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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342156/specialized-attachment-structure-of-the-fish-pathogenic-oomycete-saprolegnia-parasitica
#1
Svetlana Rezinciuc, Jose Vladimir Sandoval-Sierra, Yolanda Ruiz-León, Pieter van West, Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo
The secondary cysts of the fish pathogen oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica possess bundles of long hooked hairs that are characteristic to this economically important pathogenic species. Few studies have been carried out on elucidating their specific role in the S. parasitica life cycle and the role they may have in the infection process. We show here their function by employing several strategies that focus on descriptive, developmental and predictive approaches. The strength of attachment of the secondary cysts of this pathogen was compared to other closely related species where bundles of long hooked hairs are absent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339763/glucocorticoid-receptor-gr%C3%AE-regulates-glucocorticoid-induced-ocular-hypertension-in-mice
#2
Gaurang C Patel, Yang Liu, J Cameron Millar, Abbot F Clark
Prolonged glucocorticoid (GC) therapy can cause GC-induced ocular hypertension (OHT), which if left untreated progresses to iatrogenic glaucoma and permanent vision loss. The alternatively spliced isoform of glucocorticoid receptor GRβ acts as dominant negative regulator of GR activity, and it has been shown that overexpressing GRβ in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells inhibits GC-induced glaucomatous damage in TM cells. The purpose of this study was to use viral vectors to selectively overexpress the GRβ isoform in the TM of mouse eyes treated with GCs, to precisely dissect the role of GRβ in regulating steroid responsiveness...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339735/phenotype-and-functional-features-of-human-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-immortalized-human-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-from-asthmatic-and-non-asthmatic-donors
#3
J K Burgess, A Ketheson, A Faiz, K A Limbert Rempel, B G Oliver, J P T Ward, A J Halayko
Asthma is an obstructive respiratory disease characterised by chronic inflammation with airway hyperresponsiveness. In asthmatic airways, there is an increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell bulk, which differs from non-asthmatic ASM in characteristics. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of hTERT immortalisation of human ASM cells as a research tool. Specifically we compared proliferative capacity, inflammatory mediator release and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in hTERT immortalised and parent primary ASM cells from asthmatic and non-asthmatic donors...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337054/deficiency-of-primary-cilia-in-kidney-epithelial-cells-induces-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#4
Sang Jun Han, Jin Ki Jung, Seung-Soon Im, Seong-Ryong Lee, Byeong-Churl Jang, Kwon Moo Park, Jee In Kim
Primary cilium is a microtubule-based non-motile organelle that plays critical roles in kidney pathophysiology. Our previous studies revealed that the lengths of primary cilia decreased upon renal ischemia/reperfusion injury and oxidative stress, and restored with recovery. Here, we tested the hypothesis that lack of primary cilium causes epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of kidney tubule cells. We investigated the alteration of length of primary cilia in TGF-β-induced EMT via visualization of primary cilia by fluorescence staining against acetylated α-tubulin...
January 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332262/tumor-expression-of-survivin-p53-cyclin-d1-osteopontin-and-fibronectin-in-predicting-the-response-to-neo-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-children-with-advanced-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor
#5
Gabrielle Karpinsky, Malgorzata A Krawczyk, Ewa Izycka-Swieszewska, Aleksandra Fatyga, Agnieszka Budka, Walentyna Balwierz, Grazyna Sobol, Beata Zalewska-Szewczyk, Magdalena Rychlowska-Pruszynska, Teresa Klepacka, Bozenna Dembowska-Baginska, Bernarda Kazanowska, Anna Gabrych, Ewa Bien
PURPOSE: Selected cell-cycle regulators and extracellular matrix proteins were found to play roles in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) biology. We aimed to analyze whether initial tumor tissue expressions of survivin, p53, cyclin D1, osteopontin (OPN) and fibronectin (FN) correlate with the response to neo-adjuvant CHT (naCHT) in children with advanced inoperable MPNST. METHODS: The study included 26 children with MPNST (M/F 14/12, median age 130 months) treated in Polish centers of pediatric oncology between 1992 and 2013...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332162/roles-of-irisin-in-the-linkage-from-muscle-to-bone-during-mechanical-unloading-in-mice
#6
Naoyuki Kawao, Akihiro Moritake, Kohei Tatsumi, Hiroshi Kaji
Mechanical unloading induces disuse muscle atrophy and bone loss, but the details in mechanism involved in those pathophysiological conditions are not fully understood. Interaction between muscle and bone has been recently noted. Here, we investigated the roles of humoral factors linking muscle to bone during mechanical unloading using mice with hindlimb unloading (HU) and sciatic neurectomy (SNX). HU and SNX reduced muscle volume surrounding the tibia, tissue weights of soleus and gastrocnemius muscle, and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in the tibia of mice...
