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Gulf war illness

David G Ashbrook, Benjamin Hing, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Wilfred C de Vega, Diane B Miller, Gordon Broderick, James P O'Callaghan, Patrick O McGowan
BACKGROUND: Gulf War illness (GWI) is an archetypal, medically unexplained, chronic condition characterised by persistent sickness behaviour and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory components. An estimated 25-32% of the over 900,000 veterans of the 1991 Gulf War fulfil the requirements of a GWI diagnosis. It has been hypothesised that the high physical and psychological stress of combat may have increased vulnerability to irreversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors leading to a priming of the neuroimmune system...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Jeffrey A Leibowitz, Brandi K Ormerod
A large proportion of Gulf War Veterans suffer from Gulf War Illness (GWI) - a devastating chronic disorder characterized by heterogeneous fatigue, pain and neuropsychological symptoms. In their recent Brain, Behavior and Immunity publication entitled "Curcumin Treatment Leads to Better Cognitive and Mood Function in a Model of Gulf War Illness with Enhanced Neurogenesis, and Alleviation of Inflammation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Hippocampus", Kodali and colleagues (2018) report that the polyphenol curcumin improves cognition and mood in a rat model of GWI, potentially by increasing the expression of antioxidant genes and by reversing the effects of chronic combined acetylcholinesterase inhibitor exposure on neuroinflammation, mitochondrial respiration and hippocampal neurogenesis...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Yahel Segal, Shani Dahan, Kassem Sharif, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad, Howard Amital
Autoimmune Syndrome Induced by Adjuvant (ASIA) is a definition aimed to describe the common etiological process at the root of five clinical entities sharing similar symptomatology: macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome (MMF), Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), sick building syndrome (SBS), siliconosis, and post vaccination autoimmune phenomena. ASIA illustrates the role of environmental immune stimulating agents, or adjuvants, in the instigation of complex autoimmune reactions among individuals bearing a genetic preponderance for autoimmunity...
March 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Isabel Carreras, Nurgul Aytan, Tiffany Mellott, Ji-Kyung Choi, Margaret Lehar, Leah Crabtree, Kimberly Leite-Morris, Bruce G Jenkins, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Alpaslan Dedeoglu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Brain Research
Apollonia Fox, Drew Helmer, Chin-Lin Tseng, Lydia Patrick-DeLuca, Omowunmi Osinubi
Introduction: Previous studies suggest that autonomic dysfunction may be an underlying factor in Gulf War Illness. This study examined self-reported symptoms of autonomic dysfunction and their relationship with physical functioning among veterans with Gulf War Illness. Materials and Methods: We abstracted medical records of Gulf War Veterans clinically evaluated at the New Jersey War Related Illness and Injury Study Center between 2010 and 2016. The outcome measure was the Veteran version of the Short Form Health Survey (VR-36) physical functioning scale...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
M Kodali, B Hattiangady, G A Shetty, A Bates, B Shuai, A K Shetty
Diminished cognitive and mood function are among the most conspicuous symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI). Our previous studies in a rat model of GWI have demonstrated that persistent cognitive and mood impairments are associated with substantially declined neurogenesis, chronic low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the hippocampus. We tested the efficacy of curcumin (CUR) to maintain better cognitive and mood function in a rat model of GWI because of its neurogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and memory and mood enhancing properties...
March 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Lisa M James, Peka Christova, Scott M Lewis, Brian E Engdahl, Angeliki Georgopoulos, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: Reduction of brain volume (brain atrophy) during healthy brain aging is well documented and dependent on genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors. Here we investigated the possible dependence of brain gray matter volume reduction in the absence of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) allele DRB1*13:02 which prevents brain atrophy in Gulf War Illness (James et al., 2017). METHODS: Seventy-one cognitively healthy women (32-69years old) underwent a structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) scan to measure the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter...
February 8, 2018: EBioMedicine
Alexis L Maule, Patricia A Janulewicz, Kimberly A Sullivan, Maxine H Krengel, Megan K Yee, Michael McClean, Roberta F White
OBJECTIVES: Across diverse groups of Gulf War (GW) veterans, reports of musculoskeletal pain, cognitive dysfunction, unexplained fatigue, chronic diarrhoea, rashes and respiratory problems are common. GW illness is a condition resulting from GW service in veterans who report a combination of these symptoms. This study integrated the GW literature using meta-analytical methods to characterise the most frequently reported symptoms occurring among veterans who deployed to the 1990-1991 GW and to better understand the magnitude of ill health among GW-deployed veterans compared with non-deployed GW-era veterans...
February 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Ben Porter, Kyna Long, Rudolph P Rull, Erin K Dursa
OBJECTIVE: This research describes Gulf War and era veterans enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study, who were sampled from US military personnel serving in 2000, and compares Health characteristics of this sample to a Department of Veterans' Affairs study sampled from the complete population. METHODS: Demographics characteristics of this sample were described. Self-reported health characteristics were compared between the two studies. RESULTS: Gulf War and era veterans in the Millennium Cohort were generally healthier than in the VA study; they had fewer medical conditions and mental health disorders and better self-reported health...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Isabel Carreras, Nurgul Aytan, Tiffany Mellott, Ji-Kyung Choi, Margaret Lehar, Leah Crabtree, Kimberly Leite-Morris, Bruce G Jenkins, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Alpaslan Dedeoglu
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic disease that affects the 1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans for which treatment is lacking. It has been hypothesized that drugs used to protect military personnel from chemical attacks and insects during the war: pyridostigmine bromide (PB),N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), and permethrin (PER) together with stress may have contributed collectively and synergistically to generate GWI. There is a need to find markers of pathology to be used in pre-clinical trials. For this purpose we employed a previously validated mouse model of GWI evoked by daily exposure to PB (1...
