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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753579/a-reappraisal-of-pain-paired-associative-stimulation-suggesting-motor-inhibition-at-spinal-level
#1
Martine Gavaret, Samar S Ayache, Veit Mylius, Alaa Mhalla, Moussa A Chalah, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
OBJECTIVES: Paired associative stimulation (PAS) can modulate motor excitability and consists of delivering repeated pairs of peripheral sensory stimulation combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the contralateral motor cortex. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a PAS protocol using a painful stimulation. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers underwent pain-PAS protocol consisting of 90 pairs of nociceptive stimulus over the right hand followed by an image-guided navigated TMS of the contralateral motor cortex, delivered at 0...
May 9, 2018: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750263/independent-early-and-late-sensory-processes-for-proprioceptive-integration-when-planning-a-step
#2
Anahid H Saradjian, Normand Teasdale, Jean Blouin, Laurence Mouchnino
Somatosensory inputs to the cortex undergo an early and a later stage of processing which are characterized by an early and a late somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP). The early response is highly representative of the stimulus characteristics whereas the late response reflects a more integrative, task specific, stage of sensory processing. We hypothesized that the later processing stage is independent of the early processing stage. We tested the prediction that a reduction of the first volley of input to the cortex should not prevent the increase of the late SEP...
May 10, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679296/methylmercury-reduces-synaptic-transmission-and-neuronal-excitability-in-rat-hippocampal-slices
#3
J Gutiérrez, A M Baraibar, E Albiñana, P Velasco, J M Solís, J M Hernández-Guijo
In a previous study, we pointed out that the neurotoxic action evoked by methylmercury (MeHg), a potent environmental pollutant responsible for fatal food poisoning, is associated with alterations of cellular excitability by irreversible blockade of sodium and calcium currents. Here, we investigated the MeHg effects on synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity using extracellular field recording in CA1 area of rat hippocampal slices. MeHg caused a fast and drastic depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 25...
April 21, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652586/a-computational-account-of-the-role-of-cochlear-nucleus-and-inferior-colliculus-in-stabilizing-auditory-nerve-firing-for-auditory-category-learning
#4
Irina Higgins, Simon Stringer, Jan Schnupp
It is well known that auditory nerve (AN) fibers overcome bandwidth limitations through the volley principle, a form of multiplexing. What is less well known is that the volley principle introduces a degree of unpredictability into AN neural firing patterns that may be affecting even simple stimulus categorization learning. We use a physiologically grounded, unsupervised spiking neural network model of the auditory brain with spike time dependent plasticity learning to demonstrate that plastic auditory cortex is unable to learn even simple auditory object categories when exposed to the raw AN firing input without subcortical preprocessing...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556489/training-effects-of-the-fifa-11-kids-on-physical-performance-in-youth-football-players-a-randomized-control-trial
#5
Carlos Pomares-Noguera, Francisco Ayala, Francisco Javier Robles-Palazón, Juan F Alomoto-Burneo, Alejandro López-Valenciano, José L L Elvira, Sergio Hernández-Sánchez, Mark De Ste Croix
Objective: To analyze the training effects of the FIFA 11+ kids on several parameters of physical performance in male youth football players. Materials and methods: Twenty-three youth players were randomized within each team into two groups (control vs. intervention). The intervention group performed the FIFA 11+ kids programme 2 times a week for 4 weeks; the control groups completed their normal warm-up routines. Thirteen physical performance measures {range of motion (hip, knee, and ankle joints), dynamic postural control (measured throughout the Y balance test), 20 m sprint time, slalom dribble with a ball, agility, vertical jumping height [counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ)], horizontal jump distance, accuracy when volleying a ball [measured throughout the Wall Volley test]} were assessed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444448/tracking-small-sensory-nerve-action-potentials-in-human-axonal-excitability-studies
#6
James Howells, Hugh Bostock, Susanna B Park, Matthew C Kiernan, David Burke
BACKGROUND: Excitability studies on normal and diseased human axons in vivo have been greatly enhanced by fast non-invasive threshold-tracking techniques, using surface stimulation and recording. Although sensory axons are often more affected in disease, most studies to date have focussed on motor axons, because of technical difficulties in resolving pathologically small nerve volleys in the presence of noise and stimulus artefact. NEW METHODS: This paper describes techniques for tracking low-amplitude compound action potentials, using a battery-powered, isolated preamplifier of simple construction with high common mode rejection (>125 dB [balanced inputs]) and low noise (<0...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417874/adaptive-working-memory-training-reduces-the-negative-impact-of-anxiety-on-competitive-motor-performance
#7
Emmanuel Ducrocq, Mark Wilson, Tim J Smith, Nazanin Derakshan
