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Gut immune brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316999/does-the-gut-microbiota-influence-immunity-and-inflammation-in-multiple-sclerosis-pathophysiology
#1
Monika Adamczyk-Sowa, Aldona Medrek, Paulina Madej, Wirginia Michlicka, Pawel Dobrakowski
Aim. Evaluation of the impact of gut microflora on the pathophysiology of MS. Results. The etiopathogenesis of MS is not fully known. Gut microbiota may be of a great importance in the pathogenesis of MS, since recent findings suggest that substitutions of certain microbial population in the gut can lead to proinflammatory state, which can lead to MS in humans. In contrast, other commensal bacteria and their antigenic products may protect against inflammation within the central nervous system. The type of intestinal flora is affected by antibiotics, stress, or diet...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302577/methamphetamine-effects-on-the-brain-gut-and-immune-system
#2
REVIEW
Monica D Prakash, Kathy Tangalakis, Juliana Antonipillai, Lily Stojanovska, Kulmira Nurgali, Vasso Apostolopoulos
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant which elevates mood, alertness, energy levels and concentration in the short-term. However, chronic use and/or at higher doses METH use often results in psychosis, depression, delusions and violent behavior. METH was formerly used to treat conditions such as obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but now is primarily used recreationally. Its addictive nature has led to METH abuse becoming a global problem. At a cellular level, METH exerts a myriad of effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, immune system and the gastrointestinal system...
March 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293926/prenatal-maternal-distress-and-allergic-diseases-in-offspring-review-of-evidence-and-possible-pathways
#3
REVIEW
Dong In Suh, Hyoung Yoon Chang, Eun Lee, Song I Yang, Soo Jong Hong
Recent studies have suggested a close association between prenatal maternal distress and allergic diseases in the offspring. We selected relevant birth-cohort or national registry studies using a keyword search of the PubMed database and summarized current evidence on the impact of prenatal maternal distress on the development of offspring's allergic diseases. Moreover, we postulated possible pathways linking prenatal distress and allergic diseases based on relevant human and animal studies. Both dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased oxidative stress may cause structural (altered brain/lung development) and functional (skewed immune development) changes, which may predispose the fetus to developing allergic diseases during childhood...
May 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291971/can-gut-microbes-play-a-role-in-mental-disorders-and-their-treatment
#4
Klara Latalova, Miroslav Hajda, Jan Prasko
The gut microbes, collectively called microbiota, are linked to the brain through a bidirectional system that involves the vagus nerve, the immune system, and various neurotransmitters. Stress response, memory functions, social behavior, and mood are modulated by microbiota. Furthermore, microbiota play a role in the development of the central nervous system. These features, established largely in rodent studies, have informed hypotheses about the role of microbiota in human psychiatric disorders. Microbiota affect phenomena that are known to be parts of the depression phenotype, such as exaggerated response to stress and inflammatory features...
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290524/gut-dysbiosis-and-neuroimmune-responses-to-brain-infection-with-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus
#5
F J Carrillo-Salinas, L Mestre, M Mecha, A Feliú, R Del Campo, N Villarrubia, C Espejo, X Montalbán, J C Álvarez-Cermeño, L M Villar, C Guaza
Recent studies have begun to point out the contribution of microbiota to multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) is a model of progressive MS. Here, we first analyze the effect of intracerebral infection with TMEV on commensal microbiota and secondly, whether the early microbiota depletion influences the immune responses to TMEV on the acute phase (14 dpi) and its impact on the chronic phase (85 dpi). The intracranial inoculation of TMEV was associated with a moderate dysbiosis...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286112/the-gut-microbiome-and-microbial-translocation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Ali Mirza, Yang Mao-Draayer
Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) have a distinct intestinal microbial community (microbiota) and increased low-grade translocation of bacteria from the intestines into the circulation. Immunopathologies shared with MS are regulated by bacteria reduced in individuals with MS. These bacteria regulate systemic and central nervous system (CNS) immunity including regulatory T cell function, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, CNS-resident cells. This review discusses the MS intestinal microbiota structure implication on MS systemic- and CNS-immunopathology...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284226/enhanced-susceptibility-of-triple-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-3xtg-ad-mice-to-acute-infection
#7
Rebecca Montacute, Kerry Foley, Ruth Forman, Kathryn Jane Else, Sheena Margaret Cruickshank, Stuart McRae Allan
BACKGROUND: Infection is a recognised risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can worsen symptoms in established disease. AD patients have higher rates of infection and are more likely to require hospital admissions due to infections than individuals without dementia. Infections have also been found to increase the risk of those over 84 years of age being diagnosed with dementia. However, few studies have investigated immune responses to infection in AD. METHODS: Here, we investigated the immune responses of the triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD) mouse model of AD to infection with the parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Trichuris muris...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270247/gut-brain-actions-underlying-comorbid-anxiety-and-depression-associated-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Áine Abautret-Daly, Elaine Dempsey, Adolfo Parra-Blanco, Carlos Medina, Andrew Harkin
Introduction Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing and remitting disorder characterised by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. There is a growing consensus that IBD is associated with anxiety- and depression-related symptoms. Psychological symptoms appear to be more prevalent during active disease states with no difference in prevalence between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Behavioural disturbances including anxiety- and depression-like symptoms have also been observed in animal models of IBD...
