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Gut immune brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#1
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884012/gut-microbiota-bacterial-translocation-and-interactions-with-diet-pathophysiological-links-between-major-depressive-disorder-and-non-communicable-medical-comorbidities
#2
Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Maes, Felice N Jacka, Cristiano A Köhler, Tatiana Barichello, Roger S McIntyre, Michael Berk, Iria Grande, Jane A Foster, Eduard Vieta, André F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Persistent low-grade immune-inflammatory processes, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation are integral to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The microbiome, intestinal compositional changes, and resultant bacterial translocation add a new element to the bidirectional interactions of the gut-brain axis; new evidence implicates these pathways in the patho-aetiology of MDD. In addition, abnormalities in the gut-brain axis are associated with several chronic non-communicable disorders, which frequently co-occur in individuals with MDD, including but not limited to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
November 25, 2016: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881403/irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-gut-microbiota-related-disorder
#3
Yogesh Bhattarai, David A Muniz Pedrogo, Purna C Kashyap
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of IBS is not well understood though multiple peripheral and central factors are implicated. Recent studies suggest a role for alterations in gut microbiota in IBS. Significant advances in next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics, and the declining cost has now allowed us to better investigate the role of gut microbiota in IBS. In the following review, we propose gut microbiota as a unifying factor in the pathophysiology of IBS...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875954/how-immune-inflammatory-processes-link-cns-and-psychiatric-disorders-classification-and-treatment-implications
#4
George Anderson, Michael Maes
In this article the emerging biological overlaps of CNS disorders and psychiatric conditions are reviewed. Recent work has highlighted how immune-inflammatory processes and their interactions with oxidative and nitrosative stress, couple to drive changes in neuroregulatory tryptophan catabolites, with consequences for serotonin availability, including as a precursor for the melatonergic pathways. Subsequent alterations in the regulation of local melatonin synthesis are likely to have direct impacts on the reactivity of immune cells, both centrally and systemically...
November 22, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864534/microbiome-and-nutrition-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-knowledge-and-research-needs
#5
Kirsten Berding, Sharon M Donovan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder in the United States. Besides genetic risks, environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the increase in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Several studies have reported abnormalities in microbiota composition and differences in microbial metabolites in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal discomfort is commonly reported in children with ASD. Additionally, food selectivity and picky eating patterns are commonly reported...
December 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847926/the-brain-gut-axis-dysfunctions-and-hypersensitivity-to-food-antigens-in-the-etiopathogenesis-of-schizophrenia
#6
REVIEW
Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Michał Dzikowski, Agnieszka Pelczarska, Izabela Dzikowska, Dariusz Juchnowicz
Despite over 100-year history of research on schizophrenia, its etiology is still not fully understood, which might be due to the significant heterogeneity in terms of both its course, as well as the etiopathogenesis. One of the best-proven mediating mechanisms in the development of schizophrenia is the immuno-inflammatory response, the sources of which are believed to be the dysfunctions of brain-gut axis and pathological processes occurring in the intestines. This paper is a review of the literature on this subject which presents factors both involved in the functioning of brain-gut axis and important for the development of schizophrenia, i...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843150/the-bacterial-peptidoglycan-sensing-molecule-pglyrp2-modulates-brain-development-and-behavior
#7
T Arentsen, Y Qian, S Gkotzis, T Femenia, T Wang, K Udekwu, H Forssberg, R Diaz Heijtz
Recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we show that bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) derived from the commensal gut microbiota can be translocated into the brain and sensed by specific pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system. Using expression-profiling techniques, we demonstrate that two families of PRRs that specifically detect PGN (that is, PGN-recognition proteins and NOD-like receptors), and the PGN transporter PepT1 are highly expressed in the developing brain during specific windows of postnatal development in both males and females...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836662/crip1-a-novel-immune-related-protein-activated-by-enterococcus-faecalis-in-porcine-gastrointestinal-epithelial-cells
#8
Haiming Cai, Jiawei Chen, Jie Liu, Min Zeng, Feiping Ming, Zhipeng Lu, Qingmei Cheng, Jun Yang, Linghua Zhang
Cysteine-rich intestinal protein 1 (CRIP1) is an important transcriptional regulation factor during the tumor development. Although it was largely studied in the human or mouse, no report has provided functional evidence for it in the swine. To date, the real sequence of porcine CRIP1 (poCRIP1) was also still unknown. In this study, clear characteristics for the poCRIP1 were represented. A 552bp poCRIP1 cDNA was obtained from porcine brain tissue using real time reverse transcriptase PCR. The poCRIP1 showed 89% and 93% homologous with human and cattle, respectively...
November 9, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832936/feeding-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-diet-microbiome-and-neuropsychiatry
#9
REVIEW
Kiran V Sandhu, Eoin Sherwin, Harriët Schellekens, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The microbial population residing within the human gut represents one of the most densely populated microbial niche in the human body with growing evidence showing it playing a key role in the regulation of behavior and brain function. The bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain, the microbiota-gut-brain axis, occurs through various pathways including the vagus nerve, the immune system, neuroendocrine pathways, and bacteria-derived metabolites. This axis has been shown to influence neurotransmission and the behavior that are often associated with neuropsychiatric conditions...
