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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892522/sars-cov-fusion-peptides-induce-membrane-surface-ordering-and-curvature
#1
Luis G M Basso, Eduardo F Vicente, Edson Crusca, Eduardo M Cilli, Antonio J Costa-Filho
Viral membrane fusion is an orchestrated process triggered by membrane-anchored viral fusion glycoproteins. The S2 subunit of the spike glycoprotein from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) contains internal domains called fusion peptides (FP) that play essential roles in virus entry. Although membrane fusion has been broadly studied, there are still major gaps in the molecular details of lipid rearrangements in the bilayer during fusion peptide-membrane interactions. Here we employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron spin resonance (ESR) to gather information on the membrane fusion mechanism promoted by two putative SARS FPs...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873254/fluorescence-based-real-time-activity-assays-to-identify-rnase-p-inhibitors
#2
Yu Chen, Xin Liu, Nancy Wu, Carol A Fierke
Transfer RNA is transcribed as precursor molecules that are processed before participating in translation catalyzed by the ribosome. Ribonuclease P is the endonuclease that catalyzes the 5' end maturation of precursor tRNA and it is essential for cell survival. Bacterial RNase P has a distinct subunit composition compared to the eukaryal counterparts; therefore, it is an attractive antibacterial target. Here, we describe a real-time fluorescence-based RNase P activity assay using fluorescence polarization/anisotropy with a 5' end fluorescein-labeled pre-tRNA(Asp) substrate...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872622/an-evaluation-of-20-years-of-eu-framework-programme-funded-immune-mediated-inflammatory-translational-research-in-non-human-primates
#3
Krista G Haanstra, Margreet Jonker, Bert A 't Hart
Aging western societies are facing an increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases for which often no effective treatments exist, resulting in increasing health-care expenditure. Despite high investments in drug development, the number of promising new drug candidates decreases. We propose that preclinical research in non-human primates can help to bridge the gap between drug discovery and drug prescription. Translational research covers various stages of drug development of which preclinical efficacy tests in valid animal models is usually the last stage...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863543/reduced-humoral-immunity-and-atypical-cell-mediated-immunity-in-response-to-vaccination-in-cows-naturally-infected-with-bovine-leukemia-virus
#4
Meredith C Frie, Kelly R Sporer, Joseph C Wallace, Roger K Maes, Lorraine M Sordillo, Paul C Bartlett, Paul M Coussens
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that is widely distributed across US dairy herds: over 83% of herds are BLV-infected and within-herd infection rates can approach 50%. BLV infection reduces both animal longevity and milk production and can interfere with normal immune health. With such a high prevalence of BLV infection in dairy herds, it is essential to understand the circumstances by which BLV negatively affects the immune system of infected cattle. To address this question, BLV- and BLV+ adult, lactating Holstein dairy cows were vaccinated with Bovi-Shield GOLD(®) FP(®) 5 L5 HB and their immune response to vaccination was measured over the course of 28days...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795325/probing-for-binding-regions-of-the-ftsz-protein-surface-through-site-directed-insertions-discovery-of-fully-functional-ftsz-fps
#5
Desmond A Moore, Zakiya N Whatley, Chandra P Joshi, Masaki Osawa, Harold P Erickson
: FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin homologue, is a cytoskeleton protein that assembles into protofilaments, one subunit thick. These protofilaments assemble further to form a "Z ring" at the center of prokaryotic cells. The Z ring generates a constriction force on the inner membrane, and also serves as a scaffold to recruit cell-wall remodeling proteins for complete cell division in vivo. One model of the Z ring proposes that protofilaments associate via lateral bonds to form ribbons; however, lateral bonds are still only hypothetical...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774138/discovery-of-fluorescence-polarization-probe-for-the-elisa-based-antagonist-screening-of-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors
#6
Zhao Ma, Zhenzhen Liu, Tianyu Jiang, Tianchao Zhang, Huateng Zhang, Lupei Du, Minyong Li
High-throughput screening (HTS) of ligand library to find new active molecules for G protein-coupled receptors is still a major interest, as well as an actual challenge. Fluorescence polarization (FP) assay portrays an essential role in HTS; however, in many cases, it was restricted by the absence of FP probes, the narrow measurement window, and low signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Herein, based on the modification of our previous probe 1 (QFL), we discovered an FP probe 3 (QGGFL) for α1-adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs), which has satisfactory fluorescence intensity, specific binding ability to receptors, and suitable fluorescence properties that were compatible with the filters in the FP system...
October 13, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723301/photoswitchable-fluorescent-proteins-do-not-always-look-on-the-bright-side
#7
Karin Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich Nienhaus
Photoactivatable fluorescent proteins (FPs) have become essential markers for nanoscopy on live specimens. In this issue of ACS Nano, Wang et al. present a reversibly photoswitching FP, GMars-Q, which they promote as an advanced marker for RESOLFT imaging because of its low residual intensity in the off state and low switching fatigue. Here, we explain the observed peculiar photobleaching behavior of GMars-Q by a mechanism that involves efficient shelving of proteins in dark states, resulting in low switching fatigue and low residual off intensity...
