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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#1
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633889/serious-pneumococcal-disease-outbreak-in-men-exposed-to-metal-fume-detection-response-and-future-prevention-through-pneumococcal-vaccination
#2
Judith Ewing, Lynsey Patterson, Neil Irvine, Lorraine Doherty, Anne Loughrey, Joe Kidney, Carmen Sheppard, Georgia Kapatai, Norman K Fry, Mary Ramsay, Lucy Jessop
Welders and those exposed to metal fume are known to be at increased risk of pneumococcal pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. Current UK guidance recommends that vaccination against pneumococcus be considered in those at risk of frequent or continuous occupational exposure to metal fume, taking into account the exposure control measures in place. We report an outbreak of serious pneumococcal disease that occurred between April and June 2015 among a multinational workforce exposed to metal fumes while working on the refurbishment of an oil rig in a Belfast shipyard...
June 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633678/variation-in-empiric-coverage-versus-detection-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-hospitalizations-for-community-onset-pneumonia-across-128-us-veterans-affairs-medical-centers
#3
Barbara E Jones, Kevin Antoine Brown, Makoto M Jones, Benedikt D Huttner, Tom Greene, Brian C Sauer, Karl Madaras-Kelly, Michael A Rubin, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Matthew H Samore
OBJECTIVE To examine variation in antibiotic coverage and detection of resistant pathogens in community-onset pneumonia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING A total of 128 hospitals in the Veterans Affairs health system. PARTICIPANTS Hospitalizations with a principal diagnosis of pneumonia from 2009 through 2010. METHODS We examined proportions of hospitalizations with empiric antibiotic coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAER) and with initial detection in blood or respiratory cultures...
June 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633626/age-related-differences-in-management-and-outcomes-in-hospitalized-healthy-and-well-functioning-bacteremic-pneumococcal-pneumonia-patients-a-cohort-study
#4
Luis A Ruiz, Pedro P España, Ainhoa Gómez, Amaia Bilbao, Carmen Jaca, Amaia Arámburu, Alberto Capelastegui, Marcos I Restrepo, Rafael Zalacain
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding fit and healthy patients with pneumonia at different ages. We evaluated the association of age with clinical presentation, serotype and outcomes among healthy and well-functioning patients hospitalized for bacteremic pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of consecutive healthy and well-functioning patients hospitalized for this type of pneumonia. Patients were stratified into younger (18 to 64 years) and older (≥65 years) groups...
June 20, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633261/mediastinal-abscess-caused-by-an-expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-membrane
#5
Kanji Matsuzaki, Toru Tsukada, Masataka Sato, Yasunori Watanabe, Akihiko Ikeda, Taisuke Konishi, Tomoaki Jikuya
A 76-year-old man who had undergone tricuspid annuloplasty 13 years earlier was admitted to our hospital because of a high fever. Although he was treated with antibiotics for pneumonia, a mild fever persisted. Computed tomography and gallium scintigraphy revealed a mediastinal abscess with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane. There were no positive cultures or sternal changes indicating poststernotomy mediastinitis. The membrane was removed by a left parasternal approach without resternotomy, and its total removal was essential for the patient's recovery...