January 13, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331689/baicalin-inhibits-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-fibrosis-through-regulating-ampk-tgf-%C3%AE-smads-signaling-pathway
#7
Yichuan Xiao, Jiantao Ye, Ying Zhou, Junjun Huang, Xiawen Liu, Biyun Huang, Liu Zhu, Bo Wu, Genshui Zhang, Yi Cai
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of multiple metabolic pathways. It has been shown that activation of AMPK could inhibit fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, thereby suppressing cardiac fibrosis. Baicalin, the major component found in skullcap, possesses multiple protective effects on the cardiovascular system. However, little is known about the effect of baicalin on cardiac fibrosis and the molecular mechanism by which baicalin exerts its anti-fibrotic effects has not been investigated...
January 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331414/inhibition-of-fasn-and-er%C3%AE-signalling-during-hyperglycaemia-induced-matrix-specific-emt-promotes-breast-cancer-cell-invasion-via-a-caveolin-1-dependent-mechanism
#8
H A Zielinska, J M P Holly, A Bahl, C M Perks
Since disturbed metabolic conditions such as obesity and diabetes can be critical determinants of breast cancer progression and therapeutic failure, we aimed to determine the mechanism responsible for their pro-oncogenic effects. Using non-invasive, epithelial-like ERα-positive MCF-7 and T47D human breast cancer cells we found that hyperglycaemia induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key programme responsible for the development of metastatic disease. This was demonstrated by loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin together with increases in mesenchymal markers such as vimentin, fibronectin and the transcription factor SLUG, together with an enhancement of cell growth and invasion...
January 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330473/endothelial-heparan-sulfate-deficiency-reduces-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-murine-diabetic-nephropathy
#9
Ditmer T Talsma, Kirankumar Katta, Marieke A B Ettema, Berna Kel, Marion Kusche-Gullberg, Moh R Daha, Coen A Stegeman, Jacob van den Born, Lianchun Wang
Inflammation plays a vital role in the development of diabetic nephropathy, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are only partially understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that, during acute inflammation, endothelial heparan sulfate (HS) contributes to the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes into perivascular tissues by direct interaction with L-selectin and the presentation of bound chemokines. In the current study, we aimed to assess the role of endothelial HS on chronic renal inflammation and fibrosis in a diabetic nephropathy mouse model...
January 12, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330036/regulation-of-fibrotic-changes-by-the-synergistic-effects-of-cytokines-dimensionality-and-matrix-towards-the-development-of-an-in-vitro-human-dermal-hypertrophic-scar-model
#10
Shikha Chawla, Sourabh Ghosh
Current therapeutic strategies to reduce scarring in full thickness skin defect offer limited success due to poor understanding of scar tissue formation and the underlying signaling pathways. There is an urgent need to develop human cell based in vitro scar tissue models as animal testing is associated with ethical and logistic complications and inter-species variations. Pro-inflammatory cytokines play critical role in regulating scar development through complex interplay and interaction with the ECM and corresponding signaling pathways...