October 10, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661584/hybrid-algorithm-for-phase-retrieval-from-a-single-spatial-carrier-fringe-pattern
#8
Zhichao Dong, Haobo Cheng
A hybrid algorithm is proposed in this study for demodulating a single spatial carrier fringe pattern (FP) of interferometric measurement, which essentially combines the spatial carrier phase shift (SCPS) method and Fourier transform (FT) method. It firstly extracts three phase-shifted FPs from a single spatial carrier FP, then employs the FT method and a subtraction operation to determine the phase shift of three phase-shifted FPs, and finally retrieves the phase map using a least-square phase shift algorithm...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637411/-facial-palsy-in-children
#9
P Guerreschi, P-E Gabert, D Labbé, V Martinot-Duquennoy
Facial palsy (FP) in children is congenital or acquired. When present at birth (congenital), etiologies are mostly traumatic and rarely developmental. Acquired FP needs investigation. Research on the etiology helps to determine prognostic and treatment. At most times, no specific cause is found. Treatment of idiopathic FP consists of early oral corticosteroid therapy and ocular protection. Treating the sequelae is essential and the physician has to consider the dynamic balance of both sides of the face. Dynamic rehabilitation should mainly concern the inferior facial third...
October 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317178/conditional-rnai-using-the-lentiviral-gltr-system
#10
Elisabeth Pfeiffenberger, Reinhard Sigl, Stephan Geley
RNA interference (RNAi) has become an essential technology for functional gene analysis. Its success depends on the effective expression of target gene-specific RNAi-inducing small double-stranded interfering RNA molecules (siRNAs). Here, were describe the use of a recently developed lentiviral RNAi system that allows the rapid generation of stable cell lines with inducible RNAi based on conditional expression of double-stranded short hairpin RNA (shRNA). These lentiviral vectors can be generated rapidly using the GATEWAY recombination cloning technology...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27290659/validation-of-an-automated-morphological-mri-based-123-i-fp-cit-spect-evaluation-method
#11
Gabor Perlaki, Sarolta Szekeres, Gergely Orsi, Laszlo Papp, Balazs Suha, Szilvia Anett Nagy, Tamas Doczi, Jozsef Janszky, Katalin Zambo, Norbert Kovacs
INTRODUCTION: Dopamine transporter imaging with (123)I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is helpful for the differential diagnosis between Parkinsonian syndrome (PS) and essential tremor (ET). Although visual assessment and time-consuming manual evaluation techniques are readily available, a fully objective and automated dopamine transporter quantification technique is always preferable, at least in research and follow-up investigations. Our aim was to develop a novel automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based evaluation technique of dopamine transporter SPECT images and to compare its diagnostic accuracy with those of the gold-standard visual grading and manual dopamine transporter binding quantification methods...
August 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265468/structure-of-transmembrane-subunits-gp47-of-the-foamy-virus-envelope-glycoproteins
#12
M Wang, H Zhang, Q-M Liu, Y Sun, Z Li, W-H Liu, X-H He, J Song, Y-X Wang
The successful foamy viruses (FVs) infection includes at least two essential events, attachment to the cell surface and fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane. For the FVs, membrane fusion between virus and cell is mediated by envelope glycoprotein (Env) transmembrane (TM) subunit gp47. Compared with other retroviruses, FV TM subunit shares a similar but not identical structural characteristic. This paper focuses on in sillico analyses of all 15 available FV TM subunits gp47 based on their amino acid sequences...
June 2016: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175483/contraceptive-use-among-hiv-infected-women-and-men-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-lusaka-zambia-a-cross-sectional-survey
#13
Nancy L Hancock, Carla J Chibwesha, Samuel Bosomprah, Jonathan Newman, Mwangelwa Mubiana-Mbewe, Elizabeth Siyama Sitali, Carolyn Bolton-Moore, Clara Mbwili-Muleya, Benjamin H Chi
BACKGROUND: Family planning (FP) is an essential health service and an important part of comprehensive HIV care. However, there is limited information about the contraceptive needs of people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, which in turn has hampered efforts to expand and integrate FP services into existing HIV programs. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey to determine FP prevalence and predictors among HIV-positive women and men attending 18 public antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics in Lusaka, Zambia...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27051309/step-down-therapy-in-well-controlled-asthmatic-patients-using-salmeterol-xinafoate-fluticasone-propionate-combination-therapy
#14
Kazuya Horiuchi, Keita Kasahara, Yusuke Kuroda, Haruna Morohoshi, Yosuke Hagiwara, Gen Ishii
PURPOSE: A combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting β agonist (LABA) is the standard treatment for asthmatic patients, and step-down treatment is recommended once control has been achieved. However, little data exist that evaluate the long-term outcomes after step-down treatment. OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term outcomes of step-down therapy with ICS/LABA or ICS alone for asthmatic patients who have achieved well-controlled asthma by the ICS (250 µg fluticasone)/LABA (50 µg salmeterol) combination (SFC, two puffs per day)...
