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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142099/assessing-tms-induced-d-and-i-waves-with-spinal-h-reflexes
#1
Niclas Niemann, Patrick Wiegel, Alexander Kurz, John C Rothwell, Christian Leukel
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex produces a series of descending volleys known as D- (direct) and I- (indirect) waves. In the present study, we questioned whether spinal H-reflexes can be used to dissect D-waves, early and late I-waves from TMS. We therefore probed H-reflex facilitation at arrival times of D- and I-waves at the spinal level and thereby changed TMS parameters that have previously been shown to have selective effects on evoked D- and different I-waves. We changed TMS intensity and current direction, and applied a double-pulse paradigm known as short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134974/differences-in-physical-physiological-and-motor-performance-traits-between-volleyball-and-basketball-athletes-in-a-university-in-ghana
#2
A Obour, M O Moses, B Baffour-Awuah, B Asamoah, P K Sarpong, F Osei, L G Akwa, E J Appiah
Physical, physiological and motor performance traits play substantial role in both volleyball (VB) and basketball(BB) competitions. The differences in these traits among University athletes in Ghana have not been reported. Hence, thisstudy documents and compares the physical, physiological and motor performance traits of VB and BB university athletes.Purposive sampling technique involving thirty-five university athletes (24 males and 11 females) with mean age of 21.77 ±2.03years was used. Height, weightn, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), heartrate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), shoulder muscular endurance (SME), abdominal muscular endurance (AME), left and right Arm Strength, Leg Power, Reaction time, Agility and Speed traits were measured...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133427/phasic-inhibition-as-a-mechanism-for-generation-of-rapid-respiratory-rhythms
#3
Jared M Cregg, Kevin A Chu, Thomas E Dick, Lynn T Landmesser, Jerry Silver
Central neural networks operate continuously throughout life to control respiration, yet mechanisms regulating ventilatory frequency are poorly understood. Inspiration is generated by the pre-Bötzinger complex of the ventrolateral medulla, where it is thought that excitation increases inspiratory frequency and inhibition causes apnea. To test this model, we used an in vitro optogenetic approach to stimulate select populations of hindbrain neurons and characterize how they modulate frequency. Unexpectedly, we found that inhibition was required for increases in frequency caused by stimulation of Phox2b-lineage, putative CO2-chemosensitive neurons...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118196/the-involvement-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-in-plasticity-induced-by-paired-corticospinal-motoneuronal-stimulation-in-humans
#4
Siobhan C Donges, Jessica M D'Amico, Jane E Butler, Janet L Taylor
Plasticity can be induced at human corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses by delivering repeated, paired stimuli to corticospinal axons and motoneurones in a technique called paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation (PCMS). To date, the mechanisms of the induced plasticity are unknown. To determine whether PCMS-induced plasticity is dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), the effect of the non-competitive NMDAR antagonist, dextromethorphan, on PCMS-induced facilitation was assessed in a two-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962906/towards-assessing-corticospinal-excitability-bilaterally-validation-of-a-double-coil-tms-method
#5
Julien Grandjean, Gerard Derosiere, Pierre Vassiliadis, Louise Quemener, Ysaline de Wilde, Julie Duque
BACKGROUND: For several decades, Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to monitor corticospinal excitability (CSE) changes in various contexts. Habitually, single-coil TMS is applied over one primary motor cortex (M1), eliciting motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in a contralateral limb muscle, usually a hand effector. However, in many situations, it would be useful to obtain MEPs in both hands simultaneously, to track CSE bilaterally. Such an approach requires stimulating both M1 concurrently while avoiding interference between the two descending stimuli...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893202/preliminary-evaluation-of-prototype-footwear-and-insoles-to-optimise-balance-and-gait-in-older-people
#6
Hylton B Menz, Maria Auhl, Shannon E Munteanu
BACKGROUND: Footwear has the potential to influence balance in either a detrimental or beneficial manner, and is therefore an important consideration in relation to falls prevention. The objective of this study was to evaluate balance ability and gait patterns in older women while wearing prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve balance. METHODS: Older women (n = 30) aged 65 - 83 years (mean 74.4, SD 5.6) performed a series of laboratory tests of balance ability (postural sway on a foam rubber mat, limits of stability and tandem walking, measured with the Neurocom® Balance Master) and gait patterns (walking speed, cadence, step length and step width at preferred speed, measured with the GAITRite® walkway) while wearing (i) flexible footwear (Dunlop Volley™), (ii) their own footwear, and (iii) prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve dynamic balance...
