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Gut immune brain

Ioanna Petta, Judith Fraussen, Veerle Somers, Markus Kleinewietfeld
B cells possess a predominant role in adaptive immune responses via antibody-dependent and -independent functions. The microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract is currently being intensively investigated due to its profound impact on various immune responses, including B cell maturation, activation, and IgA antibody responses. Recent findings have demonstrated the interplay between dietary components, gut microbiome, and autoantibody production. "Western" dietary patterns, such as high fat and high salt diets, can induce alterations in the gut microbiome that in turn affects IgA responses and the production of autoantibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
In recent years, an extensive body of literature focused on the gut-brain axis and the possible role played by the gut microbiota in modulating brain morphology and function from birth to old age. Gut microbiota has been proposed as a relevant player during the early phases of neurodevelopment, with possible long-standing effects in later life. The reduction in gut microbiota diversity has also become one of the hallmarks of aging, and disturbances in its composition are associated with several (age-related) neurological conditions, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Kylie D Rock, Heather B Patisaul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders on the rise, it is imperative to identify and understand the mechanisms by which environmental contaminants can impact the developing brain and heighten risk. Here, we report on recent findings regarding novel mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity and highlight chemicals of concern, beyond traditionally defined neurotoxicants. RECENT FINDINGS: The perinatal window represents a critical and extremely vulnerable period of time during which chemical insult can alter the morphological and functional trajectory of the developing brain...
March 13, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
W C Wang, F F Yan, J Y Hu, O A Amen, H W Cheng
Probiotics reduce stress-related inflammation and abnormal behaviors in humans and rodents via regulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The objective of this study was to determine if probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, has similar functions in broiler chickens under heat stress (HS). Two hundred forty 1-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to 48 pens with 4 treatments: Thermoneutral (TN)-RD (regular diet), TN-PD (the regular diet mixed with 1×106 CFU/g feed probiotic), HS-RD and HS-PD. Probiotic (Sporulin®) was fed from day 1; and HS at 32 ºC for 10 h daily was initiated at day 15...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Raphaël Enaud, Louise-Eva Vandenborght, Noémie Coron, Thomas Bazin, Renaud Prevel, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Patrick Berger, Michael Fayon, Thierry Lamireau, Laurence Delhaes
In recent years, the gut microbiota has been considered as a full-fledged actor of the gut-brain axis, making it possible to take a new step in understanding the pathophysiology of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, most of the studies have been devoted to gut bacterial microbiota, forgetting the non-negligible fungal flora. In this review, we expose how the role of the fungal component in the microbiota-gut-brain axis is legitimate, through its interactions with both the host, especially with the immune system, and the gut bacteria...
March 9, 2018: Microorganisms
Markus Huber-Lang, John D Lambris, Peter A Ward
Trauma can affect any individual at any location and at any time over a lifespan. The disruption of macrobarriers and microbarriers induces instant activation of innate immunity. The subsequent complex response, designed to limit further damage and induce healing, also represents a major driver of complications and fatal outcome after injury. This Review aims to provide basic concepts about the posttraumatic response and is focused on the interactive events of innate immunity at frequent sites of injury: the endothelium at large, and sites within the lungs, inside and outside the brain and at the gut barrier...
March 5, 2018: Nature Immunology
Myoungsoo Lee, Yongsung Lee, Jihye Song, Junhyung Lee, Sun-Young Chang
Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3 CL1, also known as fractalkine) and its receptor chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3 CR1) are widely expressed in immune cells and non-immune cells throughout organisms. However, their expression is mostly cell type-specific in each tissue. CX3 CR1 expression can be found in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Interaction between CX3 CL1 and CX3 CR1 can mediate chemotaxis of immune cells according to concentration gradient of ligands...
February 2018: Immune Network
Bruno K Rodiño-Janeiro, María Vicario, Carmen Alonso-Cotoner, Roberto Pascua-García, Javier Santos
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), one of the most frequent digestive disorders, is characterized by chronic and recurrent abdominal pain and altered bowel habit. The origin seems to be multifactorial and is still not well defined for the different subtypes. Genetic, epigenetic and sex-related modifications of the functioning of the nervous and immune-endocrine supersystems and regulation of brain-gut physiology and bile acid production and absorption are certainly involved. Acquired predisposition may act in conjunction with infectious, toxic, dietary and life event-related factors to enhance epithelial permeability and elicit mucosal microinflammation, immune activation and dysbiosis...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Namhee Kim, Misun Yun, Young Joon Oh, Hak-Jong Choi
It is increasingly evident that bidirectional interactions exist among the gastrointestinal tract, the enteric nervous system, and the central nervous system. Recent preclinical and clinical trials have shown that gut microbiota plays an important role in these gut-brain interactions. Furthermore, alterations in gut microbiota composition may be associated with pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, including stress, autism, depression, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the concepts of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Mahanand Chatoo, Yi Li, Zhiqiang Ma, John Coote, Jizeng Du, Xuequn Chen
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder defined by ROME IV criteria as pain in the lower abdominal region, which is associated with altered bowel habit or defecation. The underlying mechanism of IBS is not completely understood. IBS seems to be a product of interactions between various factors with genetics, dietary/intestinal microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and stress playing a key role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The crosstalk between the immune system and stress in IBS mechanism is increasingly recognized...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Paul R Giacomin, Ann Katrin Kraeuter, Eduardo A Albornoz, Shuting Jin, Mia Bengtsson, Richard Gordon, Trent M Woodruff, Tim Urich, Zoltán Sarnyai, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães
Helminth infections in children are associated with impaired cognitive development, however the biological mechanisms for this remain unclear. Using a murine model of gastrointestinal helminth infection, we demonstrate that early-life exposure to helminths promotes local and systemic inflammatory responses and transient changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome. Behavioural and cognitive analyses performed 9-months post-infection revealed deficits in spatial recognition memory and an anxiety-like behavioural phenotype in worm-infected mice, which was associated with neuropathology and increased microglial activation within the brain...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Livia H Morais, Daniela Felice, Anna V Golubeva, Gerard Moloney, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realization that the severity of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia is associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying such comorbidities remain unknown. Several genetic and environmental factors have been linked to a higher susceptibility to neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The maternal immune activation (MIA) rodent model is a valuable tool for elucidating the basis of this interaction. We induced MIA with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) at gestational day 12...
