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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213682/mathematical-modelling-of-cytokines-mmps-and-fibronectin-fragments-in-osteoarthritic-cartilage
#1
Michelle Baker, Bindi S Brook, Markus R Owen
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease which causes pain and stiffness in joints. OA progresses through excessive degradation of joint cartilage, eventually leading to significant joint degeneration and loss of function. Cytokines, a group of cell signalling proteins, present in raised concentrations in OA joints, can be classified into pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory groups. They mediate cartilage degradation through several mechanisms, primarily the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a group of collagen-degrading enzymes...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213554/hypoxia-selectively-enhances-integrin-receptor-expression-to-promote-metastasis
#2
Julia A Ju, Ines Godet, I Chae Ye, Jungmin Byun, Hasini Jayatilaka, Sun Joo Lee, Lisha Xiang, Debangshu Samanta, Meng Horng Lee, Pei-Hsun Wu, Denis Wirtz, Gregg L Semenza, Daniele M Gilkes
: Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer (BCa)mortality. Previous studies have implicated hypoxia-induced changes in the composition and stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the metastatic process. Therefore, the contribution of potential ECM binding receptors in this process was explored. Using a bioinformatics approach the expression of all integrin receptor subunits, in two independent BCa patient data sets, were analyzed to determine if integrin status correlates with a validated hypoxiainducible gene signature...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212568/an-anthocyanin-rich-strawberry-extract-induces-apoptosis-and-ros-while-decreases-glycolysis-and-fibrosis-in-human-uterine-leiomyoma-cells
#3
Md Soriful Islam, Francesca Giampieri, Milijana Janjusevic, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Tamara Y Forbes-Hernandez, Luca Mazzoni, Stefania Greco, Stefano Raffaele Giannubilo, Andrea Ciavattini, Bruno Mezzetti, Franco Capocasa, Mario Castellucci, Maurizio Battino, Pasquapina Ciarmela
Uterine leiomyomas are highly prevalent benign tumors in reproductive aged women. Unfortunately, medical treatments are still limited and no preventive therapies have been developed. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of strawberry extract on uterine leiomyoma cells. Leiomyoma and myometrial cells were treated with strawberry (cultivar Alba) extract (250 μg/ml) for 48 h to measure apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative phosphorylation (OCR, oxygen consumption rate) and glycolysis (ECAR, extracellular acidification rate) as well as fibrosis associated gene and/or protein expression...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211512/physiology-and-role-of-irisin-in-glucose-homeostasis
#4
REVIEW
Nikolaos Perakakis, Georgios A Triantafyllou, José Manuel Fernández-Real, Joo Young Huh, Kyung Hee Park, Jochen Seufert, Christos S Mantzoros
Irisin is a myokine that leads to increased energy expenditure by stimulating the 'browning' of white adipose tissue. In the first description of this hormone, increased levels of circulating irisin, which is cleaved from its precursor fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5, were associated with improved glucose homeostasis by reducing insulin resistance. Consequently, several studies attempted to characterize the role of irisin in glucose regulation, but contradictory results have been reported, and even the existence of this hormone has been questioned...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210664/fibronectin-and-androgen-receptor-expression-data-in-prostate-cancer-obtained-from-a-rna-sequencing-bioinformatics-analysis
#5
Dibash K Das, Thahmina Ali, Konstantinos Krampis, Olorunseun O Ogunwobi
Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed male cancer in the world. The molecular mechanisms underlying its development and progression are still unclear. Here we show analysis of a prostate cancer RNA-sequencing dataset that was originally generated by Ren et al. [3] from the prostate tumor and adjacent normal tissues of 14 patients. The data presented here was analyzed using our RNA-sequencing bioinformatics analysis pipeline implemented on the bioinformatics web platform, Galaxy. The relative expression of fibronectin (FN1) and the androgen receptor (AR) were calculated in fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads, and represented in FPKM unit...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208054/high-glucose-induced-hypomethylation-promotes-binding-of-sp-1-to-myo-inositol-oxygenase-implication-in-the-pathobiology-of-diabetic-tubulopathy
