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Gulf war illness

Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Arthur C Leuthold, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that six alleles from class II genes of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) confer protection from Gulf War Illness (GWI) (Georgopoulos et al., 2015). The most significant effect is exerted on Neurological-Cognitive-Mood (NCM), Pain, and Fatigue symptoms, such that higher number of copies of the protective alleles are associated with lower symptom severity. Here we tested the hypothesis that this effect is exerted by modulating the strength of neural synchronicity...
October 14, 2016: EBioMedicine
Monroe P Turner, Nicholas A Hubbard, Lyndahl M Himes, Shawheen Faghihahmadabadi, Joanna L Hutchison, Ilana J Bennett, Michael A Motes, Robert W Haley, Bart Rypma
Cognitive slowing is a prevalent symptom observed in Gulf War Illness (GWI). The present study assessed the extent to which functional connectivity between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and other task-relevant brain regions was predictive of GWI-related cognitive slowing. GWI patients (n = 54) and healthy veteran controls (n = 29) were assessed on performance of a processing speed task (the Digit Symbol Substitution Task; DSST) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). GWI patients were slower on the DSST relative to controls...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Linda L Chao, Linda R Abadjian, Iva L Esparza, Rosemary Reeb
Despite the fact that sleep disturbances are common in veterans with Gulf War Illness (GWI), there has been a paucity of published sleep studies in this veteran population to date. Therefore, the present study examined subjective sleep quality (assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), insomnia severity (assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index), and risk for obstructive sleep apnea (assessed with the STOP questionnaire) in 98 Gulf War veterans. Veterans with GWI, defined either by the Kansas or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, had greater risk for obstructive sleep apnea (i...
September 2016: Military Medicine
Brian E Engdahl, Lisa M James, Ryan D Miller, Arthur C Leuthold, Scott M Lewis, Adam F Carpenter, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: Gulf War Illness (GWI) has affected many Gulf War veterans. It involves several organs, most notably the brain. Neurological-cognitive-mood-related symptoms frequently dominate and are at the root of chronic ill-health and disability in GWI. Here we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying brain dysfunction in GWI in the absence of mental health disorders. METHODS: Eighty-six veterans completed diagnostic interviews to establish the presence of GWI and assess mental health status...
August 22, 2016: EBioMedicine
Stella M Gwini, Andrew B Forbes, Malcolm R Sim, Helen L Kelsall
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multisymptom illness (MSI) in 1990 to 1991 Gulf/Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from January 1990, June 2014 for studies on MSI prevalence in Gulf/Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans, based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MSI case definition, and which included a military comparison group. RESULTS: Seven studies were identified among US, UK, and Australian Gulf War veterans; no studies were identified in Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans...
July 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Jacob B Lindheimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Gerhard J Johnson, Billie C S Slater, Linda A Leis, Thomas S Rector, Ronald R Bach
BACKGROUND: More than twenty years following the end of the 1990-1991 Gulf War it is estimated that approximately 300,000 veterans of this conflict suffer from an unexplained chronic, multi-system disorder known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). The etiology of GWI may be exposure to chemical toxins, but it remains only partially defined, and its case definition is based only on symptoms. Objective criteria for the diagnosis of GWI are urgently needed for diagnosis and therapeutic research. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine if blood biomarkers could provide objective criteria to assist diagnosis of GWI...
2016: PloS One
Lisa M Pierce, Wendy E Kurata, Karen W Matsumoto, Margaret E Clark, Douglas M Farmer
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic, multisymptom illness that affects 25% of the 700,000 US veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf during the 1990-1991 Gulf War. Central nervous system impairments are among the most common symptoms reported, including memory dysfunction and depression. After 25 years, the diagnosis remains elusive, useful treatments are lacking, and the cause is poorly understood, although exposures to pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and pesticides are consistently identified to be among the strongest risk factors...
July 2016: Neurotoxicology
Phillip J Albrecht, Frank L Rice
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a clinical disorder predominant in females with unknown etiology and medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), similar to other afflictions, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Gulf War illness (GFI), and others. External environmental stimuli drive behavior and impact physiologic homeostasis (internal environment) via autonomic functioning. These environments directly impact the individual affective state (mind), which feeds back to regulate physiology (body)...
June 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
B Y Cooper, R D Johnson, T J Nutter
Chronic pain is a component of the multisymptom disease known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There is evidence that pain symptoms could have been a consequence of prolonged and/or excessive exposure to anticholinesterases and other GW chemicals. We previously reported that rats exposed, for 8 weeks, to a mixture of anticholinesterases (pyridostigmine bromide, chlorpyrifos) and a Nav (voltage activated Na(+) channel) deactivation-inhibiting pyrethroid, permethrin, exhibited a behavior pattern that was consistent with a delayed myalgia...
May 2016: Neurotoxicology
Lisa Conboy, Travis Gerke, Kai-Yin Hsu, Meredith St John, Marc Goldstein, Rosa Schnyer
BACKGROUND: Gulf War Illness is a Complex Medical Illness characterized by multiple symptoms, including fatigue, sleep and mood disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and musculoskeletal pain affecting veterans of the first Gulf War. No standard of care treatment exists. METHODS: This pragmatic Randomized Clinical Trial tested the effects of individualized acupuncture treatments offered in extant acupuncture practices in the community; practitioners had at least 5 years of experience plus additional training provided by the study...