October 21, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814591/insight-into-role-of-microbiota-gut-brain-peptides-as-a-target-for-biotechnology-innovations
#10
Carina Elisei, Alinne Pereira de Castro
It has long been understood that some microorganisms may modify their hosts behavior in various systems. Nevertheless, it has only been in recent years that gut microbiota have opened new perspectives to appreciate their potential for affect complex neurological function in mammals. Efforts have demonstrated the ability of these gut-microbiota to impact neurological outcomes, suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in the gut-brain interactions, indicating that alterations in bidirectional microbiota-brain-gut may be involved in a number of brain disorders...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804122/calcineurin-inhibitors-pharmacologic-mechanisms-impacting-both-insulin-resistance-and-insulin-secretion-leading-to-glucose-dysregulation-and-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
H A Chakkera, Y Kudva, B Kaplan
Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), including tacrolimus and cyclosporine, are immune-modulating agents used in autoimmune disorders, glomerulonephritides, and after transplantation. CNIs are implicated as diabetogenic drugs but the mechanism is not clearly elucidated. Calcineurin is a cytosolic-phosphatase critical for T-lymphocyte activation. Calcineurin is widely distributed in different tissues responsible for glucose-regulation including pancreas, liver, skeletal muscle, adipocytes, brain, and gut. We describe the pharmacologic effects of CNIs in different tissues and impact on glucose regulation...
November 2, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793228/microbes-and-oxytocin-benefits-for-host-physiology-and-behavior
#12
S E Erdman, T Poutahidis
It is now understood that gut bacteria exert effects beyond the local boundaries of the gastrointestinal tract to include distant tissues and overall health. Prototype probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri has been found to upregulate hormone oxytocin and systemic immune responses to achieve a wide array of health benefits involving wound healing, mental health, metabolism, and myoskeletal maintenance. Together these display that the gut microbiome and host animal interact via immune-endocrine-brain signaling networks...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793226/gut-microbiome-and-behavior-focus-on-neuroimmune-interactions
#13
J A Foster
As neuroscientists, psychologists, and psychiatrists are starting to appreciate the importance of the gut microbiota to mental health, it is critical to determine the mechanisms of microbiota to brain communication and thereby provide a better understanding of the aspects that may be modifiable with proper intervention in individuals with mental illness. Microbiota-brain communication is emerging as an important factor in brain development and function. Further, immune dysfunction is clearly established to play a role in mental illness...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793222/the-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
S M Collins
The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic abdominal symptom complex occurring in a bowel devoid of discernible relevant pathology. There is growing interest in the role of the intestinal microbiota as a basis for the intestinal and possibly behavioral manifestations of this condition. Molecular-based microbial profiling has revealed compositional changes in the microbiota of at least a subset of IBS patients but the data are often conflicting and no microbial signature for this condition has yet been defined...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789726/monocyte-activation-is-associated-with-worse-cognitive-performance-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-women
#15
Brandon M Imp, Leah H Rubin, Phyllis C Tien, Michael W Plankey, Elizabeth T Golub, Audrey L French, Victor G Valcour
BACKGROUND:  Cognitive impairment persists despite suppression of plasma HIV RNA. Monocyte-related immune activation is a likely mechanism. We examined immune activation and cognition in a cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS:  Blood levels of activation markers, soluble CD163 (sCD163), soluble CD14 (sCD14), CRP, IL-6, and a gut microbial translocation marker (intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP)) were measured in 253 women (73% HIV-infected)...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773355/emerging-roles-for-the-gut-microbiome-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Helen E Vuong, Elaine Y Hsiao
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one in 45 children in the United States, with a similarly striking prevalence in countries around the world. However, mechanisms underlying its etiology and manifestations remain poorly understood. Although ASD is diagnosed based on the presence and severity of impaired social communication and repetitive behavior, immune dysregulation and gastrointestinal issues are common comorbidities. The microbiome is an integral part of human physiology; recent studies show that changes in the gut microbiota can modulate gastrointestinal physiology, immune function, and even behavior...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762069/an-introduction-to-microbiome-analysis-for-human-biology-applications
#17
Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742703/neuroimmune-cross-talk-in-the-gut-neuroendocrine-and-neuroimmune-pathways-contribute-to-the-pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
Dervla O'Malley
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, and disturbed bowel habit, symptoms that impact the quality of life of sufferers. The pathophysiological changes underlying this multifactorial condition are complex and include increased sensitivity to luminal and mucosal factors, resulting in altered colonic transit and visceral pain. Moreover, dysfunctional communication in the bidirectional signaling axis between the brain and the gut, which involves efferent and afferent branches of the peripheral nervous system, circulating endocrine hormones, and local paracrine and neurocrine factors, including immune and perhaps even microbial signaling molecules, has a role to play in this disorder...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711063/signals-from-the-gut-microbiota-to-distant-organs-in-physiology-and-disease
#19
Bjoern O Schroeder, Fredrik Bäckhed
The ecosystem of the human gut consists of trillions of bacteria forming a bioreactor that is fueled by dietary macronutrients to produce bioactive compounds. These microbiota-derived metabolites signal to distant organs in the body, which enables the gut bacteria to connect to the immune and hormone system, to the brain (the gut-brain axis) and to host metabolism, as well as other functions of the host. This microbe-host communication is essential to maintain vital functions of the healthy host. Recently, however, the gut microbiota has been associated with a number of diseases, ranging from obesity and inflammatory diseases to behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders...
October 6, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688852/beneficial-properties-of-probiotics
#20
Lye Huey Shi, Kunasundari Balakrishnan, Kokila Thiagarajah, Nor Ismaliza Mohd Ismail, Ooi Shao Yin
Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as "health friendly bacteria", which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller's diarrhoea...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
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