February 16, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Mary K Holder, Benoit Chassaing
The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a complex community of micro-organisms, present at a very high density, and containing an estimated amount of 10 14 bacteria. The microbiota generally benefits the host, as it plays a central role in maturing the immune system, protecting against infection by entero-pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, and favoring nutrient digestion/energy extraction in our intestine. An altered microbiota, however, can become detrimental and lead to inflammation, metabolic disorders, and even altered behavior/neuroinflammation...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Alexandre Vivanti, Augustin Ozanne, Cynthia Grondin, Guillaume Saliou, Loic Quevarec, Helène Maurey, Patrick Aubourg, Alexandra Benachi, Marta Gut, Ivo Gut, Jelena Martinovic, Marie Victoire Sénat, Marcel Tawk, Judith Melki
Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation is a congenital anomaly of the cerebral vasculature representing 30% of all paediatric vascular malformations. We conducted whole exome sequencing in 19 unrelated patients presenting this malformation and subsequently screened candidate genes in a cohort of 32 additional patients using either targeted exome or Sanger sequencing. In a cohort of 51 patients, we found five affected individuals with heterozygous mutations in EPHB4 including de novo frameshift (p.His191Alafs*32) or inherited deleterious splice or missense mutations predicted to be pathogenic by in silico tools...
February 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Hu Liu, Ji Wang, Ting He, Sage Becker, Guolong Zhang, Defa Li, Xi Ma
Butyrate, a four-carbon short-chain fatty acid, is produced through microbial fermentation of dietary fibers in the lower intestinal tract. Endogenous butyrate production, delivery, and absorption by colonocytes have been well documented. Butyrate exerts its functions by acting as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor or signaling through several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, butyrate has received particular attention for its beneficial effects on intestinal homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Ceymi Doenyas
Recent evidence implicates immune alterations and gut microbiota dysbiosis in at least some subpopulations of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Immune and gut alterations in ASD have mostly been studied separately, and the reviews and theoretical models up to now have mainly considered the immune system as one of the routes for gut-brain communication. We take a different perspective and consider possible common mechanisms of action for the gut microbiota and inflammation on the neural basis of ASD...
February 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
The expression of a wide range of social and affective behaviors, including aggression and investigation, as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, involves interactions among many different physiological systems, including the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Recent work suggests that the gut microbiome may also play a critical role in modulating behavior and likely functions as an important integrator across physiological systems. Microbes within the gut may communicate with the brain via both neural and humoral pathways, providing numerous avenues of research in the area of the gut-brain axis...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Shannon Delaney, Mady Hornig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence is growing that environmental exposures-including xenobiotics as well as microbes-play a role in the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Underlying mechanisms are likely to be complex, involving the developmentally sensitive interplay of genetic/epigenetic, detoxification, and immune factors. Here, we review evidence supporting a role for environmental factors and disrupted gut-immune-brain axis function in some neuropsychiatric conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies suggesting the involvement of an altered microbiome in triggering CNS-directed autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disturbances are presented as an intriguing example of the varied mechanisms by which environmentally induced gut-immune-brain axis dysfunction may contribute to adverse brain outcomes...
February 8, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Gerald Holtmann, Ayesha Shah, Mark Morrison
Background and Summary: Traditionally, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), including functional dyspepsia or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are defined by more or less specific symptoms and the absence of structural or biochemical abnormalities that cause these symptoms. This concept is now considered to be outdated; if appropriate tests are applied, structural or biochemical abnormalities that explain or cause the symptoms may be found in many patients. Another feature of FGID are the highly prevalent psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression and anxiety...
2017: Digestive Diseases
Brittany D Needham, Weiyi Tang, Wei-Li Wu
Social impairment is one of the major symptoms in multiple psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Accumulated studies indicate a crucial role for the gut microbiota in social development, but these mechanisms remain unclear. This review focuses on two strategies adopted to elucidate the complicated relationship between gut bacteria and host social behavior. In a top-down approach, researchers have attempted to correlate behavioral abnormalities with altered gut microbial profiles in rodent models of ASD, including BTBR mice, maternal immune activation (MIA), maternal valproic acid (VPA) and maternal high-fat diet (MHFD) offspring...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
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