#6
Isha Sharma, Rajesh K Dutta, Neel K Singh, Yashpal S Kanwar
The catabolic enzyme myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) is expressed in proximal tubules and up-regulated in the diabetic state. Previously, we reported its transcriptional and translation regulation by high glucose (HG), osmolytes, and fatty acids. However, its epigenetic regulation is unknown. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that both human and mouse MIOX promoters, enriched with CpG sites, are hypomethylated and unmethylated under HG ambience and hyperglycemic states associated with increased MIOX expression. Eletrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed increased binding of unmethylated oligos with nucleoproteins of cells maintained under HG...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207769/role-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-and-ppar-%C3%AE-on-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-dss-induced-colorectal-fibrosis
#7
Jacopo Di Gregorio, Roberta Sferra, Silvia Speca, Antonella Vetuschi, Caroline Dubuquoy, Pierre Desreumaux, Simona Pompili, Loredana Cristiano, Eugenio Gaudio, Vincenzo Flati, Giovanni Latella
BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibrosis is characterized by abnormal production and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by activated myofibroblasts. The main progenitor cells of activated myofibroblasts are the fibroblasts and the epithelial cells, the latter through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). AIM: To evaluate the action of the new PPAR-γ modulator, GED-0507-34 Levo (GED) on the expression of EMT associated and regulatory proteins such as TGF-β, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, β-catenin, and GSK-3β, in a mouse model of DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205281/growth-hormone-modulates-in-vitro-endothelial-cell-migration-and-formation-of-capillary-like-structures
#8
Cícero Fagner Messias de Lima, Maria Danielma Dos Santos Reis, Fernando Wagner da Silva Ramos, Silvana Ayres-Martins, Salete Smaniotto
The generation of new blood vessels is a complex process mediated by a variety of growth factors, and the growth hormone (GH) has been shown to act as a proangiogenic factor. In fact, human GH deficiency or excess are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, mouse models have revealed the action of GH in both tissue repair and in the microvascular circulation of normal tissues. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effects of GH on endothelial cells. Using a murine endothelioma cell line (tEnd...
February 16, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202937/focal-adhesion-kinase-activity-is-required-for-actomyosin-contractility-based-invasion-of-cells-into-dense-3d-matrices
#9
Claudia T Mierke, Tony Fischer, Stefanie Puder, Tom Kunschmann, Birga Soetje, Wolfgang H Ziegler
The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates the dynamics of integrin-based cell adhesions important for motility. FAK's activity regulation is involved in stress-sensing and focal-adhesion turnover. The effect of FAK on 3D migration and cellular mechanics is unclear. We analyzed FAK knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts and cells expressing a kinase-dead FAK mutant, R454-FAK, in comparison to FAK wild-type cells. FAK knock-out and FAK(R454/R454) cells invade dense 3D matrices less efficiently. These results are supported by FAK knock-down in wild-type fibroblasts and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells showing reduced invasiveness...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201871/a-targeted-contrast-agent-specific-to-an-oncoprotein-in-tumor-microenvironment-with-the-potential-for-detection-and-risk-stratification-of-prostate-cancer-with-mri
#10
Zheng Han, Yajuan Li, Sarah Roelle, Zhuxian Zhou, Yuchi Liu, Rob Sabatelle, Aidan DeSanto, Xin Yu, Hui Zhu, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Zheng-Rong Lu
Accurate detection and risk stratification are paramount to the clinical management of prostate cancer. Current diagnostic methods, including prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening, are unable to differentiate high-risk tumors from low-risk tumors, resulting in overdiagnosis and overtreatment of numerous patients. A peptide targeted contrast agent, ZD2-Gd(HP-DO3A), specific to an oncoprotein in tumor microenvironment, EDB-FN, was synthesized for non-invasive detection and characterization of aggressive prostate cancer...