2016: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27037919/discussing-reproductive-health-in-spinal-care-part-ii-fertility-issues
#15
N S Korse, M P J Nicolai, S Both, C L A Vleggeert-Lankamp, H W Elzevier
PURPOSE: Due to advancing insights, discussing fertility in spinal care is an emerging topic. Studies among neurosurgeons to evaluate clinical practice about discussing fertility are non-existent. The aim of this study is to review knowledge, attitude and practice patterns regarding discussing fertility in spinal care. METHODS: Dutch neurosurgeons and residents were sent a mail-based questionnaire addressing attitude, knowledge and practice patterns regarding discussing fertility...
September 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030273/identification-of-the-fusion-peptide-containing-region-in-betacoronavirus-spike-glycoproteins
#16
Xiuyuan Ou, Wangliang Zheng, Yiwei Shan, Zhixia Mu, Samuel R Dominguez, Kathryn V Holmes, Zhaohui Qian
UNLABELLED: The fusion peptides (FP) play an essential role in fusion of viral envelope with cellular membranes. The location and properties of the FPs in the spike (S) glycoproteins of different coronaviruses (CoV) have not yet been determined. Through amino acid sequence analysis of S proteins of representative CoVs, we identified a common region as a possible FP (pFP) that shares the characteristics of FPs of class I viral fusion proteins, including high Ala/Gly content, intermediate hydrophobicity, and few charged residues...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968938/efficient-quantitative-assessment-of-facial-paralysis-using-iris-segmentation-and-active-contour-based-key-points-detection-with-hybrid-classifier
#17
Jocelyn Barbosa, Kyubum Lee, Sunwon Lee, Bilal Lodhi, Jae-Gu Cho, Woo-Keun Seo, Jaewoo Kang
BACKGROUND: Facial palsy or paralysis (FP) is a symptom that loses voluntary muscles movement in one side of the human face, which could be very devastating in the part of the patients. Traditional methods are solely dependent to clinician's judgment and therefore time consuming and subjective in nature. Hence, a quantitative assessment system becomes apparently invaluable for physicians to begin the rehabilitation process; and to produce a reliable and robust method is challenging and still underway...
2016: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26958025/clinical-and-genetic-data-of-huntington-disease-in-moroccan-patients
#18
Ahmed Bouhouche, Wafaa Regragui, Hind Lamghari, Khadija Khaldi, Nazha Birouk, Safaa Lytim, Soufiane Bellamine, Yamna Kriouile, Naima Bouslam, El Hachmia Ait Ben Haddou, Mustapha Alaoui Faris, Ali Benomar, Mohamed Yahyaoui
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) occurs worldwide with prevalence varying from 0.1 to 10/100,000 depending of the ethnic origin. Since no data is available in the Maghreb population, the aim of this study is to describe clinical and genetic characteristics of Huntington patients of Moroccan origin. METHODS: Clinical and genetics data of 21 consecutive patients recruited from 2009 to 2014 from the outpatient clinic of six medical centers were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics...
December 2015: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26950156/the-trypanosome-flagellar-pocket-collar-and-its-ring-forming-protein-tbbilbo1
#19
REVIEW
Doranda Perdomo, Mélanie Bonhivers, Derrick R Robinson
Sub-species of Trypanosoma brucei are the causal agents of human African sleeping sickness and Nagana in domesticated livestock. These pathogens have developed an organelle-like compartment called the flagellar pocket (FP). The FP carries out endo- and exocytosis and is the only structure this parasite has evolved to do so. The FP is essential for parasite viability, making it an interesting structure to evaluate as a drug target, especially since it has an indispensible cytoskeleton component called the flagellar pocket collar (FPC)...
2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941761/summer-freezing-resistance-a-critical-filter-for-plant-community-assemblies-in-mediterranean-high-mountains
#20
David S Pescador, Ángela Sierra-Almeida, Pablo J Torres, Adrián Escudero
Assessing freezing community response and whether freezing resistance is related to other functional traits is essential for understanding alpine community assemblages, particularly in Mediterranean environments where plants are exposed to freezing temperatures and summer droughts. Thus, we characterized the leaf freezing resistance of 42 plant species in 38 plots at Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain) by measuring their ice nucleation temperature, freezing point (FP), and low-temperature damage (LT50), as well as determining their freezing resistance mechanisms (i...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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