2016: PloS One
Crystal M Cooper, Richard W Briggs, Emily A Farris, James Bartlett, Robert W Haley, Timothy N Odegard
Roughly 26-32% of U. S. veterans who served in the 1991 Persian Gulf War report suffering from chronic health problems. Memory complaints are regularly reported by ill Gulf War veterans (GWV), but limited data verify their complaints. This study investigated episodic memory and brain function in a nationally representative sample of GWV, using a face-name memory task and functional magnetic resonance imaging during encoding. A syndrome classification system was used to subdivide ill GWV into the three major Gulf War Illness syndrome types, "impaired cognition" (GWV-1), "confusion ataxia" (GWV-2), and "central pain" (GWV-3)...
April 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
John E Repine, Paul Wilson, Nancy Elkins, Jelena Klawitter, Uwe Christians, Ben Peters, Dwight M Smith
We employed our inhalation methodology to examine whether biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress would be produced in mice following inhalation of aerosols containing carbonaceous particles or the vapor of pesticides prevalent during the first Gulf War. Exposure to two putative Gulf War Illness toxins, fine airborne particles and the pesticide malathion, increased biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in Friend virus B (FVB) female mice. Mice inhaling particles 24 h before had increased lung lavage and plasma Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) (a biomarker of inflammation) and PGF2α (a biomarker of oxidative stress) levels, lung lavage protein and lung lavage lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels...
2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Linda L Chao, Rosemary Reeb, Iva L Esparza, Linda R Abadjian
BACKGROUND: We previously reported evidence of reduced cortical gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and hippocampal volume in Gulf War (GW) veterans with predicted exposure to low-levels of nerve agent according to the 2000 Khamisiyah plume model analysis. Because there is suggestive evidence that other nerve agent exposures may have occurred during the Gulf War, we examined the association between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms sound during deployment in the Gulf War and regional brain volume in GW veterans...
March 2016: Neurotoxicology
Apostolos P Georgopoulos, Lisa M James, Margaret Y Mahan, Jasmine Joseph, Angeliki Georgopoulos, Brian E Engdahl
BACKGROUND: Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a disease of unknown etiology with symptoms suggesting the involvement of an immune process. Here we tested the hypothesis that Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) composition might differ between veterans with and without GWI. METHODS: We identified 144 unique alleles of Class I and II HLA genes in 82 veterans (66 with and 16 without GWI). We tested the hypothesis that a subset of HLA alleles may classify veterans in their respective group using a stepwise linear discriminant analysis...
January 2016: EBioMedicine
Wojtek Wojcik, Stephen M Lawrie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: EBioMedicine
Susie M Kilshaw
From September 1990 to June 1991, the UK deployed 53,462 military personnel in the Gulf War. In 1993 reports began to surface in the UK about unexplained health problems occurring amongst Gulf War veterans. This paper considers the way sufferers of Gulf War Syndrome (GWS) came to label their condition in this way. Unlike other research into this illness, this work focuses on sufferers' own accounts to better understand the way GWS is perceived by those it affects. Based on 14 months of ethnographic fieldwork in the UK, data for this paper were collected mainly by in-depth semi-structured interviews with GWS sufferers, their family members, doctors and scientists, as well as Gulf veterans...
August 1, 2004: Anthropology & Medicine
Zuchra Zakirova, Gogce Crynen, Samira Hassan, Laila Abdullah, Lauren Horne, Venkatarajan Mathura, Fiona Crawford, Ghania Ait-Ghezala
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component that includes memory impairment as well as neurological and musculoskeletal deficits. Previous studies have shown that in the First Persian Gulf War conflict (1990-1991) exposure to Gulf War (GW) agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and permethrin (PER), were key contributors to the etiology of GWI. For this study, we used our previously established mouse model of GW agent exposure (10 days PB+PER) and undertook an extensive lifelong neurobehavioral characterization of the mice from 11 days to 22...
2015: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Kristin F Phillips, Laxmikant S Deshpande
Approximately 175,000-250,000 of the returning veterans from the 1991 Persian Gulf War exhibit chronic multi-symptom illnesses that includes neurologic co-morbidities such as depression, anxiety and cognitive impairments. Amongst a host of causative factors, exposure to low levels of the nerve agent Sarin has been strongly implicated for expression of Gulf War Illness (GWI). Nerve agents similar to pesticides are organophosphate (OP) compounds. There is evidence from civilian population that exposure to OPs such as in agricultural workers and nerve agents such as the survivors and first-responders of the Tokyo subway Sarin gas attack suffer from chronic neurological problems similar to GWI symptoms...
January 2016: Neurotoxicology
Abdolamir Landi, David Broadhurst, Suzanne D Vernon, D Lorne J Tyrrell, Michael Houghton
Recently, differences in the levels of various chemokines and cytokines were reported in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) as compared with controls. Moreover, the analyte profile differed between chronic ME/CFS patients of long duration versus patients with disease of less than 3years. In the current study, we measured the plasma levels of 34 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in 100 chronic ME/CFS patients of long duration and in 79 gender and age-matched controls...
February 2016: Cytokine
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