February 16, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198545/the-therapeutic-t-cell-response-induced-by-tumor-delivery-of-tnf-and-melphalan-is-dependent-on-early-triggering-of-natural-killer-and-dendritic-cells
#11
Enrica Balza, Silvia Zanellato, Alessandro Poggi, Daniele Reverberi, Anna Rubartelli, Lorenzo Mortara
The fusion protein L19mTNF (mouse TNF and human antibody fragment L19 directed to fibronectin extra domain-B) selectively targets the tumor vasculature, and in combination with melphalan induces a long-lasting T-cell therapeutic response and immune memory in murine models. Increasing evidence suggests that natural killer (NK) cells act to promote effective T-cell-based antitumor responses. We have analyzed the role of NK cells and dendritic cells (DCs) on two different murine tumor models: WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma and C51 colon carcinoma, in which the combined treatment induces high and low rejection rates respectively...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198381/bio-functionalized-magnetic-nanoparticles-for-the-immunoassay-of-fetal-fibronectin-a-feasibility-study-for-the-prediction-of-preterm-birth
#12
Chian-Huey Wong, Chie-Pein Chen, Chia-Chen Chang, Chen-Yu Chen
Preterm birth is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Various biomarkers in cervicovaginal secretions related to preterm birth have been investigated, of which foetal fibronectin (fFN) shows the greatest potential because of its high negative predictive value. The immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assay has emerged as a novel quantitative method to detect biomarkers. In this prospective case-control study, we analysed 33 samples of cervicovaginal secretions from pregnant women between 22 and 34 weeks of gestation at high risk of preterm birth...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198348/down-regulation-of-pe11-a-cell-wall-associated-esterase-enhances-the-biofilm-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-reduces-cell-wall-virulence-lipid-levels
#13
Shivangi Rastogi, Amit Kumar Singh, Garima Pant, Kalyan Mitra, Koneni V Sashidhara, Manju Y Krishnan
PE11 (Rv1169c or LipX) is a cell wall associated esterase/lipase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Evidences suggest that PE11 is expressed by Mtb both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that PE11 leads to modification in cell wall lipid content and enhanced virulence when expressed in the non-pathogenic surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis. Since cell wall lipids often play different roles in pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria, we investigated the role of PE11 in its host, Mtb. Mtb with lowered expression of PE11 (PE11 knock-down) displayed significant changes in colony morphology and cell wall lipid profile, confirming the role of PE11 in cell wall architecture...
January 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196866/sglt2-expression-is-increased-in-human-diabetic-nephropathy-sglt2-inhibition-decreases-renal-lipid-accumulation-inflammation-and-the-development-of-nephropathy-in-diabetic-mice
#14
Xiaoxin X Wang, Jonathan Levi, Yuhuan Luo, Komuraiah Myakala, Michal Herman-Edelstein, Liru Qiu, Dong Wang, Yingqiong Peng, Almut Grenz, Scott Lucia, Evgenia Dobrinskikh, Vivette D D'Agati, Hermann Koepsell, Jeffrey B Kopp, Avi Rosenberg, Moshe Levi
There is very limited human renal sodium gradient dependent glucose transporter protein SGLT2 mRNA and protein expression data reported in the literature. Aim 1 of this study was to determine SGLT2 mRNA and protein levels in human and animal models of diabetic nephropathy. We have found that the expression of SGLT2 mRNA and protein is increased in renal biopsies from human subjects with diabetic nephropathy. This is in contrast to db-db mice which had no changes in renal SGLT-2 protein expression. Furthermore, the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on renal lipid content and inflammation is not known...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196225/blood-vessel-basement-membrane-alterations-in-human-retinal-microaneurysms-during-aging
#15
Mariana López-Luppo, Victor Nacher, David Ramos, Joana Catita, Marc Navarro, Ana Carretero, Alfonso Rodriguez-Baeza, Luísa Mendes-Jorge, Jesús Ruberte
Purpose: Microaneurysms, considered a hallmark of retinal vascular disease, are present in aged retinas. Here, the basement membrane of human retinal microaneurysms has been analyzed during aging. Methods: Retinas were obtained from 17 nondiabetic donors. Whole mount retinas and paraffin sections were marked immunohistochemically with antibodies against the main components of the blood basement membrane. Trypsin digestion and transmission electron microscopy also were performed...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194406/curcumin-ameliorates-diabetic-nephropathy-by-suppressing-nlrp3-inflammasome-signaling
