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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922566/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-chronic-endobronchial-infections-in-childhood
#1
Kim M Hare, Amanda J Leach, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Keith Grimwood
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the latter causes considerable morbidity and, in some populations, premature death in children and adults. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is another chronic endobronchial infection associated with substantial morbidity...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904980/enterovirus-human-rhinovirus-a-rare-cause-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#2
Parita Soni, Anand Rai, Nidhi Aggarwal, Stephan Kamholz, Taek Yoon, Yizhak Kupfer
A 22-year-old Asian woman presented with respiratory distress, cough, and wheezing for 1 week. Prior history included asthma and Turner syndrome. On presentation to the emergency department, the patient was hypotensive, tachycardic, tachypneic, with an oxyhemoglobin saturation in the mid 80% range while breathing ambient air. Chest radiograph revealed pulmonary vascular congestion and a left lower lobe infiltrate. Endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressors were initiated. Empiric therapy for community-acquired pneumonia was administered utilizing broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics...
July 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892533/association-of-guideline-adherent-antibiotic-treatment-with-readmission-of-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-hospitalized-with-acute-chest-syndrome
#3
David G Bundy, Troy E Richardson, Matthew Hall, Jean L Raphael, David C Brousseau, Staci D Arnold, Ram V Kalpatthi, Angela M Ellison, Suzette O Oyeku, Samir S Shah
Importance: Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a common, serious complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) and a leading cause of hospitalization and death in both children and adults with SCD. Little is known about the effectiveness of guideline-recommended antibiotic regimens for the care of children hospitalized with ACS. Objectives: To use a large, national database to describe patterns of antibiotic use for children with SCD hospitalized for ACS and to determine whether receipt of guideline-adherent antibiotics was associated with lower readmission rates...
September 11, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888095/magnesium-therapy-improves-outcome-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis-by-altering-pneumolysin-pore-formation
#4
Sabrina Hupp, Sandra Ribes, Jana Seele, Carolin Bischoff, Christina Förtsch, Elke Maier, Roland Benz, Timothy J Mitchell, Roland Nau, Asparouh I Iliev
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults and is characterised by high lethality and substantial cognitive disabilities in survivors. Here, we study the capacity of an established therapeutic agent, magnesium, to improve survival in pneumococcal meningitis by modulating the neurological effects of the major pneumococcal pathogenic factor pneumolysin. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used mixed primary glial and acute brain slice cultures, pneumolysin injection in infant rats, a mouse meningitis model, and complementary approaches such as Western blot, a black lipid bilayer conductance assay and live imaging of primary glial cells...
September 9, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876684/differences-in-microbiome-in-rat-models-of-cardiovascular-disease
#5
A Thiba, C A Umar, S Myende, E Nweke, K Rumbold, G Candy
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have underscored the important role the gut metagenome in various human diseases, including diabetes and obesity. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and heart and kidney failure, and affects approximately 25% of the world's adult population. The cause of essential hypertension remains unknown. Patients given antibiotics show blood pressure changes and transfer of gut bacteria from hypertensive to normal WKY rats resulted in the latter developing hypertension...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842283/effect-of-combination-therapy-containing-a-high-dose-carbapenem-on-mortality-in-patients-with-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infection
#6
Maddalena Giannella, Enrico Maria Trecarichi, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Francesco Giuseppe De, Matteo Bassetti, Alessandro Bartoloni, Michele Bartoletti, Angela Raffaella Losito, Valerio Del Bono, Silvia Corcione, Sara Tedeschi, Francesca Raffaelli, Carolina Saffioti, Teresa Spanu, Gian Maria Rossolini, Anna Marchese, Simone Ambretti, Roberto Cauda, Claudio Viscoli, Russell Edward Lewis, Pierluigi Viale, Mario Tumbarello
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of high-dose (HD) carbapenem-based combination therapy on clinical outcome in patients with monomicrobial carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) bloodstream-infection (BSI). METHODS: Post hoc analysis of all adult patients with CR-KP BSI who were treated with combination antibiotic regimen, collected over 6-year period in 6 large teaching Italian hospitals. To control for confounding effects of HD carbapenem combination on 14-day mortality, a multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840057/evaluation-of-the-mann-assessment-of-swallowing-ability-in-elderly-patients-with-pneumonia
#7
Yasuo Chojin, Tatsuji Kato, Mariko Rikihisa, Masami Omori, Shingo Noguchi, Kentaro Akata, Takaaki Ogoshi, Kazuhiro Yatera, Hiroshi Mukae
Elderly pneumonia patients have various underlying diseases and social backgrounds, and it is difficult to predict their mortality using the current severity assessment tools. However, aspiration is a risk factor for mortality in pneumonia patients. In the evaluation of aspiration, endoscopic and video fluoroscopic methods are reliable but cannot be performed in all pneumonia patients. We evaluated the significance of the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA) in these patients. This study was prospectively performed between December 2014 and June 2015, and all adult hospitalized patients with pneumonia were consecutively enrolled...