March 8, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259042/probiotic-treatment-reduces-depressive-like-behaviour-in-rats-independently-of-diet
#9
Anders Abildgaard, Betina Elfving, Marianne Hokland, Gregers Wegener, Sten Lund
The gut microbiota has recently emerged as an important regulator of brain physiology and behaviour in animals, and ingestion of certain bacteria (probiotics) therefore appear to be a potential treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, some conceptual and mechanistical aspects need further elucidation. We therefore aimed at investigating whether the habitual diet may interact with the effect of probiotics on depression-related behaviour and further examined some potentially involved mechanisms underlying the microbe-mediated behavioural effects...
February 16, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245757/the-role-of-stress-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#10
Sgambato Dolores, Miranda Agnese, Ranaldo Rocco, Federico Alessandro, Romano Marco
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multi-factorial systemic disorder which involves immune, genetic and environmental factors. Stress, in its various forms, plays an important role in gastrointestinal diseases and, in particular, in IBD. METHODS: Here, we focus on the environmental stressors in different aspects of IBD (pathogenesis, course and severity of disease) and, in particular, will evaluate the mechanisms by which they may influence IBD. RESULTS: The effect of stress on IBD might be mediated by autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis...
February 28, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244981/the-link-between-inflammation-bugs-the-intestine-and-the-brain-in-alcohol-dependence
#11
REVIEW
S Leclercq, P de Timary, N M Delzenne, P Stärkel
In recent years, some new processes have been proposed to explain how alcohol may influence behavior, psychological symptoms and alcohol seeking in alcohol-dependent subjects. In addition to its important effect on brain and neurotransmitters equilibrium, alcohol abuse also affects peripheral organs including the gut. By yet incompletely understood mechanisms, chronic alcohol abuse increases intestinal permeability and alters the composition of the gut microbiota, allowing bacterial components from the gut lumen to reach the systemic circulation...
February 28, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242200/nutritional-psychiatry-where-to-next
#12
REVIEW
Felice N Jacka
The nascent field of 'Nutritional Psychiatry' offers much promise for addressing the large disease burden associated with mental disorders. A consistent evidence base from the observational literature confirms that the quality of individuals' diets is related to their risk for common mental disorders, such as depression. This is the case across countries and age groups. Moreover, new intervention studies implementing dietary changes suggest promise for the prevention and treatment of depression. Concurrently, data point to the utility of selected nutraceuticals as adjunctive treatments for mental disorders and as monotherapies for conditions such as ADHD...
February 21, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242013/targeting-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-prebiotics-have-anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-like-effects-and-reverse-the-impact-of-chronic-stress-in-mice
#13
Aurelijus Burokas, Silvia Arboleya, Rachel D Moloney, Veronica L Peterson, Kiera Murphy, Gerard Clarke, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
BACKGROUND: The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders, is rapidly advancing. Nurturing a beneficial gut microbiome with prebiotics, such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), is an appealing but underinvestigated microbiota manipulation. Here we tested whether chronic prebiotic treatment modifies behavior across domains relevant to anxiety, depression, cognition, stress response, and social behavior...
