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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723819/exploring-game-dynamics-in-padel-implications-for-assessment-and-training
#1
Javier Courel-Ibáñez, Bernardino J Sánchez-Alcaraz Martinez, Diego Muñoz Marín
A better understanding of in-game competition demands potentially improves coaching strategy and quality. However, there is very limited information about game patterns in padel, a very modern racket sport born in the 70'. The purpose of this study was therefore to quantify and classify game dynamics during the match in professional padel players through a multivariate decision tree approach including technical, spatial and effectiveness indicators. The results determined three main game styles strongly defined by the court zone (net, middle and baseline)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666957/functional-perturbation-of-forebrain-principal-neurons-reveals-differential-effects-in-novel-and-well-learned-tasks
#2
Emily T Stoneham, Daniel G McHail, Katelyn N Boggs, Sarah H Albani, Jason A Carty, Rebekah C Evans, Kelly A Hamilton, Victoria M Saadat, Samanza Hussain, Maggie E Greer, Theodore C Dumas
Neural circuits in mammalian brains consist of large numbers of different cell types having different functional properties. To better understand the separate roles of individual neuron types in specific aspects of spatial learning and memory, we perturbed the function of principal neurons in vivo during maze performance or in hippocampal slices during recording of evoked excitatory synaptic potentials. Transgenic mice expressing the Drosophila allatostatin receptor (AlstR) in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells were tested on an elevated plus maze, in a Y-maze, and in the Morris water maze...
June 27, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651251/electrical-potential-of-leaping-eels
#3
Kenneth C Catania
When approached by a large, partially submerged conductor, electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) will often defend themselves by leaping from the water to directly shock the threat. Presumably, the conductor is interpreted as an approaching terrestrial or semiaquatic animal. In the course of this defensive behavior, eels first make direct contact with their lower jaw and then rapidly emerge from the water, ascending the conductor while discharging high-voltage volleys. In this study, the equivalent circuit that develops during this behavior was proposed and investigated...
June 27, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615333/excitability-and-firing-behavior-of-single-slow-motor-axons-transmitting-natural-repetitive-firing-of-human-motoneurons
#4
Lydia P Kudina, Regina E Andreeva
Excitability of motor axons is critically important for realizing their main function - transmitting motoneuron firing to muscle fibres. The present study was designed to explore excitability recovery and firing behavior in single slow axons transmitting human motoneuron firing during voluntary muscle contractions. The abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi ulnaris, and tibialis anterior were investigated during threshold stimulation of corresponding motor nerves. Motor unit (MU) firing index in response to testing volleys evoking M-responses was used as a physiological measure of axonal excitability and its changes throughout a target interspike interval (ISI) were explored...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591219/mechanisms-underlying-a-thalamocortical-transformation-during-active-tactile-sensation
#5
Diego Adrian Gutnisky, Jianing Yu, Samuel Andrew Hires, Minh-Son To, Michael Ross Bale, Karel Svoboda, David Golomb
During active somatosensation, neural signals expected from movement of the sensors are suppressed in the cortex, whereas information related to touch is enhanced. This tactile suppression underlies low-noise encoding of relevant tactile features and the brain's ability to make fine tactile discriminations. Layer (L) 4 excitatory neurons in the barrel cortex, the major target of the somatosensory thalamus (VPM), respond to touch, but have low spike rates and low sensitivity to the movement of whiskers. Most neurons in VPM respond to touch and also show an increase in spike rate with whisker movement...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534668/does-spatial-attention-modulate-the-earliest-component-of-the-visual-evoked-potential
#6
Hannah M Baumgartner, Christian J Graulty, Steven A Hillyard, Michael A Pitts
Whether visual spatial attention can modulate feedforward input to human primary visual cortex (V1) is debated. A prominent and long-standing hypothesis is that visual spatial attention can influence processing in V1, but only at delayed latencies suggesting a feedback-mediated mechanism and a lack of modulation during the initial afferent volley. The most promising challenge to this hypothesis comes from an event-related potential (ERP) study that showed an amplitude enhancement of the earliest visual ERP component, called the 'C1', in response to spatially attended relative to spatially unattended stimuli...
June 14, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475998/refractory-focal-motor-seizures-controlled-with-intramuscular-botulinum-toxin
#7
Wei-I Lee, Patrick W Carney, Andrew J Hughes, John S Archer
Patients with recurrent focal motor seizures present a management dilemma, as anti-convulsants are often ineffective, and resective surgery poses a high risk of motor deficit. We describe three patients with recurrent focal motor seizures that remained refractory despite numerous anti-convulsant trials. All patients showed either hyperperfusion on Single-Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT) or hypermetabolism on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in primary motor cortex during periods of sustained jerking, although EEG abnormalities were uncommon...
