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Natarajan V Bhanu, Simone Sidoli, Benjamin A Garcia
In this study, we trace developmental stages using epigenome changes in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) treated with drugs modulating either self-renewal or differentiation. Based on microscopy, qPCR and flow cytometry, we classified the treatment outcome as inducing pluripotency (hESC, flurbiprofen and gatifloxacin), mesendoderm (sinomenine), differentiation (cyamarin, digoxin, digitoxin, selegeline and theanine) and lineage-commitment (RA). When we analyzed histone PTMs that imprinted these gene and protein expressions, the above classification was reassorted...
February 2016: Proteomics
J A Schrickx, J Fink-Gremmels
Drug-drug interactions related to long-term therapies are of increasing concern. Psychotherapeutic drugs, licensed for the use in dogs for the management of separation anxiety and other behavioural disorders, are examples of drugs used in long-term therapies. In an in vitro system with canine P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expressing cell lines, three psychotherapeutic drugs with a different mode of action were tested for their ability to inhibit the canine multidrug transporter P-gp. At 10 μm, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine and the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine inhibited P-gp for 41% and 59%, respectively...
October 2014: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Nibha Mishra, D Sasmal
In an effort to develop selective MAO (monoamine oxidase) B inhibitors, structure based virtual screening was initiated on an in-house library. Top 10 HITS were synthesized and evaluated for MAO (A and B) inhibitory activity, both against human and rat enzymes. All the compounds were found selective, reversible and active in nM range (100 times more potent than selegeline) towards MAO-B. Outstanding co-relation between predicted and experimental K(i) values were observed.
April 1, 2011: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Pasquale G Frisina, Harriet R Tenenbaum, Joan C Borod, Nancy S Foldi
This study explored the therapeutic effect of antidepressants in Parkinson's disease (PD) using a meta-analysis. Altogether, 24 placebo-controlled trials qualified for inclusion and revealed that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) had a greater antidepressant effect relative to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), Qb(1) = 8.87, p < .01, and the mono-amine-oxidase inhibitor, selegiline, Qb(1) = 7.90, p < .01. Whereas TCAs produced a significant side effect profile (odds ratio = 3.07), adverse events were negligible with SSRIs (odds ratio = 1...
May 2008: International Journal of Neuroscience
Jonathan Foulds, Michael Burke, Michael Steinberg, Jill M Williams, Douglas M Ziedonis
The discovery that bupropion is an effective treatment for tobacco dependence has triggered a rapid increase in development of potential new non-nicotine pharmacotherapies, including bromocriptine, glucose, GTS-21, reboxetine, rimonabant, selegeline and varenicline. Successful new products will need to have excellent side-effect profiles in addition to proven efficacy. New faster delivery nicotine replacement products have the promise of addressing a broader list of indications, including treatment of nicotine withdrawal during temporary abstinence and long-term nicotine maintenance...
May 2004: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Sebastian Paus, Hans Michael Brecht, Jürgen Köster, Gert Seeger, Thomas Klockgether, Ullrich Wüllner
To study the putative association of dopamine agonists with sleep attacks in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and their relation to daytime sleepiness, we performed a survey of 2,952 PD patients in two German counties. In 177 patients, sudden, unexpected, and irresistible sleep episodes while engaged in some activity were identified in a structured telephone interview. Ninety-one of these patients denied the occurrence of appropriate warning signs. A total of 133 patients (75%) had an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score >10; 65 (37%) >15...
June 2003: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Th Klockgether
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) results from a largely selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, compounds which strengthen dopaminergic transmission in the striatum are the most important therapeutic approach. These include L-dopa, dopamine receptor agonists, selegeline, and entacapon. Since nigrostriatal degeneration leads to secondary alterations of cholinergic and glutamatergic transmission to the basal ganglia,nondopaminergic compounds such as anticholinergics and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists are also used in the management of IPD...
March 2003: Der Nervenarzt
J Knoll
Hundreds of millions of people now die over the age of 80 years primarily due to twentieth century progress in hygiene, chemotherapy, and immunology. With a longer average lifespan, the need to improve quality of life during the latter decades is more compelling. "Aging--The Epidemic of the New Millenium," a recent international conference (Monte Carlo, June 17-18, 2000), showed with peculiar clarity that a safe and efficient drug strategy to slow the age-related decay of brain performance is still missing...
2001: CNS Drug Reviews
J P Pepper, M H Baumann, M Ayestas, R B Rothman
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors are being investigated as possible medications for cocaine dependence, but there are potential problems with this approach. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of catecholamine metabolism with the MAO-A inhibitor, clorgyline, might enhance cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine and norepinephrine in rat nucleus accumbens. Male rats were pretreated with clorgyline (1 mg/kg, s.c.) or its saline vehicle (1 ml/kg, s.c.), and microdialysis probes were inserted into previously implanted guide cannulae...
March 5, 2001: Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research
M Gupta, S K Kulkarni
L-Deprenyl (Selegeline) introduced for use in parkinson's disease, is implicated to show beneficial effects in epilepsy, alzheimer's disease, cognition, depression and other age related neurological diseases. In this study, we investigated the CNS effects of L-deprenyl with special reference to epilepsy, anxiety and cognition and memory in mice. L-deprenyl (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) showed a significant anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions. Combination of L-deprenyl (10 mg/kg) with the sub-protective dose of diazepam (1 mg/kg) showed potentiation of the anticonvulsant effect...
