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cast nephropathy extracorporeal

Sevgi Kalayoglu-Besisik
Hyperviscosity syndrome (HVS) develops most commonly in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) and multiple myeloma (MM). Plasmapheresis is the immediate therapy and very effective at relieving symptoms by removing paraprotein. The most commonly used replacement fluid is 4%-5% human albumin in physiologic saline. FFP may be used in patients with coagulation abnormalities. Plasmapheresis should be continued until acute symptoms abate. Hyperviscosity impairs the circulation in the retina and causes hemorrhages around the small retinal vessels...
February 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
P Fabbrini, K Finkel, M Gallieni, G Capasso, M Cavo, A Santoro, S Pasquali
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma and is associated with increased short-term mortality. Additionally, even a single episode of AKI can eventually lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), significantly reducing quality of life and long-term survival. In the setting of multiple myeloma, severe AKI (requiring dialysis) is typically secondary to cast nephropathy (CN). Renal injury in CN is due to intratubular obstruction from precipitation of monoclonal serum free light chains (sFLC) as well as direct tubular toxicity of sFLC via stimulation of nuclear factor (NF)κB inflammatory pathways...
December 2016: Journal of Nephrology
Kevin W Finkel, Eric P Cohen, Anushree Shirali, Ala Abudayyeh
Nearly 50% of patients with multiple myeloma develop renal disease, most commonly from AKI caused by cast nephropathy. Development of AKI is associated with poor 1-year survival and reduces the therapeutic options available to patients. There is a great need for more effective therapies. Cast nephropathy is caused by the interaction and aggregation of filtered free light chains and Tamm-Horsfall protein causing intratubular obstruction and damage. The key to treating cast nephropathy is rapid lowering of free light chains, because this correlates with renal recovery...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Florence Sens, Justine Bacchetta, Maud Rabeyrin, Laurent Juillard
We report a case of a 37-year-old man with Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Youth (MODY) type 5, admitted for an episode of cholestasis and a simultaneous acute kidney injury (AKI). Chronic liver disease was due to a mutation in the transcription factor 2 (TCF2) gene, thus highlighting the need for a close liver follow-up in these patients. AKI was attributed to a cholemic nephropathy based on the following rationale: (1) alternative diagnoses were actively ruled out; (2) the onset of AKI coincided with the onset of severe hyperbilirubinaemia; (3) renal pathology showed large bile tubular casts and a marked tubular necrosis and (4) creatinine serum dramatically decreased when bilirubin levels improved after the first sessions of extracorporeal albumin dialysis (ECAD), thus suggesting its role in renal recovery...
July 7, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Mathieu Rousseau-Gagnon, Mohsen Agharazii, Sacha A De Serres, Simon Desmeules
INTRODUCTION: In cases of myeloma cast nephropathy in need of haemodialysis (HD), reduction of free light chains using HD with High-Cut-Off filters (HCO-HD), in combination with chemotherapy, may be associated with better renal recovery. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of haemodiafiltration (HDF) in reducing free light chain levels using a less expensive heat sterilized high-flux polyphenylene HF dialyzer (HF-HDF). METHODS: In a single-centre prospective cohort study, 327 dialysis sessions were performed using a 2...
2015: PloS One
François Madore
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal failure is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma and portends a poor prognosis. Plasmapheresis has been suggested as an adjunct to chemotherapy to halt or reverse renal injury associated with multiple myeloma. The purpose of this article is to review the rationale for using plasmapheresis for this indication and then provide a discussion of the evidence regarding its use. RECENT FINDINGS: The outcome of patients with multiple myeloma has improved considerably in recent years, mostly owing to the introduction of new highly effective chemotherapeutic agents...
March 2015: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Sonia Pasquali, Francesco Iannuzzella, Mattia Corradini, Silvia Mattei, Achiropita Bovino, Alfredo Stefani, Giuseppe Palladino, Marialuisa Caiazzo
BACKGROUND: In myeloma cast nephropathy, fast reduction of serum free light chain (FLC) levels correlates with renal recovery. Recently, extracorporeal treatments using filters with a high-molecular weight cut-off have been successfully used for FLC removal. However, using these new filters, high cost and elevated albumin leakage are common drawbacks. We studied a new and cheaper therapeutic approach with adsorbent resins to evaluate its efficacy. METHODS: We treated four patients, affected by dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI) due to biopsy proven de novo FLC myeloma cast nephropathy...
April 2015: Journal of Nephrology
Carl Walther, Amber S Podoll, Kevin W Finkel
Nearly 50% of patients with multiple myeloma develop renal disease; acute kidney injury (AKI) from cast nephropathy, or "myeloma kidney" is the most common type. Development of AKI is associated with worse 1-year survival and reduces the therapeutic options available to patients. Therefore, there is a great need to develop more effective therapies. Cast nephropathy is due to the interaction and aggregation of filtered free light chains (FLCs) and Tamm- Horsfall protein (THP) causing intratubular obstruction and damage...