July 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468994/spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-in-lower-limb-motoneurons-after-human-spinal-cord-injury
#8
M A Urbin, Recep Ali Ozdemir, Toshiki Tazoe, Monica A Perez
Recovery of lower-limb function after spinal cord injury (SCI) likely depends on transmission in the corticospinal pathway. Here, we examined whether paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation (PCMS) changes transmission at spinal synapses of lower-limb motoneurons in humans with chronic incomplete SCI and aged-matched controls. We used 200 pairs of stimuli where corticospinal volleys evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the leg representation of the motor cortex were timed to arrive at corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle 2 ms before antidromic potentials evoked in motoneurons by electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve (PCMS+) or when antidromic potentials arrived 15 or 28 ms before corticospinal volleys (PCMS-) on separate days...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446579/modulation-of-long-latency-afferent-inhibition-by-the-amplitude-of-sensory-afferent-volley
#9
Claudia V Turco, Jenin El-Sayes, Hunter J Fassett, Robert Chen, Aimee Jennifer Nelson
Long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI) is the inhibition of the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) motor-evoked potentials (MEP) by the sensory afferent volley following electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve. It is unknown how the activation of sensory afferent fibres relates to the magnitude of LAI. This study investigated the relationship between LAI and the sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) from the median nerve (MN) and the digital nerves (DN) of the second digit. LAI was obtained by delivering nerve stimulation 200 ms prior to a TMS pulse delivered over the motor cortex...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380320/reappraisal-of-the-f-m-amplitude-ratio-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#10
F Ginanneschi, M Mondelli, A Aretini, Alessandro Rossi
The F-wave/M-wave amplitude (F/M-amp) ratio has been shown to be increased in peripheral neuropathies, provided the maximum M-wave is relatively preserved. Reduced M-wave amplitudes and central facilitation of antidromically-induced reactivation of the anterior horn cells' axon hillocks (F-wave) are believed to contribute to higher F/M-amp ratios. The present study was undertaken to re-evaluate mechanisms responsible for higher F/M-amp ratios in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 232 cases affected by CTS and 108 controls...
January 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298170/concussion-induces-hippocampal-circuitry-disruption-in-swine
#11
John A Wolf, Brian N Johnson, Victoria E Johnson, Mary E Putt, Kevin D Browne, Constance J Mietus, Daniel P Brown, Kathryn L Wofford, Douglas H Smith, M Sean Grady, Akiva S Cohen, D Kacy Cullen
Hippocampal-dependent deficits in learning and memory formation are a prominent feature of traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the role of the hippocampus in cognitive dysfunction after concussion (mild TBI) is unknown. We therefore investigated functional and structural changes in the swine hippocampus following TBI using a model of head rotational acceleration that closely replicates the biomechanics and neuropathology of closed-head TBI in humans. We examined neurophysiological changes using a novel ex vivo hippocampal slice paradigm with extracellular stimulation and recording in the dentate gyrus and CA1 occurring at 7 days following non-impact inertial TBI in swine...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182523/monitoring-hitting-load-in-tennis-using-inertial-sensors-and-machine-learning
#12
David Whiteside, Olivia Cant, Molly Connolly, Machar Reid
PURPOSE: Quantifying external workload is fundamental to training prescription in sport. In tennis, global positioning data are imprecise and fail to capture hitting loads. The current gold standard (manual notation) is time intensive and often not possible given players' heavy travel schedules. The aim of this study was to develop an automated stroke classification system to help quantify hitting load in tennis. METHODS: 18 athletes wore an inertial measurement unit (IMU) on their wrist during 66 video-recorded training sessions...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100655/furosemide-depresses-the-presynaptic-fiber-volley-and-modifies-frequency-dependent-axonal-excitability-in-rat-hippocampus
#13
Mogens Andreasen, Steen Nedergaard
The loop diuretic furosemide is known to have anticonvulsant effects, believed to be exerted through blockade of glial Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransport causing altered volume regulation in brain tissue. The possibility that direct effects of furosemide on neuronal properties could also be involved is supported by previous observations, but such effects have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study we show that furosemide has two opposing effects on stimulus-induced postsynaptic excitation in the nonepileptic rat hippocampal slice: 1) an enhancement of e-s coupling, which depended on intact GABAA transmission and was partially mimicked by selective blockade of K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransport, and 2) a decrement of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042098/age-dependent-alterations-in-neuronal-activity-in-the-hippocampus-and-visual-cortex-in-a-mouse-model-of-juvenile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-cln3
#14
Maria Burkovetskaya, Nikolay Karpuk, Tammy Kielian
Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is a fatal lysosomal storage disease caused by autosomal recessive mutations in CLN3. JNCL is typified by progressive neurodegeneration that has been suggested to occur from excessive excitatory and impaired inhibitory synaptic input; however, no studies to date have directly evaluated neuronal function. To examine changes in neuronal activity with advancing disease, electrophysiological recordings were performed in the CA1 hippocampus (HPC) and visual cortex (VC) of acute brain slices from Cln3(Δex7/8) mice at 1, 4, 8, and 12months of age...