February 15, 2018: Brain Research
James P O'Callaghan, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Julie V Miller, Kimberly A Kelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: EBioMedicine
Rasjid Skinner, Paul M Kaplick
Objectives: Post-traumatic stress disorder is an established diagnostic category. In particular, over the past 20 years, there has been an interest in culture as a fundamental factor in post-traumatic stress disorder symptom manifestation. However, only a very limited portion of this literature studies the historical variability of post-traumatic stress within a particular culture. Design: Therefore, this study examines whether stress responses to violence associated with armed conflicts have been a culturally stable reaction in Western troops...
December 2017: JRSM Open
Lisa M James, Peka Christova, Brian E Engdahl, Scott M Lewis, Adam F Carpenter, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multisystem disorder that has affected a substantial number of veterans who served in the 1990-91 Gulf War. The brain is prominently affected, as manifested by the presence of neurological, cognitive and mood symptoms. We reported previously on the protective role of six Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles in GWI (Georgopoulos et al., 2016) and their association with regional brain function (James et al., 2016). More recently, we reported on the presence of subcortical brain atrophy in GWI (Christova et al...
December 2017: EBioMedicine
James N Baraniuk, Narayan Shivapurkar
Gulf War Illness (GWI) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) have similar profiles of pain, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and exertional exhaustion. Post-exertional malaise suggests exercise alters central nervous system functions. Lumbar punctures were performed in GWI, CFS and control subjects after (i) overnight rest (nonexercise) or (ii) submaximal bicycle exercise. Exercise induced postural tachycardia in one third of GWI subjects (Stress Test Activated Reversible Tachycardia, START). The remainder were Stress Test Originated Phantom Perception (STOPP) subjects...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
(no author information available yet)
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is issuing this final rule to affirm its adjudication regulations regarding compensation for disabilities resulting from undiagnosed illnesses suffered by veterans who served in the Persian Gulf War. This amendment is necessary to extend the period during which disabilities associated with undiagnosed illnesses and medically unexplained chronic multi-symptom illnesses must become manifest in order for a Veteran to be eligible for compensation. The intended effect of this amendment is to provide consistency in VA adjudication policy, preserve certain rights afforded to Persian Gulf War (GW) veterans, and ensure fairness for current and future GW veterans...
October 24, 2017: Federal Register
Yang Chen, Joel N Meyer, Helene Z Hill, Gudrun Lange, Michael R Condon, Jacquelyn C Klein, Duncan Ndirangu, Michael J Falvo
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184832.].
2017: PloS One
Steven S Coughlin, Maxine Krengel, Kimberly Sullivan, Penny F Pierce, Vahé Heboyan, Lt Col Candy Wilson
INTRODUCTION: In the 25 years since the 1990-1991 Gulf War (GW), studies have evaluated Gulf War Illness (GWI), sometimes referred to as medically unexplained multi symptom illness, and other medical and neurological conditions in women GW veterans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this article, we review epidemiologic studies of the health of women who served in the 1990-1991 GW based upon bibliographic searches in PubMed and CINAHL with relevant search terms through September 2015...
2017: Journal of Environment and Health Sciences
David D Haines, John E Ottenweller, Benjamin F Dickens, Fadia Fouad Mahmoud, Paul H Levine
OBJECTIVE: Two groups of Gulf War era veterans, one exhibiting blurred vision, balance problems/dizziness, tremors/shaking, and speech difficulty and a second group with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but not the neurologic syndrome, were assessed for organophosphate-detoxifying enzyme paraoxonase/arylesterase (PON1) and its Q/R isoforms, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and its U/A isoforms and cytokines. METHODS: Defibrinated peripheral blood was evaluated for enzymes and cytokines...
October 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
VerÔnica Farina Azzolin, Fernanda Barbisan, Luana Suéling Lenz, Cibele Ferreira Teixeira, Milena Fortuna, Thiago Duarte, Marta Maria Frescura Medeiros Duarte, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz
Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is a reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and the first-choice for the treatment of symptoms associated with myasthenia gravis and other neuromuscular junction disorders. However, evidence suggested that PB could be associated with the Gulf War Illness characterised by the presence of fatigue, headaches, cognitive dysfunction, and musculoskeletal respiratory and gastrointestinal disturbances. Given that a potential neurotoxic effect of PB has not yet been completely elucidated, the present investigation used neural SH-SY5Y cells to evaluate the effect of PB on the cellular viability, cell apoptosis, modulation of the cell cycle, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity variables, which indicate neurodegeneration...
November 2017: Mutation Research
Yang Chen, Joel N Meyer, Helene Z Hill, Gudrun Lange, Michael R Condon, Jacquelyn C Klein, Duncan Ndirangu, Michael J Falvo
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom illness not currently diagnosed by standard medical or laboratory test that affects 30% of veterans who served during the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The clinical presentation of GWI is comparable to that of patients with certain mitochondrial disorders-i.e., clinically heterogeneous multisystem symptoms. Therefore, we hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to both the symptoms of GWI as well as its persistence over time. We recruited 21 cases of GWI (CDC and Kansas criteria) and 7 controls to participate in this study...
2017: PloS One
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