Optimum levels of attentional control are essential to prevent athletes from experiencing performance breakdowns under pressure. The current study explored whether training attentional control using the adaptive dual n-back paradigm, designed to directly target processing efficiency of the main executive functions of working memory (WM), would result in transferrable effects on sports performance outcomes. A total of 30 tennis players were allocated to an adaptive WM training or active control group and underwent 10 days of training...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339231/respiratory-patterns-in-field-collected-brown-locust-locustana-pardalina-in-the-gregarious-phase
#8
Frances D Duncan, Shirley A Hanrahan
In this paper we report on the metabolic rates and respiratory patterns measured from gregarious brown locusts, Locustana pardalina, collected from the Nama Karoo region in South Africa. All five instar hopper stages and adults were collected over a three year period when significant numbers of locust swarms were seen. Flow-through respirometry was used to measure the CO2 emission from individual locusts from all the developmental stages and adults within a week of collection. Carbon dioxide emission scaled hypometrically with mass, 0...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199783/physical-and-technical-demands-of-elite-beach-volleyball-according-to-playing-position-and-gender
#9
Simone Natali, Davide Ferioli, Antonio LA Torre, Matteo Bonato
BACKGROUND: Beach volleyball is a team sport played by two teams of two players on a sand court divided by a net. To date, research has mainly focused on male beach volleyball players. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess work-rest ratio and physical actions between males and females according to their role. METHODS: Forty-two elite beach volley players (24 males and 18 females) were filmed during 12 beach volleyball matches of the Swatch Major Series 2016 of the beach volleyball World Tour in Poreč in (Croatia)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154272/differences-in-synaptic-dysfunction-between-rtg4510-and-app-ps1-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Simon Gelman, Jonathan Palma, Geoffrey Tombaugh, Afshin Ghavami
Genetically modified mice have provided insights into the progression and pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we have examined two mouse models of AD: the rTg4510 mouse, which overexpresses mutant human Tau gene, and the APP/PS1 mouse, which overexpresses mutant human genes for amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1. Both models exhibit deficits in hippocampal function, but comparative analyses of these deficits are sparse. We used extracellular field potential recordings in hippocampal slices to study basal synaptic transmission (BST), paired-pulse facilitation (PPF), and long-term potentiation (LTP) at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses in both models...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142099/assessing-tms-induced-d-and-i-waves-with-spinal-h-reflexes
#11
Niclas Niemann, Patrick Wiegel, Alexander Kurz, John C Rothwell, Christian Leukel
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex produces a series of descending volleys known as D (direct) and I (indirect) waves. In the present study, we questioned whether spinal H-reflexes can be used to dissect D waves and early and late I waves from TMS. We therefore probed H-reflex facilitation at arrival times of D and I waves at the spinal level and thereby changed TMS parameters that have previously been shown to have selective effects on evoked D and different I waves. We changed TMS intensity and current direction and applied a double-pulse paradigm known as short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134974/differences-in-physical-physiological-and-motor-performance-traits-between-volleyball-and-basketball-athletes-in-a-university-in-ghana
#12
A Obour, M O Moses, B Baffour-Awuah, B Asamoah, P K Sarpong, F Osei, L G Akwa, E J Appiah
Physical, physiological and motor performance traits play substantial role in both volleyball (VB) and basketball(BB) competitions. The differences in these traits among University athletes in Ghana have not been reported. Hence, thisstudy documents and compares the physical, physiological and motor performance traits of VB and BB university athletes.Purposive sampling technique involving thirty-five university athletes (24 males and 11 females) with mean age of 21.77 ±2.03years was used. Height, weightn, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), heartrate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), shoulder muscular endurance (SME), abdominal muscular endurance (AME), left and right Arm Strength, Leg Power, Reaction time, Agility and Speed traits were measured...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133427/phasic-inhibition-as-a-mechanism-for-generation-of-rapid-respiratory-rhythms
#13
Jared M Cregg, Kevin A Chu, Thomas E Dick, Lynn T Landmesser, Jerry Silver
Central neural networks operate continuously throughout life to control respiration, yet mechanisms regulating ventilatory frequency are poorly understood. Inspiration is generated by the pre-Bötzinger complex of the ventrolateral medulla, where it is thought that excitation increases inspiratory frequency and inhibition causes apnea. To test this model, we used an in vitro optogenetic approach to stimulate select populations of hindbrain neurons and characterize how they modulate frequency. Unexpectedly, we found that inhibition was required for increases in frequency caused by stimulation of Phox2b-lineage, putative CO2 -chemosensitive neurons...