July 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830805/impact-of-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-on-incidence-and-mortality-after-pneumonia-in-adults-aged-%C3%A2-60-years-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Martin Kolditz, Jochen Schmitt, Mathias W Pletz, Falko Tesch
OBJECTIVES: The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) is recommended for prevention of pneumococcal diseases in adults at risk. Few data exist on time- age- and sex-dependent vaccine effectiveness on outcomes in pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a population based cohort study including adults ≥ 60 years of age (n=738.927) based on statutory health insurance data 2005-2011. Primary outcomes were all-cause pneumonia incidence and 30-day all-cause mortality...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810609/value-of-serum-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-immunoglobulin-in-the-diagnosis-of-mycoplasma-related-pneumonia-in-newborns
#9
Yan Dong, Wei Lv, Zhen Lin
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is an important pathogen of neonatal acquired pneumonia in newborns. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection is critical because timely antibiotic therapy can reduce drug overuse and prevent the development of bacterial resistance. Anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an indicator of early infection that can persist for several months. Studies have shown that anti-M. pneumoniae IgA in adults is a reliable indicator of early M. pneumoniae infection...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781877/serotypes-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-from-hospitalized-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-italy
#10
Marta Di Pasquale, Stefano Aliberti, Chara Azzari, Maria Moriondo, Francesco Nieddu, Francesco Blasi, Marco Mantero
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia remain an important public health problem. The primary objective was to determine the proportion of community-acquired pneumonia that is attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection; secondary objectives were the description of community-acquired pneumonia attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae according to socio-demographic and clinical variables, the clinical evolution of community-acquired pneumonia and the description of the serotype distribution of vaccine-preventable disease and antibiotic resistance rate of pneumococcal infections...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762839/new-treatment-options-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#11
Bela Kocsis, Dora Szabo
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are among the most frequent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). They represent an increased morbidity and mortality rate in adults. Areas covered: This review describes recent advances regarding solithromycin, zabofloxacin and delafoxacin antibacterial agents that have been recently developed for treatment of CAP and in AECOPD. All of them have been introduced into phase III clinical trials. We will be summarising chemical structures, pharmacokinetics, antibacterial efficacy and toxicity of these agents...
September 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754148/nosocomial-bacterial-infections-and-their-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-among-patients-in-ugandan-intensive-care-units-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Peter Agaba, Janat Tumukunde, J V B Tindimwebwa, Arthur Kwizera
BACKGROUND: The intensive care unit (ICU) admits critically ill patients requiring advanced airway, respiratory, cardiac and renal support. Despite the highly-specialized interventions, the mortality and morbidity is still high due to a number of reasons including nosocomial infections, which are the most likely complications in hospitalized patients with the rates being highest among ICU patients. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 111 adult patients admitted to 2 of the ICUs in Uganda, we set out to describe the commonest bacterial infections, their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and factors associated with development of a nosocomial infection...