February 24, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215162/gut-brain-axis-role-of-lipids-in-the-regulation-of-inflammation-pain-and-cns-diseases
#14
Roberto Russo, Claudia Cristiano, Carmen Avagliano, Carmen De Caro, Giovanna La Rana, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Roberto Berni Canani, Rosaria Meli, Antonio Calignano
The human gut is a composite anaerobic environment with a large, diverse and dynamic enteric microbiota, represented by more than 100 trillion microorganisms, including at least 1000 distinct species. The discovery that a different microbial composition can influence behavior and cognition, and in turn the nervous system can indirectly influence enteric microbiota composition, has significantly contributed to establish the well-accepted concept of gut-brain axis. This hypothesis is supported by several evidence showing mutual mechanisms, which involve the vague nerve, the immune system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation and the bacteria-derived metabolites...
February 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191693/gene-expression-profiles-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-correlate-with-salience-network-activity-in-chronic-visceral-pain-a-pilot-study
#15
A Gupta, S Cole, J S Labus, S Joshi, T J Nguyen, L A Kilpatrick, K Tillisch, B D Naliboff, L Chang, E A Mayer
BACKGROUND: Distinct gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) consistent with increased sympathetic nervous system activity have been described in different populations under chronic stress. Neuroinflammatory brain changes, possibly related to the migration of primed monocytes to the brain, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic pain. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive gastrointestinal disorder associated with altered brain-gut interactions and increased sympathetic/vagal tone and anxiety...
February 12, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159716/cellular-self-assembly-and-biomaterials-based-organoid-models-of-development-and-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Shivem B Shah, Ankur Singh
Organogenesis and morphogenesis have informed our understanding of physiology, pathophysiology, and avenues to create new curative and regenerative therapies. Thus far, this understanding has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically relevant yet accessible model that affords biological control. Recently, three-dimensional ex vivo cellular cultures created through cellular self-assembly under natural extracellular matrix cues or through biomaterial-based directed assembly have been shown to physically resemble and recapture some functionality of target organs...
January 31, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147375/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
REVIEW
Walter Reinisch
The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, but it is thought to arise from an aberrant immune response to a change in colonic environment in a genetically susceptible individual. The intestinal microbiota are located at the complex interface of the epithelial barrier and are sensitive to changes in environmental factors, such as diets, drugs or smoking and signals derived from the intestinal immune system and the gut-brain axis. In patients with IBD, an imbalance in the structural and/or functional configuration of the intestinal microbiota leading to the disruption of the host-microorganism homeostasis (dysbiosis) has been reproducibly reported...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144744/food-matters-how-the-microbiome-and-gut-brain-interaction-might-impact-the-development-and-course-of-anorexia-nervosa
#18
REVIEW
Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Jochen Seitz, John Baines
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in female adolescents and exhibits the highest mortality risk of all psychiatric disorders. Evidence for the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic or psychopharmacological interventions is weak. Mounting data indicate that the gut microbiome interacts with the central nervous system and the immune system by neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, neurotrophic and neuroinflammatory afferent and efferent pathways. There is growing evidence that the gut microbiota influences weight regulation and psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression...
January 31, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144278/altered-sympathovagal-balance-and-pain-hypersensitivity-in-tnbs-induced-colitis
#19
Katarzyna Ciesielczyk, Agata Furgała, Łukasz Dobrek, Kajetan Juszczak, Piotr Thor
INTRODUCTION: Pain hypersensitivity, abnormal motility and autonomic dysfunction contribute to functional symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to assess: nociceptive thresholds for mechanical allodynia (MA) and thermal hyperalgesia (TH), intestinal motility (distal colonic transit and emptying), and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (indices of heart rate variability - HRV) in male Wistar rats with experimental trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis...
February 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135659/new-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Joanna Oświęcimska, Agnieszka Szymlak, Wojciech Roczniak, Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok, Jarosław Kwiecień
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), characterized by abdominal pain and a change in stool form that cannot be explained by structural abnormalities. Its prevalence ranges from 9 to 23% of the worldwide population. The pathophysiology of IBS is diverse and not well understood. Biopsychosocial concept assumes that the disease is a product of psychosocial factors and altered at multiple levels of gut physiology interactions. Some aetiological factors have been identified, yet...
January 27, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
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