November 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118196/involvement-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-in-plasticity-induced-by-paired-corticospinal-motoneuronal-stimulation-in-humans
#14
Siobhan C Dongés, Jessica M D'Amico, Jane E Butler, Janet L Taylor
Plasticity can be induced at human corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses by delivery of repeated, paired stimuli to corticospinal axons and motoneurons in a technique called paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation (PCMS). To date, the mechanisms of the induced plasticity are unknown. To determine whether PCMS-induced plasticity is dependent on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), the effect of the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist dextromethorphan on PCMS-induced facilitation was assessed in a 2-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962906/towards-assessing-corticospinal-excitability-bilaterally-validation-of-a-double-coil-tms-method
#15
Julien Grandjean, Gerard Derosiere, Pierre Vassiliadis, Louise Quemener, Ysaline de Wilde, Julie Duque
BACKGROUND: For several decades, Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to monitor corticospinal excitability (CSE) changes in various contexts. Habitually, single-coil TMS is applied over one primary motor cortex (M1), eliciting motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in a contralateral limb muscle, usually a hand effector. However, in many situations, it would be useful to obtain MEPs in both hands simultaneously, to track CSE bilaterally. Such an approach requires stimulating both M1 concurrently while avoiding interference between the two descending stimuli...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893202/preliminary-evaluation-of-prototype-footwear-and-insoles-to-optimise-balance-and-gait-in-older-people
#16
Hylton B Menz, Maria Auhl, Shannon E Munteanu
BACKGROUND: Footwear has the potential to influence balance in either a detrimental or beneficial manner, and is therefore an important consideration in relation to falls prevention. The objective of this study was to evaluate balance ability and gait patterns in older women while wearing prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve balance. METHODS: Older women (n = 30) aged 65 - 83 years (mean 74.4, SD 5.6) performed a series of laboratory tests of balance ability (postural sway on a foam rubber mat, limits of stability and tandem walking, measured with the Neurocom® Balance Master) and gait patterns (walking speed, cadence, step length and step width at preferred speed, measured with the GAITRite® walkway) while wearing (i) flexible footwear (Dunlop Volley™), (ii) their own footwear, and (iii) prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve dynamic balance...
September 11, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859916/the-effect-of-type-of-afferent-feedback-timed-with-motor-imagery-on-the-induction-of-cortical-plasticity
#17
N Mrachacz-Kersting, M Voigt, Ajt Stevenson, S Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, N Jiang, K Dremstrup, D Farina
A peripherally generated afferent volley that arrives at the peak negative (PN) phase during the movement related cortical potential (MRCP) induces significant plasticity at the cortical level in healthy individuals and chronic stroke patients. Transferring this type of associative brain-computer interface (BCI) intervention into the clinical setting requires that the proprioceptive input is comparable to the techniques implemented during the rehabilitation process. These consist mainly of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive movement induced by an actuated orthosis...
August 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752624/paired-motor-cortex-and-cervical-epidural-electrical-stimulation-timed-to-converge-in-the-spinal-cord-promotes-lasting-increases-in-motor-responses
#18
Asht M Mishra, Ajay Pal, Disha Gupta, Jason B Carmel
KEY POINTS: Pairing motor cortex stimulation and spinal cord epidural stimulation produced large augmentation in motor cortex evoked potentials if they were timed to converge in the spinal cord. The modulation of cortical evoked potentials by spinal cord stimulation was largest when the spinal electrodes were placed over the dorsal root entry zone. Repeated pairing of motor cortex and spinal cord stimulation caused lasting increases in evoked potentials from both sites, but only if the time between the stimuli was optimal...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723819/exploring-game-dynamics-in-padel-implications-for-assessment-and-training
#19
Javier Courel-Ibáñez, Bernardino J Sánchez-Alcaraz Martinez, Diego Muñoz Marín
A better understanding of in-game competition demands potentially improves coaching strategy and quality. However, there is very limited information about game patterns in padel, a very modern racket sport born in the 70'. The purpose of this study was therefore to quantify and classify game dynamics during the match in professional padel players through a multivariate decision tree approach including technical, spatial and effectiveness indicators. The results determined three main game styles strongly defined by the court zone (net, middle and baseline)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666957/functional-perturbation-of-forebrain-principal-neurons-reveals-differential-effects-in-novel-and-well-learned-tasks
#20
Emily T Stoneham, Daniel G McHail, Katelyn N Boggs, Sarah H Albani, Jason A Carty, Rebekah C Evans, Kelly A Hamilton, Victoria M Saadat, Samanza Hussain, Maggie E Greer, Theodore C Dumas
Neural circuits in mammalian brains consist of large numbers of different cell types having different functional properties. To better understand the separate roles of individual neuron types in specific aspects of spatial learning and memory, we perturbed the function of principal neurons in vivo during maze performance or in hippocampal slices during recording of evoked excitatory synaptic potentials. Transgenic mice expressing the Drosophila allatostatin receptor (AlstR) in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells were tested on an elevated plus maze, in a Y-maze, and in the Morris water maze...
June 27, 2017: Brain Research
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