July 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632788/high-throughput-identification-and-rational-design-of-synergistic-small-molecule-pairs-for-combating-and-bypassing-antibiotic-resistance
#6
Morgan A Wambaugh, Viplendra P S Shakya, Adam J Lewis, Matthew A Mulvey, Jessica C S Brown
Antibiotic-resistant infections kill approximately 23,000 people and cost $20,000,000,000 each year in the United States alone despite the widespread use of small-molecule antimicrobial combination therapy. Antibiotic combinations typically have an additive effect: the efficacy of the combination matches the sum of the efficacies of each antibiotic when used alone. Small molecules can also act synergistically when the efficacy of the combination is greater than the additive efficacy. However, synergistic combinations are rare and have been historically difficult to identify...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631399/into-the-storm-chasing-the-opportunistic-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus-from-skin-colonisation-to-life-threatening-infections
#7
James P O'Gara
Colonisation of the human skin by Staphylococcus aureus is a precursor for a variety of infections ranging from boils to sepsis and pneumonia. The rapid emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) following the clinical introduction of this antimicrobial drug and reports of resistance to all currently used anti-staphylococcal drugs has added to its formidable reputation. S. aureus survival on the skin and in vivo virulence is underpinned by a remarkable environmental adaptability, made possible by highly orchestrated regulation of gene expression and a capacity to undertake genome remodelling...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630792/corneal-collagen-crosslinking-treatment-in-a-case-with-pneumococcal-keratitis
#8
Ayşe Bozkurt Oflaz, Banu Bozkurt, Ümit Kamış, Bengü Ekinci Köktekir
Bacterial keratitis is a serious ocular infectious disease that can threaten vision. The disease generally progresses rapidly and can lead to corneal scar, stromal abscess formation, perforation, and dissemination to adjacent tissues if not treated properly. Recent studies showed that corneal collagen crosslinking (CCC) using ultraviolet-A/riboflavin is effective in the treatment of bacterial keratitis refractory to topical antibiotic treatment. In addition to being bactericidal, CCC also decreases risk of perforation by strengthening the corneal collagen structure...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630687/emerging-antimicrobial-resistance-in-early-and-late-onset-neonatal-sepsis
#9
Lamiaa Mohsen, Nermin Ramy, Dalia Saied, Dina Akmal, Niveen Salama, Mona M Abdel Haleim, Hany Aly
BACKGROUND: Compared to developed countries, the use of antimicrobials in Egypt is less regulated and is available over the counter without the need for prescriptions. The impact of such policy on antimicrobial resistance has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of early and late onset sepsis, and the frequency of antimicrobial resistance in a major referral neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: The study included all neonates admitted to the NICU over a 12-month period...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630178/efficacy-of-cefiderocol-against-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-in-immunocompetent-rat-respiratory-tract-infection-models-recreating-human-plasma-pharmacokinetics
#10
Shuhei Matsumoto, Christine M Singley, Jennifer Hoover, Rio Nakamura, Roger Echols, Stephen Rittenhouse, Masakatsu Tsuji, Yoshinori Yamano
Cefiderocol (S-649266), a novel siderophore cephalosporin, shows potent activity against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of cefiderocol against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae) in immunocompetent rat respiratory tract infection models recreating plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) profiles in healthy human subjects. A total of 6 clinical isolates (1 cephalosporin-susceptible P. aeruginosa, 1 multidrug-resistant P...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629728/antibiotic-resistance-determinants-and-clonal-relationships-among-multidrug-resistant-isolates-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#11
Santosh Kumar Singh, Mitali Mishra, Minu Sahoo, Shashank Patole, SuneetaSahu, SudhiRanjanMishra, Harapriya Mohapatra
In the present study, we performed PCR based screening to determine the presence of antibiotic resistance genes and sequencing to find mutation in QRDR region among fourteen isolates of K. pneumoniae. Association analysis was conducted to detect the co-resistance among the isolates. Multi-locus sequence analysis was carried out to determine the clonal relationship among them. All the K. pneumoniae isolates showed resistance to multiple antibiotics and exhibited cross-resistance to antibiotics. Although few isolates co-harbored variants of β-lactamase genes, others carried qnrBon plasmid and mutations in Quinolone-Resistant Determining Region (QRDR)...
June 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628930/-rational-use-of-antibiotics-data-form-a-survey-from-2014-within-the-mrdo-network-compared-to-nationwide-data-from-2009
#12
Luba Lendowski, Peter Walger, Christoph Hoeser, Martin Exner, Claudia Roesing, Steffen Engelhart
Introduction To combat multi-resistant gram-negative bacteria as the cause of life-threatening infections, antibiotic stewardship activities are of great importance. Objective To detect weaknesses when prescribing antibiotics in hospitals and compare the situation between 2009 and 2014. Methods In 2014, a questionnaire was sent to all 380 physicians employed in 7 hospitals. Primary, secondary and tertiary care hospitals were included. Investigated were: demographic data, position, certified specialization, presence of antibiotic prescription rules and behavior to follow them...
June 19, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627354/-principle-and-influence-factors-of-aerosolized-antibiotics-in-the-treatment-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#13
Chang Liu, Yuting Zhang, Jianguo Li
Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a challenging complication of critical illness. Aerosolized antibiotic is an option for the management of VAP currently, as it is reported that it could increase levels of drug in alveolar without increasing systemic toxicity. The articles that focused on the aerosolized antibiotics in the treatment of VAP and its influence factors were reviewed, and it was found that to achieve maximum drug delivery efficiency and reduce the influence of nebulization method, some factors, such as ventilation modes, tidal volume, nebulizer type, should be adjusted and monitored during the treatment...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626738/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-among-young-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-south-india
#14
Savitha Nagaraj, Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
INTRODUCTION: We performed a study to describe the clinical profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalent serotypes of pneumococcal isolates from children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) admitted to a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: Hospitalized children, ≤ 5 years with fever (>38 °C); increased respiratory rate or neurological symptoms were recruited, (as part of the Alliance for Surveillance of Invasive Pneumococci - ASIP - project) from January 2011 to March 2013...