January 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329948/nkp46-receptor-mediated-interferon-%C3%AE-production-by-natural-killer-cells-increases-fibronectin-1-to-alter-tumor-architecture-and-control-metastasis
#11
Ariella Glasner, Assi Levi, Jonatan Enk, Batya Isaacson, Sergey Viukov, Shari Orlanski, Alon Scope, Tzahi Neuman, Claes D Enk, Jacob H Hanna, Veronika Sexl, Stipan Jonjic, Barbara Seliger, Laurence Zitvogel, Ofer Mandelboim
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells, and their presence within human tumors correlates with better prognosis. However, the mechanisms by which NK cells control tumors in vivo are unclear. Here, we used reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging in humans and in mice to visualize tumor architecture in vivo. We demonstrated that signaling via the NK cell receptor NKp46 (human) and Ncr1 (mouse) induced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion from intratumoral NK cells. NKp46- and Ncr1-mediated IFN-γ production led to the increased expression of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin 1 (FN1) in the tumors, which altered primary tumor architecture and resulted in decreased metastases formation...
January 4, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328490/galectin-1-expression-in-activated-pancreatic-satellite-cells-promotes-fibrosis-in-chronic-pancreatitis-pancreatic-cancer-via-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-pathway
#12
Dong Tang, Qi Wu, Jingqiu Zhang, Hongpeng Zhang, Zhongxu Yuan, Jiaming Xu, Yang Chong, Yuqin Huang, Qingquan Xiong, Sen Wang, Ying Tian, Yongdie Lu, Xiao Ge, Wenjing Shen, Daorong Wang
Chronic pancreatitis/pancreatic cancer (CP/PC) is characterized by fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Galectin-1 is upregulated in activated PSCs and is important for the continuing activation of PSCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of galectin-1 derived from activated PSCs on the progression of fibrosis in CP/PC. To this end, the expression of desmin, α-SMA, galectin-1, fibronectin and collagen type I in normal pancreatic, CP and PC tissues, as well as quiescent/activated PSCs, was investigated...
January 9, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328460/terrein-inhibits-migration-of-human-breast-cancer-cells-via-inhibition-of-the-rho-and-rac-signaling-pathways
#13
Anongnard Kasorn, Fabien Loison, Thaned Kangsamaksin, Suchada Jongrungruangchok, Mathurose Ponglikitmongkol
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Progression and aggressiveness of breast cancer is usually associated with its migration and invasion abilities. Recently, natural products with potential anticancer activity have become attractive candidates for alternative treatment of cancer. A fungal metabolite, terrein, isolated from the Aspergillus terreus has been revealed to exhibit selective anticancer activity; although this molecule has a variety of biological activities. The inhibitory effect on cell proliferation in hepatoma, keratinocytes, and lung cancer cells was due to cell cycle arrest without induction of apoptosis...
January 4, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326316/fibronectin-containing-extra-domain-a-induces-plaque-destabilization-in-the-innominate-artery-of-aged-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#14
Prakash Doddapattar, Manish Jain, Nirav Dhanesha, Steven R Lentz, Anil K Chauhan
OBJECTIVE: Fibronectin containing extra domain A (Fn-EDA) is an endogenous ligand of TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4) and is abundant in the extracellular matrix of advanced atherosclerotic lesions in human and mice. Irrespective of sex, deletion of Fn-EDA reduces early atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice. However, the contribution of Fn-EDA in advanced atherosclerosis remains poorly characterized. We determined the contribution of Fn-EDA in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of aged (1-year-old) Apoe-/- mice...
January 11, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326312/foxo3a-forkhead-transcription-factor-o-subfamily-member-3a-links-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-apoptosis-matrix-breakdown-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-remodeling-through-a-novel-pathway-involving-mmp13-matrix-metalloproteinase-13
#15
Haixiang Yu, Adam Fellows, Kirsty Foote, Zhaoqing Yang, Nichola Figg, Trevor Littlewood, Martin Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis accelerates atherosclerosis and promotes breakdown of the extracellular matrix, but the mechanistic links between these 2 processes are unknown. The forkhead protein FOXO3a (forkhead transcription factor O subfamily member 3a) is activated in human atherosclerosis and induces a range of proapoptotic and other transcriptional targets. We, therefore, determined the mechanisms and consequences of FOXO3a activation in atherosclerosis and arterial remodeling after injury...