September 11, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859916/the-effect-of-type-of-afferent-feedback-timed-with-motor-imagery-on-the-induction-of-cortical-plasticity
#7
N Mrachacz-Kersting, M Voigt, Ajt Stevenson, S Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, N Jiang, K Dremstrup, D Farina
A peripherally generated afferent volley that arrives at the peak negative (PN) phase during the movement related cortical potential (MRCP) induces significant plasticity at the cortical level in healthy individuals and chronic stroke patients. Transferring this type of associative brain-computer interface (BCI) intervention into the clinical setting requires that the proprioceptive input is comparable to the techniques implemented during the rehabilitation process. These consist mainly of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive movement induced by an actuated orthosis...
August 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752624/paired-motor-cortex-and-cervical-epidural-electrical-stimulation-timed-to-converge-in-the-spinal-cord-promotes-lasting-increases-in-motor-responses
#8
Asht M Mishra, Ajay Pal, Disha Gupta, Jason B Carmel
KEY POINTS: Pairing motor cortex stimulation and spinal cord epidural stimulation produced large augmentation in motor cortex evoked potentials if they were timed to converge in the spinal cord. The modulation of cortical evoked potentials by spinal cord stimulation was largest when the spinal electrodes were placed over the dorsal root entry zone. Repeated pairing of motor cortex and spinal cord stimulation caused lasting increases in evoked potentials from both sites, but only if the time between the stimuli was optimal...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723819/exploring-game-dynamics-in-padel-implications-for-assessment-and-training
#9
Javier Courel-Ibáñez, Bernardino J Sánchez-Alcaraz Martinez, Diego Muñoz Marín
A better understanding of in-game competition demands potentially improves coaching strategy and quality. However, there is very limited information about game patterns in padel, a very modern racket sport born in the 70'. The purpose of this study was therefore to quantify and classify game dynamics during the match in professional padel players through a multivariate decision tree approach including technical, spatial and effectiveness indicators. The results determined three main game styles strongly defined by the court zone (net, middle and baseline)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666957/functional-perturbation-of-forebrain-principal-neurons-reveals-differential-effects-in-novel-and-well-learned-tasks
#10
Emily T Stoneham, Daniel G McHail, Katelyn N Boggs, Sarah H Albani, Jason A Carty, Rebekah C Evans, Kelly A Hamilton, Victoria M Saadat, Samanza Hussain, Maggie E Greer, Theodore C Dumas
Neural circuits in mammalian brains consist of large numbers of different cell types having different functional properties. To better understand the separate roles of individual neuron types in specific aspects of spatial learning and memory, we perturbed the function of principal neurons in vivo during maze performance or in hippocampal slices during recording of evoked excitatory synaptic potentials. Transgenic mice expressing the Drosophila allatostatin receptor (AlstR) in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells were tested on an elevated plus maze, in a Y-maze, and in the Morris water maze...
June 27, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651251/electrical-potential-of-leaping-eels
#11
Kenneth C Catania
When approached by a large, partially submerged conductor, electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) will often defend themselves by leaping from the water to directly shock the threat. Presumably, the conductor is interpreted as an approaching terrestrial or semiaquatic animal. In the course of this defensive behavior, eels first make direct contact with their lower jaw and then rapidly emerge from the water, ascending the conductor while discharging high-voltage volleys. In this study, the equivalent circuit that develops during this behavior was proposed and investigated...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615333/excitability-and-firing-behavior-of-single-slow-motor-axons-transmitting-natural-repetitive-firing-of-human-motoneurons
#12
Lydia P Kudina, Regina E Andreeva
Excitability of motor axons is critically important for realizing their main function, i.e., transmitting motoneuron firing to muscle fibers. The present study was designed to explore excitability recovery and firing behavior in single slow axons transmitting human motoneuron firing during voluntary muscle contractions. The abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi ulnaris, and tibialis anterior were investigated during threshold stimulation of corresponding motor nerves. Motor unit (MU) firing index in response to testing volleys evoking M-responses was used as a physiological measure of axonal excitability and its changes throughout a target interspike interval (ISI) were explored...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591219/mechanisms-underlying-a-thalamocortical-transformation-during-active-tactile-sensation
#13
Diego Adrian Gutnisky, Jianing Yu, Samuel Andrew Hires, Minh-Son To, Michael Ross Bale, Karel Svoboda, David Golomb
During active somatosensation, neural signals expected from movement of the sensors are suppressed in the cortex, whereas information related to touch is enhanced. This tactile suppression underlies low-noise encoding of relevant tactile features and the brain's ability to make fine tactile discriminations. Layer (L) 4 excitatory neurons in the barrel cortex, the major target of the somatosensory thalamus (VPM), respond to touch, but have low spike rates and low sensitivity to the movement of whiskers. Most neurons in VPM respond to touch and also show an increase in spike rate with whisker movement...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534668/does-spatial-attention-modulate-the-earliest-component-of-the-visual-evoked-potential
#14
Hannah M Baumgartner, Christian J Graulty, Steven A Hillyard, Michael A Pitts
Whether visual spatial attention can modulate feedforward input to human primary visual cortex (V1) is debated. A prominent and long-standing hypothesis is that visual spatial attention can influence processing in V1, but only at delayed latencies suggesting a feedback-mediated mechanism and a lack of modulation during the initial afferent volley. The most promising challenge to this hypothesis comes from an event-related potential (ERP) study that showed an amplitude enhancement of the earliest visual ERP component, called the 'C1', in response to spatially attended relative to spatially unattended stimuli...