June 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625123/role-of-the-n-acetylation-polymorphism-in-solithromycin-metabolism
#15
David W Hein, Mark A Doll
AIM: Solithromycin is a new macrolide antibiotic for the potential treatment of bacterial pneumonia. MATERIALS & METHODS: Solithromycin N-acetylation by human NAT1 and NAT2 was investigated following recombinant expression in yeast and in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from rapid, intermediate and slow acetylators. RESULTS: Solithromycin exhibited over twofold higher affinity for recombinant human NAT2 than NAT1. Apparent maximum velocities for the N-acetylation of solithromycin catalyzed by the NAT2 allozyme associated with rapid acetylators were significantly (p < 0...
June 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625025/-causative-bacterial-strains-and-sensitivityto-antimicrobial-agents-in-female-acute-uncomplicated-cystitis
#16
Takuya Owari, Tomoki Yamamoto, Shinichiro Mizobuchi, Yositaka Itami, Tomonori Nakahama, Yosihiro Matsumoto, Kaoru Yamada, Hitoshi Momose
Recently, wide spreading of fluoloquinolone resistant Escherichia coli is a serious problem inthe treatment of urinary tract infection. To investigate the causative bacterial strains of female acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in the community and their sensitivity to antimicrobial agents, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 215 female AUC patients treated at our clinics from April 2014 to June 2015. Two hundred and nineteen strains were isolated as the causative bacteria from the patients'urine samples, including E...
May 2017: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624864/the-clinical-significance-of-pneumonia-in-patients-with-respiratory-specimens-harbouring-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-a-5-year-retrospective-study-following-5667-patients-in-four-general-icus
#17
B Borgatta, S Gattarello, C A Mazo, A T Imbiscuso, M N Larrosa, M Lujàn, J Rello
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs), with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains posing a serious threat. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical relevance of MDR Pseudomonas isolates in respiratory clinical specimens. A 5-year retrospective observational study in four medical-surgical ICUs from a referral hospital was carried out. Of 5667 adults admitted to the ICU, 69 had MDR-PA in respiratory samples: 31 were identified as having pneumonia (HAP/VAP): 21 ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and ten hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621642/spectrum-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-uropathogens-between-2004-and-2015-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-hungary
#18
András Magyar, Béla Köves, Károly Nagy, András Dobák, Vinodh Kumar Adithyaa Arthanareeswaran, Péter Bálint, Florian Wagenlehner, Péter Tenke
PURPOSE: Surveillance of the bacterial spectrum and antibiotic-resistance patterns of locally occurring uropathogens is essential to serve as a basis for empirical treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs), as antibiotic-resistance rates may vary geographically with significant differences between countries and regions, and with time. METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively analysed all urine samples taken in the department of urology in a tertiary care hospital in Hungary from January 2004 to December 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620893/systemic-antibiotics-for-preventing-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-comatose-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Cássia Righy, Pedro Emmanuel Americano do Brasil, Jordi Vallés, Fernando A Bozza, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
BACKGROUND: Early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (EO-VAP) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in comatose patients. However, VAP prevention bundles focus mainly on late-onset VAP and may be less effective in preventing EO-VAP in comatose patients. Systemic antibiotic administration at the time of intubation may have a role in preventing EO-VAP. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of systemic antibiotic administration in VAP prevention in comatose patients through a systematic review and meta-analysis...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620316/incidence-and-antimicrobial-sensitivity-profiles-of-normal-conjunctiva-bacterial-flora-in-the-central-area-of-china-a-hospital-based-study
#20
Hua Tao, Juan Wang, Lei Li, Hui-Zhi Zhang, Meng-Ping Chen, Le Li
Objective: To study the distribution and patterns of resistance to antimicrobial agents of normal conjunctival bacteria. Materials and Methods: Conjunctival specimens were collected from 8,224 patients and then cultured, which underwent antimicrobial susceptibility test following standard methods. Patients with infectious symptoms such as erythema or oedema and those using systemic or topical antibiotics within 1 month were excluded. Results: In this study, the incidence of isolated bacteria was 24.2%. The middle aged group of 41-65 years presented the lowest rate of bacterial isolation which was 19...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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