#16
Miaomiao Lu, Nanchang Yin, Wei Liu, Xiangfei Cui, Shuo Chen, Ermin Wang
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, partly because of the lack of effective treatments for DN. Curcumin has been shown to exert strong antifibrotic effects in DN, but the underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of curcumin on diabetic renal disease in db/db mice and characterize the underlying mechanism of action. We administered curcumin to db/db mice for 16 weeks. In comparison to mock-treated db/db mice, curcumin-treated mice showed diminished renal hypertrophy, reduced mesangial matrix expansion, and a lower level of albuminuria...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193842/experimental-arthritis-is-dependent-on-mouse-mast-cell-protease-5
#17
Richard L Stevens, H Patrick McNeil, Lislaine A Wensing, Kichul Shin, G William Wong, Philip M Hansbro, Steven A Krilis
The constitutive heparin+ (HP) mast cells (MCs) in mice express mouse MC protease (mMCP)-5 and carboxypeptidase A (mMC CPA). The amino acid sequence of mMCP-5 is most similar to that of human chymase-1, as is the nucleotide sequences of their genes and transcripts. Using a homologous recombination approach, a C57BL/6 mouse line was created that possessed a disrupted mMCP-5 gene. The resulting mice were fertile and had no obvious developmental abnormality. Lack of mMCP-5 protein did not alter the granulation of the IL-3/IL-9-dependent mMCP 2+ MCs in the jejunal mucosa of Trichinella spiralis-infected mice...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193541/a-nano-scaled-and-multi-layered-recombinant-fibronectin-cadherin-chimera-composite-selectively-concentrates-osteogenesis-related-cells-and-factors-to-aid-bone-repair
#18
Junchao Xing, Tieniu Mei, Keyu Luo, Zhiqiang Li, Aijun Yang, Zhilin Li, Zhao Xie, Zehua Zhang, Shiwu Dong, Tianyong Hou, Jianzhong Xu, Fei Luo
: Easily accessible and effective bone grafts are in urgent need in clinic. The selective cell retention (SCR) strategy, by which osteogenesis-related cells and factors are enriched from bone marrow into bio-scaffolds, holds great promise. However, the retention efficacy is limited by the relatively low densities of osteogenesis-related cells and factors in marrow; in addition, a lack of satisfactory surface modifiers for scaffolds further exacerbates the dilemma. To address this issue, a multi-layered construct consisting of a recombinant fibronectin/cadherin chimera was established via a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique (LBL-rFN/CDH) and used to modify demineralised bone matrix (DBM) scaffolds...
February 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192862/long-term-dietary-quercetin-enrichment-as-a-cardioprotective-countermeasure-in-mdx-mice
#19
Christopher Ballmann, Thomas Denney, Ronald J Beyers, Tiffany Quindry, Matthew Romero, Joshua T Selsby, John C Quindry
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) causes declines in cardiac health resulting in premature mortality. As a potential countermeasure, quercetin is a polyphenol possessing inherent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that activate proliferator-activated γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) increasing mitochondrial biogenesis protein abundance. We investigated the extent to which lifelong 0.2% dietary quercetin enrichment attenuates dystrophic cardiopathology in mdx mice. Dystrophic animals were fed quercetin or control diet for 12 months while control C57 mice were fed a control diet...
February 13, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192654/self-assembly-of-recombinant-silk-as-a-strategy-for-chemical-free-formation-of-bioactive-coatings-a-real-time-study
#20
Linnea Nilebäck, Jesper Niels Hedin, Mona Widhe, Lotta S Floderus, Annika Krona, Helena Bysell, My Hedhammar
Functionalization of biomaterials with biologically active peptides can improve their performance after implantation. By genetic fusion to self-assembling proteins, the functional peptides can easily be presented on different physical formats. Herein, a chemical-free coating method based on self-assembly of the recombinant spider silk protein 4RepCT is described and used to prepare functional coatings on various biomaterial surfaces. The silk assembly on surfaces was studied in real-time, revealing occurrence of continuous assembly of silk proteins onto surfaces and formation of nanofibrillar structures...
February 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
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