July 2014: Clinical Nephrology
Robert Weinstein, Glen Kershaw, Jeff Bailey, Mindy Greene, Vishesh Chhibber, Michelle Vauthrin, Rajneesh Nath, Eileen Galvin Karr
Autologous hemopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) collection is the most frequent indication for an apheresis procedure in patients with multiple myeloma, up to 10% of whom may also require hemodialysis because of myeloma kidney. We investigated whether HPC collection could be performed in tandem with hemodialysis, to avoid extra outpatient visits for extracorporeal procedures, without compromising the efficacy of the hemodialysis, the HPC collection efficiency (CE) or patient safety. Four dialysis-dependent patients with multiple myeloma underwent 5 large volume leukapheresis HPC collections in tandem with hemodialysis...
April 2014: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
Paul Cockwell, Mark Cook
Myeloma kidney (cast nephropathy) causing severe acute kidney injury occurs in up to 10% of patients with multiple myeloma. The lesion is caused by exposure of the kidneys to high serum levels of free clonal immunoglobulin light chains (LCs) and is associated with very high morbidity and mortality. The current focus on the management of this complication is on early and aggressive treatment to rapidly reduce the serum levels of the immunoglobulin LC clone and protect the kidneys from continuing injury. This has promoted intense interest in the role of direct (extracorporeal) removal of free LCs from serum by plasma exchange or high cut-off (protein permeable) hemodialysis...
September 2012: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Nelson Leung, Judith Behrens
Renal impairment is a serious complication of multiple myeloma. The primary cause of renal failure in myeloma is damage to the kidney by excessive amounts of light chain produced by the myeloma tumor, giving rise to cast nephropathy (myeloma kidney), although there are several other important precipitants. Significantly poor prognosis is observed in patients who do not recover their renal function; however, with the advent of more effective therapies and a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of the underlying process, it has become possible to reverse renal impairment in greater numbers of patients...
September 2012: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Stephanie Stringer, Kolitha Basnayake, Colin Hutchison, Paul Cockwell
Multiple myeloma is an incurable plasma cell malignancy that is often accompanied by renal failure; there are a number of potential causes of this, of which cast nephropathy is the most important. Renal failure is highly significant in myeloma, as patient survival can be stratified by the severity of the renal impairment. Consequently, there is an ongoing focus on the pathological basis of cast nephropathy and the optimal treatment regimens in this setting, including effective chemotherapy regimens to reduce light chain production and emerging extracorporeal techniques to remove circulating light chains...
2011: Bone Marrow Research
Bhavna Gakhar, Sidney Kobrin, Jeffrey S Berns
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), most commonly caused by cast nephropathy resulting from precipitation of free light chains (FLC) in renal tubules. AKI may be irreversible and require dialysis and predicts a poor prognosis. Reduction in serum FLC concentration is thought to be associated with improved likelihood of kidney function recovery in MM patients with AKI. Plasma exchange (PE), by removing circulating FLC, has been used as a treatment modality to improve kidney function in MM, although its efficacy remains uncertain...
January 2011: Seminars in Dialysis
Kolitha Basnayake, Chee Kay Cheung, Michael Sheaff, William Fuggle, Dia Kamel, Sandra Nakoinz, Colin A Hutchison, Mark Cook, John Stoves, Arthur R Bradwell, Paul Cockwell
BACKGROUND: Most cases of dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury due to myeloma cast nephropathy do not recover renal function. Renal biopsy typically shows cast formation, direct tubular injury and interstitial inflammation caused by nephrotoxic monoclonal free light chains (FLC). Established scarring at presentation is rarely severe. There is little data on in situ evolution of renal injury. AIMS: To conduct a detailed histological study of four patients with cast nephropathy...
October 2010: Journal of Clinical Pathology
N Leung, M A Gertz, S R Zeldenrust, S V Rajkumar, A Dispenzieri, F C Fervenza, S Kumar, M Q Lacy, J A Lust, P R Greipp, T E Witzig, S R Hayman, S J Russell, R A Kyle, J L Winters
Cast nephropathy is the most common cause of renal disease in multiple myeloma, however, treatment with plasma exchange remains controversial even after 3 randomized controlled studies. We sought to determine the importance of diagnostic confirmation and goal directed therapy in the treatment of cast nephropathy in forty patients with confirmed multiple myeloma and renal failure who underwent plasma exchange. A positive renal response was defined as a decrease by half in the presenting serum creatinine and dialysis independence...
June 2008: Kidney International
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