June 14, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475998/refractory-focal-motor-seizures-controlled-with-intramuscular-botulinum-toxin
#15
Wei-I Lee, Patrick W Carney, Andrew J Hughes, John S Archer
Patients with recurrent focal motor seizures present a management dilemma, as anti-convulsants are often ineffective, and resective surgery poses a high risk of motor deficit. We describe three patients with recurrent focal motor seizures that remained refractory despite numerous anti-convulsant trials. All patients showed either hyperperfusion on Single-Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT) or hypermetabolism on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in primary motor cortex during periods of sustained jerking, although EEG abnormalities were uncommon...
July 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468994/spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-in-lower-limb-motoneurons-after-human-spinal-cord-injury
#16
M A Urbin, Recep A Ozdemir, Toshiki Tazoe, Monica A Perez
Recovery of lower-limb function after spinal cord injury (SCI) likely depends on transmission in the corticospinal pathway. Here, we examined whether paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation (PCMS) changes transmission at spinal synapses of lower-limb motoneurons in humans with chronic incomplete SCI and aged-matched controls. We used 200 pairs of stimuli where corticospinal volleys evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the leg representation of the motor cortex were timed to arrive at corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle 2 ms before antidromic potentials evoked in motoneurons by electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve (PCMS+) or when antidromic potentials arrived 15 or 28 ms before corticospinal volleys (PCMS-) on separate days...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446579/modulation-of-long-latency-afferent-inhibition-by-the-amplitude-of-sensory-afferent-volley
#17
Claudia V Turco, Jenin El-Sayes, Hunter J Fassett, Robert Chen, Aimee J Nelson
Long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI) is the inhibition of the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) motor-evoked potentials (MEP) by the sensory afferent volley following electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve. It is unknown how the activation of sensory afferent fibers relates to the magnitude of LAI. This study investigated the relationship between LAI and the sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) from the median nerve (MN) and the digital nerves (DN) of the second digit. LAI was obtained by delivering nerve stimulation 200 ms before a TMS pulse delivered over the motor cortex...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380320/reappraisal-of-the-f-m-amplitude-ratio-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#18
F Ginanneschi, M Mondelli, A Aretini, Alessandro Rossi
The F-wave/M-wave amplitude (F/M-amp) ratio has been shown to be increased in peripheral neuropathies, provided the maximum M-wave is relatively preserved. Reduced M-wave amplitudes and central facilitation of antidromically-induced reactivation of the anterior horn cells' axon hillocks (F-wave) are believed to contribute to higher F/M-amp ratios. The present study was undertaken to re-evaluate mechanisms responsible for higher F/M-amp ratios in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 232 cases affected by CTS and 108 controls...
January 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298170/concussion-induces-hippocampal-circuitry-disruption-in-swine
#19
John A Wolf, Brian N Johnson, Victoria E Johnson, Mary E Putt, Kevin D Browne, Constance J Mietus, Daniel P Brown, Kathryn L Wofford, Douglas H Smith, M Sean Grady, Akiva S Cohen, D Kacy Cullen
Hippocampal-dependent deficits in learning and memory formation are a prominent feature of traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the role of the hippocampus in cognitive dysfunction after concussion (mild TBI) is unknown. We therefore investigated functional and structural changes in the swine hippocampus following TBI using a model of head rotational acceleration that closely replicates the biomechanics and neuropathology of closed-head TBI in humans. We examined neurophysiological changes using a novel ex vivo hippocampal slice paradigm with extracellular stimulation and recording in the dentate gyrus and CA1 occurring at 7 days following non-impact inertial TBI in swine...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182523/monitoring-hitting-load-in-tennis-using-inertial-sensors-and-machine-learning
#20
David Whiteside, Olivia Cant, Molly Connolly, Machar Reid
PURPOSE: Quantifying external workload is fundamental to training prescription in sport. In tennis, global positioning data are imprecise and fail to capture hitting loads. The current gold standard (manual notation) is time intensive and often not possible given players' heavy travel schedules. The aim of this study was to develop an automated stroke classification system to help quantify hitting load in tennis. METHODS: 18 athletes wore an inertial measurement unit (IMU) on their wrist during 66 video-recorded training sessions...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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