50 years' age group on fifty isolates of S...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302543/immunomodulatory-effects-of-pidotimod-in-adults-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-undergoing-standard-antibiotic-therapy
#15
D Trabattoni, M Clerici, S Centanni, M Mantero, M Garziano, F Blasi
The morbidity and mortality of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are still elevated and two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvants, including corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects but their efficacy is only partial. We examined the immunomodulatory activity of Pidotimod (PDT), a synthetic dipeptide molecule in adult patients hospitalized for CAP. Sixteen patients with a diagnosis of CAP and a PSI score III or IV and/or a CURB-65 0-2 were randomized to receive either levofloxacin 500 mg b...
March 13, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302374/a-novel-biochemical-marker-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-ischemia-modified-albumin
#16
Mustafa Bolatkale, Mustafa Duger, Gözde Ülfer, Çağdaş Can, Ahmet Cagdas Acara, Türkan Yiğitbaşı, Ekrem Cengiz Seyhan, Mehtap Bulut
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a frequent cause of hospitalization and a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy are essential to reduce pneumonia-related morbidity and mortality. CRP is a well-established biomarker in many clinical settings, but has been traditionally considered not specific enough to be a useful guide in the diagnostic process of pneumonia. There is still a need for more specific and practical markers in CAP for diagnosis...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282711/abdominal-pain-as-extrapulmonary-presentation-of-pneumonia-in-an-adult-a-case-report
#17
Hamid Emadi Koochak, Elnaz Tabibian, Shahram Rahimi Dehgolan
Pneumonia is considered as the main cause of abdominal pain in children whereas it presents mostly by respiratory symptoms in adults. Here we present a 71-year-old Iranian female who complained specifically of abdominal pain on admission to our emergency department. We had found nothing as an etiology in our first evaluations. After several hours chest pain was added to the symptoms and the following chest, X-Ray showed a consolidation in the right lung base. She was treated by pneumonia antibiotic regimen and discharged after seven days in a good clinical condition...
February 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281915/burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-over-18%C3%A2-y-of-age
#18
Filiz Kosar, Devrim Emel Alici, Basak Hacibedel, Burcu Arpınar Yigitbas, Pejman Golabi, Caglar Cuhadaroglu
This study aimed to determine the economic burden and affecting factors in adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients (≥ 18 years) by retrospectively evaluating the data of 2 centers in Istanbul province, Turkey. Data of outpatients and inpatients with CAP from January 2013 through June 2014 were evaluated. The numbers of laboratory analyses, imaging, hospitalization days, and specialist visits were multiplied by the relevant unit costs and the costs of the relevant items per patient were obtained...
March 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264021/antimicrobial-use-in-paediatric-patients-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-ethiopia
#19
Hafte Kahsay Kebede, Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Tewodros Eyob Woldehaimanot, Kabaye Kumela Goro
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics use in in children are different from adults due to a lack of data on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of drugs, different physiological spectrum, pediatrics populations being vulnerable to the majority of the illnesses, and the adverse effect of their irrational use is more serious. However, antibiotic use is not explored much in a paediatric population. The current study focused on antibiotic use among pediatric population using data from a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249572/efficacy-and-safety-of-de-escalation-therapy-to-ertapenem-for-treatment-of-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Pinyo Rattanaumpawan, Peerawong Werarak, Anupop Jitmuang, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Visanu Thamlikitkul
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem antibiotics are considered the treatment of choice for serious extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections. The study objectives were to evaluate efficacy and safety of de-escalation therapy to ertapenem for treatment of infections caused by extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of adult patients with documented ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae infections who had received any group 2 carbapenem for less than 96 h...
March 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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