April 2000: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Levodopa combined with a peripheral dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (DCI) has been considered the therapy of choice for Parkinson's disease (PD). Levodopa is nearly always effective, but has a high incidence of adverse effects with long term use, including response fluctuations (on/off phenomena) and dyskinesias. Dopaminergic agonists, acting directly at the receptor level, would be able to decrease the incidence of these motor complications.In progressive neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD, modification of the rate of disease progression (often referred to as neuroprotection) is currently a highly debated topic...
November 1, 2000: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
J Kuhmonen, J Jolkkonen, A Haapalinna, J Sivenius
(-)Deprenyl (selegeline) is a monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitor, but it also exerts several effects independent of MAO-B inhibition. For example, it has been shown to improve neuronal survival in different neurodegenerative models. In the present study, we have tested whether (-)deprenyl attenuates the neuronal damage in the hippocampus that is induced in a model of transient global ischemia in gerbils. (-)Deprenyl was administered 1) at a low daily dose starting two weeks before occlusion, 2) at a single high dose administered 3h after occlusion, or 3) at a low daily dose for one or two weeks after occlusion...
2000: Journal of Neural Transmission
R G Thomas, J D Berg, M Sano, L Thal
Evidence of delayed progression is the primary mechanism for demonstrating therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease. In the major trials of therapeutic treatment of AD, to date, measures based on clinical judgement and cognitive performance, instead of mortality, have been used as the primary response measures. There is good reason for this since the course of the disease is quite long, and AD trials designed around mortality would require either very large sample sizes or very long follow-up in order to have adequate power...
June 15, 2000: Statistics in Medicine
Y Christen
Research in the field of molecular biology has helped to provide a better understanding of both the cascade of biochemical events that occurs with Alzheimer disease (AD) and the heterogeneous nature of the disease. One hypothesis that accounts for both the heterogeneous nature of AD and the fact that aging is the most obvious risk factor is that free radicals are involved. The probability of this involvement is supported by the fact that neurons are extremely sensitive to attacks by destructive free radicals...
February 2000: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
B A Lawlor, P S Aisen, C Green, E Fine, J Schmeïdler
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioural and cognitive effects of selegiline in a group of moderately behaviourally disturbed AD patients. DESIGN: This was a 14-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of selegiline (10 mg) and placebo. SETTING: An outpatient clinic in an urban-based tertiary referral centre in the USA. PATIENTS: Twenty-five outpatients meeting NINCDS criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease with associated behavioural disturbance...
March 1997: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
I H Richard, R Kurlan, C Tanner, S Factor, J Hubble, O Suchowersky, C Waters
The manufacturer of deprenyl (selegeline; Eldepryl) (Somerset Pharmaceuticals, Tampa, FL) recently advised physicians to avoid prescribing the drug in combination with an antidepressant because of potentially serious CNS toxicity that may represent the serotonin syndrome. Manifestations of the serotonin syndrome vary but may include changes in mental status and motor and autonomic function. To better estimate the frequency of the serotonin syndrome in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with deprenyl and an antidepressant, we surveyed all investigators in the Parkinson Study Group...
April 1997: Neurology
R Kakkar, R V Raju, A H Rajput, R K Sharma
Intracellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides is regulated by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (CaMPDE), one of the most intensively studied and best characterized phosphodiesterases. In the present study, the effect of an antiparkinsonian agent, deprenyl (selegeline hydrochloride) which is believed to be a selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-B, on bovine brain calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (CaMPDE) isozymes have been investigated...
1996: Life Sciences
G Mayer, K Ewert Meier, K Hephata
The relative benefits of selegeline hydrochloride (2 x 5 mg, 2 x 10 mg selegeline) were studied in 30 narcoleptic patients using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups (placebo and 2 x 5 mg and 2 x 10 mg selegeline). After a 2-week washout period for previous anticataplectic and stimulant medication, the study started with a 2-day period of placebo intake for each group, continued by 14 days of medication, ending with a 2-day placebo period. Outcome was measured by comparison of four polysomnographies and four multiple sleep latency tests (MSLTs) performed during the initial and the final placebo and medication period...
August 1995: Clinical Neuropharmacology
J S Fowler, N D Volkow, J Logan, G J Wang, R R MacGregor, D Schyler, A P Wolf, N Pappas, D Alexoff, C Shea
L-Deprenyl (Selegeline) is an enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B (MAO B; EC It is used to treat Parkinson's disease at a dose of 5 mg twice a day. Since enzyme inhibition is irreversible, the recovery of functional enzyme activity after withdrawal from L-deprenyl requires the synthesis of new enzyme. We have measured a 40 day half-time for brain MAO B synthesis in Parkinson's disease and in normal subjects after withdrawal from L-deprenyl. This is the first measurement of the synthesis rate of a specific protein in the living human brain...
October 1994: Synapse
P Saransaari, J Suhonen, S Lillrank, S S Oja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1995: Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society
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