July 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743652/molecular-epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-at-a-turkish-centre-is-the-increase-of-resistance-a-threat-for-europe
#13
Aslıhan Candevir Ulu, Tülin Güven Gökmen, Filiz Kibar, Behice Kurtaran, Cansu Önlen, Ferit Kuşçu, Ayşe Seza İnal, Süheyla Kömür, Akgün Yaman, Hasan Salih Zeki Aksu, Yeşim Taşova
OBJECTIVES: In recent years, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) have become an important threat to hospitalised patients. This study aimed to identify the genetic mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in CRKP isolated from patients in a Turkish centre. METHODS: During 2013-2014, a total of 98 K. pneumoniae isolated from patients at Çukurova University Balcalı Hospital (Adana, Turkey) determined phenotypically as resistant to carbapenems were screened genotypically for the presence of carbapenemase enzymes by multiplex PCR...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742677/committee-opinion-no-712-intrapartum-management-of-intraamniotic-infection
#14
(no author information available yet)
Intraamniotic infection, also known as chorioamnionitis, is an infection with resultant inflammation of any combination of the amniotic fluid, placenta, fetus, fetal membranes, or decidua. Intraamniotic infection is a common condition noted among preterm and term parturients. However, most cases of intraamniotic infection detected and managed by obstetrician-gynecologists or other obstetric care providers will be noted among term patients in labor. Intraamniotic infection can be associated with acute neonatal morbidity, including neonatal pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and death...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742671/committee-opinion-no-712-summary-intrapartum-management-of-intraamniotic-infection
#15
(no author information available yet)
Intraamniotic infection, also known as chorioamnionitis, is an infection with resultant inflammation of any combination of the amniotic fluid, placenta, fetus, fetal membranes, or decidua. Intraamniotic infection is a common condition noted among preterm and term parturients. However, most cases of intraamniotic infection detected and managed by obstetrician-gynecologists or other obstetric care providers will be noted among term patients in labor. Intraamniotic infection can be associated with acute neonatal morbidity, including neonatal pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and death...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732822/atypical-coverage-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-after-outpatient-beta-lactam-monotherapy
#16
Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Ewoudt M W van de Garde, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert, Douwe F Postma, Marc J M Bonten
INTRODUCTION: In adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) after >48 h of outpatient beta-lactam monotherapy, coverage of atypical pathogens is recommended based on expert opinion. METHODS: In a post-hoc analysis of a large study of CAP treatment we included patients who received beta-lactam monotherapy for >48 h before hospitalization. Length of hospital stay (LOS), 30-day mortality, and number of treatment escalations were compared for those that continued beta-lactam monotherapy and those that received atypical coverage at admission...
August 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732529/exiguobacterium-sp-a1b-gx59-isolated-from-a-patient-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-bacteremia-genomic-characterization-and-literature-review
#17
Xingchun Chen, Lijun Wang, Jiali Zhou, Honglong Wu, Dong Li, Yanchao Cui, Binghuai Lu
BACKGROUND: Bacterial species belonging to the genus Exiguobacterium are facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive bacilli, and rarely associated with human infections. Herein, we reported the first case of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and bacteremia due to Exiguobacterium spp. in China. CASE PRESENTATION: An adult male with severe CAP was hospitalized. The pathogen was isolated from his bloodstream and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. The correct identification of the micro-organism was achieved using 16S rRNA sequencing, and its antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by microdilution method...
July 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730159/antibiotic-prescribing-for-adults-hospitalized-in-the-etiology-of-pneumonia-in-the-community-study
#18
Sara Tomczyk, Seema Jain, Anna M Bramley, Wesley H Self, Evan J Anderson, Chris Trabue, D Mark Courtney, Carlos G Grijalva, Grant W Waterer, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink, Lauri A Hicks
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) 2007 guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommend a respiratory fluoroquinolone or beta-lactam plus macrolide as first-line antibiotics for adults hospitalized with CAP. Few studies have assessed guideline-concordant antibiotic use for patients hospitalized with CAP after the 2007 IDSA/ATS guidelines. We examine antibiotics prescribed and associated factors in adults hospitalized with CAP...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725546/pulmonary-involvement-in-adult-still-s-disease-case-report-and-brief-review-of-literature
#19
Aldo Guerrieri, Giulia Angeletti, Massimiliano Mazzolini, Ilaria Bassi, Stefano Nava
BACKGROUND: Adult onset Still disease (AOSD) is a rare condition characterized by elevated fever along with arthritic symptoms, elevated polymorphonuclear neutrophil count, evanescent rash, and hyperferritinemia. Diagnosis can be made only after have ruled out more frequent conditions, and Yamagouchi or Fautrel criteria should be applied. Parenchimal lung involvement (PLI) is present in less than 5% of AOSD cases and ranges from aspecific reticular interstitial opacities to life threatening conditions, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698042/propensity-matched-analysis-of-the-impact-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-production-on-adults-with-community-onset-escherichia-coli-klebsiella-species-and-proteus-mirabilis-bacteremia
#20
Ching-Chi Lee, Chung-Hsun Lee, Ming-Yuan Hong, Chih-Chia Hsieh, Hung-Jen Tang, Wen-Chien Ko
BACKGROUND: The presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Proteus mirabilis (EKP) is of great microbiological and clinical importance. The study dealing with the direct impact of ESBL producers on the outcome of patients with community-onset bacteremia is lacking. METHODS: Adults with community-onset EKP bacteremia were recruited retrospectively during a 6-year period. ESBL producers were determined according to ESBL phenotype...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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