January 11, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325937/histopathological-analysis-of-tamoxifen-on-epidural-fibrosis
#16
Yasar Ozturk, Ismail Bozkurt, Mesut Emre Yaman, Yahya Guvenc, Tolga Tolunay, Deniz Billur, Fatma Kubra Erbay, Salim Senturk, Gokhan Bozkurt
BACKGROUND: Epidural fibrosis is a challenging topic in spinal surgery. This phenomenon constitutes one of the the main reasons behind "post-laminectomy syndrome" or "failed-back surgery syndrome", which leads to persistent back and leg pain in association with compression and/or stretching the nerve root or the dura. The exact mechanism of action in epidural fibrosis is complex and remains uncertain. Excessive deposition of collagen, fibronectin, and dermatan sulfate known as "extracellular matrix", and decrease of tissue cellularity results in epidural fibrosis...
January 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325895/the-vertebrate-limb-an-evolving-complex-of-self-organizing-systems
#17
REVIEW
Stuart A Newman, Tilmann Glimm, Ramray Bhat
The paired appendages (fins or limbs) of jawed vertebrates contain an endoskeleton consisting of nodules, bars and, in some groups, plates of cartilage, or bone arising from replacement of cartilaginous templates. The generation of the endoskeletal elements occurs by processes involving production and diffusion of morphogens, with, variously, positive and negative feedback circuits, adhesion, and receptor dynamics with similarities to the mechanism for chemical pattern formation proposed by Alan Turing. This review presents a unified interpretation of the evolution and functioning of these mechanisms...
January 8, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325741/functional-engineered-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-fibronectin-gold-composite-coated-catheters-for-vascular-tissue-regeneration
#18
Yun-Wen Chen, Shu-Chen Hsieh, Yi-Chin Yang, Shan-Hui Hsu, Mei-Lang Kung, Pei-Ying Lin, Hsien-Hsu Hsieh, Ching-Hao Lin, Cheng-Ming Tang, Huey-Shan Hung
Vascularization of engineered tissues remains one of the key problems. Here, we described a novel approach to promote vascularization of engineered tissues using fibronectin (FN) incorporated gold nanoparticles (AuNP) coated onto catheters with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for tissue engineering. We found that the FN-AuNP composite with 43.5 ppm of AuNP exhibited better biomechanical properties and thermal stability than pure FN. FN-AuNP composites promoted MSC proliferation and increased the biocompatibility...
January 8, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325073/the-women-s-health-diagnostic-gap
#19
Ann M Gronowski, Melanie L Yarbrough
Pregnancy remains a significant health risk to women in both developed and underdeveloped countries. Worldwide, 10 to 20 million women have pregnancy complications including ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, gestational diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive states, including preeclampsia. Despite advancements in women's health research, there is a large gap in the diagnostic tools available to screen, diagnose, and monitor these conditions. Herein, we examine existing diagnostic tools, such as the human chorionic gonadotropin discriminatory zone, cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin, sFlt-1:PlGF ratio, and glucose tolerance testing...
February 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321630/engineered-mesenchymal-stem-cell-sheets-patches-prevents-postoperative-pancreatic-leakage-in-a-rat-model
#20
Seong-Ryong Kim, Hye-Jin Yi, Yu Na Lee, Ji Yoon Park, Robert M Hoffman, Teruo Okano, In Kyong Shim, Song Cheol Kim
Post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) following pancreatic resection is a life-threatening surgical complication. Cell sheets were prepared and harvested using temperature-responsive culture dishes and transplanted as patches to seal POPF. Two different mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets were compared in terms of the preventative ability for pancreatic leakage in a rat model. Both rat adipose-derived stem cell (rADSC) and bone marrow-derived stem cell (rBMSC) sheets were transplanted. Those rADSC and rBMSC sheets are created without enzymes and thus maintained their cell-cell junctions and adhesion proteins with intact fibronectin on the basal side, as well as characteristics of MSCs...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
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