December 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039540/f-wave-of-single-firing-motor-units-correct-or-misleading-criterion-of-motoneuron-excitability-in-humans
#15
Lydia P Kudina, Regina E Andreeva
Motoneuron excitability is a critical property for information processing during motor control. F-wave (a motoneuronal recurrent discharge evoked by a motor antidromic volley) is often used as a criterion of motoneuron pool excitability in normal and neuromuscular diseases. However, such using of F-wave calls in question. The present study was designed to explore excitability of single low-threshold motoneurons during their natural firing in healthy humans and to ascertain whether F-wave is a correct measure of motoneuronal excitability...
March 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031404/physiological-processes-influencing-motor-evoked-potential-duration-with-voluntary-contraction
#16
Mehdi A J van den Bos, Nimeshan Geevasinga, Parvathi Menon, David Burke, Matthew C Kiernan, Steve Vucic
Voluntary contraction leads to facilitation of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) producing greater amplitude, shorter onset latency, and prolonged duration of the electromyography potential. Whereas hyperexcitability of spinal motoneurons and changes in descending corticospinal volleys have been proposed as putative mechanisms for changes in MEP amplitude and onset latency, a contribution of propriospinal interneurons, exerting modulatory effects on α-motoneurons, has been proposed as a potential explanation for prolongation of MEP duration...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991485/construct-validity-of-tests-that-measure-kick-performance-for-young-soccer-players-based-on-cluster-analysis-exploring-the-relationship-between-coaches-rating-and-actual-measures
#17
Luiz H P Vieira, Vitor L DE Andrade, Rodrigo L Aquino, Renato Moraes, Fabio A Barbieri, Sérgio A Cunha, Bruno L Bedo, Paulo R Santiago
BACKGROUND: The main aim of this study was to verify the relationship between the classification of coaches and actual performance in field tests that measure the kicking performance in young soccer players, using the K--means clustering technique. METHODS: Twenty--three U--14 players performed eight tests to measure their kicking performance. Four experienced coaches provided a rating for each player as follows: 1--poor, 2--below average, 3--average, 4--very good, 5-excellent as related to three parameters (i...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974451/muscle-afferent-excitability-testing-in-spinal-root-intact-rats-dissociating-peripheral-afferent-and-efferent-volleys-generated-by-intraspinal-microstimulation
#18
Saeka Tomatsu, Geehee Kim, Joachim Confais, Kazuhiko Seki
Presynaptic inhibition of the sensory input from the periphery to the spinal cord can be evaluated directly by intra-axonal recording of primary afferent depolarization (PAD) or indirectly by intraspinal microstimulation (excitability testing). Excitability testing is superior for use in normal behaving animals, because this methodology bypasses the technically challenging intra-axonal recording. However, use of excitability testing on the muscle or joint afferent in intact animals presents its own technical challenges...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844034/neural-coupling-of-cooperative-hand-movements-after-stroke-role-of-ipsilateral-afference
#19
Miriam Schrafl-Altermatt, Volker Dietz
We investigated the role of ipsilateral ascending pathways in the neural coupling underlying cooperative hand movements of stroke subjects. Ipsi- and contralateral somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) were recorded following ulnar nerve stimulation during cooperative and non-cooperative hand movements. The amplitude ratio, that is, ipsilateral divided by contralateral amplitude, was highest during the cooperative task when the affected arm was stimulated, reflecting an enhanced afferent volley to the unaffected hemisphere...
November 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832594/high-frequency-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-modulates-interhemispheric-inhibition-in-healthy-humans
#20
Nicolas Gueugneau, Sidney Grosprêtre, Paul Stapley, Romuald Lepers
High-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (HF NMES) induces muscular contractions through neural mechanisms that partially match physiological motor control. Indeed, a portion of the contraction arises from central mechanisms, whereby spinal motoneurons are recruited through the evoked sensory volley. However, the involvement of supraspinal centers of motor control during such stimulation remains poorly understood. Therefore, we tested whether a single HF NMES session applied to the upper limb influences interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) from left to right motor cortex (M1)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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