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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138820/development-of-extended-release-oral-flexible-tablet-er-oft-formulation-for-pediatric-and-geriatric-compliance-an-age-appropriate-formulation
#1
Prabagaran Chandrasekaran, Ruckmani Kandasamy
Development of age-appropriate formulation suitable for pediatric and geriatric patients involves various challenges. The objective of this research was to develop extended-release oral flexible tablet (ER-OFT) formulation using carbamazepine (CBZ) as model drug for pediatric and geriatric compliance. ER-microparticles of carbamazepine, a BCS class 2, and narrow therapeutic index (NTI) drug, were prepared using ethyl cellulose as matrixing polymer and hypromellose as hydrophilic pore former. Microparticles were prepared using high-shear granulator fitted with an atomizing spray system...
January 30, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092031/expression-and-production-of-sh2-domain-proteins
#2
Bernard A Liu, Mari Ogiue-Ikeda, Kazuya Machida
The Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain lies at the heart of phosphotyrosine signaling, coordinating signaling events downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), adaptors, and scaffolds. Over a hundred SH2 domains are present in mammals, each having a unique specificity which determines its interactions with multiple binding partners. One of the essential tools necessary for studying and determining the role of SH2 domains in phosphotyrosine signaling is a set of soluble recombinant SH2 proteins. Here we describe methods, based on a broad experience with purification of all SH2 domains, for the production of SH2 domain proteins needed for proteomic and biochemical-based studies such as peptide arrays, mass-spectrometry, protein microarrays, reverse-phase microarrays, and high-throughput fluorescence polarization (HTP-FP)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003005/targeting-cysteine-proteases-from-plasmodium-falciparum-a-general-overview-rational-drug-design-and-computational-approaches-for-drug-discovery
#3
Boris D Bekono, Fidele Ntie-Kang, Luc C Owono Owono, Eugene Megnassan
The Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases, also known as falcipains, are involved in different erythrocytic cycle processes of the malaria parasite, e.g. hydrolysis of host haemoglobin, erythrocyte invasion, and erythrocyte rupture. With the biochemical characterization of four falcipains so far, FP-2 (falcipain-2) and FP-3 (falcipain-3), members of the papain-like CAC1 family, are essential haemoglobinases. They could therefore be referred to as potential anti-malarial drug targets in the search for novel therapies, which could ease the burden caused by the increasing resistance to current anti-malarial drugs...
December 21, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992813/which-dsm-validated-tools-for-diagnosing-depression-are-usable-in-primary-care-research-a-systematic-literature-review
#4
P Nabbe, J Y Le Reste, M Guillou-Landreat, M A Munoz Perez, S Argyriadou, A Claveria, M I Fernández San Martín, S Czachowski, H Lingner, C Lygidakis, A Sowinska, B Chiron, J Derriennic, A Le Prielec, B Le Floch, T Montier, H Van Marwijk, P Van Royen
INTRODUCTION: Depression occurs frequently in primary care. Its broad clinical variability makes it difficult to diagnose. This makes it essential that family practitioner (FP) researchers have validated tools to minimize bias in studies of everyday practice. Which tools validated against psychiatric examination, according to the major depression criteria of DSM-IV or 5, can be used for research purposes? METHOD: An international FP team conducted a systematic review using the following databases: Pubmed, Cochrane and Embase, from 2000/01/01 to 2015/10/01...
December 16, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892522/sars-cov-fusion-peptides-induce-membrane-surface-ordering-and-curvature
#5
Luis G M Basso, Eduardo F Vicente, Edson Crusca, Eduardo M Cilli, Antonio J Costa-Filho
Viral membrane fusion is an orchestrated process triggered by membrane-anchored viral fusion glycoproteins. The S2 subunit of the spike glycoprotein from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) contains internal domains called fusion peptides (FP) that play essential roles in virus entry. Although membrane fusion has been broadly studied, there are still major gaps in the molecular details of lipid rearrangements in the bilayer during fusion peptide-membrane interactions. Here we employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron spin resonance (ESR) to gather information on the membrane fusion mechanism promoted by two putative SARS FPs...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873254/fluorescence-based-real-time-activity-assays-to-identify-rnase-p-inhibitors
#6
Yu Chen, Xin Liu, Nancy Wu, Carol A Fierke
Transfer RNA is transcribed as precursor molecules that are processed before participating in translation catalyzed by the ribosome. Ribonuclease P is the endonuclease that catalyzes the 5' end maturation of precursor tRNA and it is essential for cell survival. Bacterial RNase P has a distinct subunit composition compared to the eukaryal counterparts; therefore, it is an attractive antibacterial target. Here, we describe a real-time fluorescence-based RNase P activity assay using fluorescence polarization/anisotropy with a 5' end fluorescein-labeled pre-tRNA(Asp) substrate...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872622/an-evaluation-of-20-years-of-eu-framework-programme-funded-immune-mediated-inflammatory-translational-research-in-non-human-primates
#7
Krista G Haanstra, Margreet Jonker, Bert A 't Hart
Aging western societies are facing an increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases for which often no effective treatments exist, resulting in increasing health-care expenditure. Despite high investments in drug development, the number of promising new drug candidates decreases. We propose that preclinical research in non-human primates can help to bridge the gap between drug discovery and drug prescription. Translational research covers various stages of drug development of which preclinical efficacy tests in valid animal models is usually the last stage...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863543/reduced-humoral-immunity-and-atypical-cell-mediated-immunity-in-response-to-vaccination-in-cows-naturally-infected-with-bovine-leukemia-virus
#8
Meredith C Frie, Kelly R Sporer, Joseph C Wallace, Roger K Maes, Lorraine M Sordillo, Paul C Bartlett, Paul M Coussens
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that is widely distributed across US dairy herds: over 83% of herds are BLV-infected and within-herd infection rates can approach 50%. BLV infection reduces both animal longevity and milk production and can interfere with normal immune health. With such a high prevalence of BLV infection in dairy herds, it is essential to understand the circumstances by which BLV negatively affects the immune system of infected cattle. To address this question, BLV- and BLV+ adult, lactating Holstein dairy cows were vaccinated with Bovi-Shield GOLD(®) FP(®) 5 L5 HB and their immune response to vaccination was measured over the course of 28days...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795325/probing-for-binding-regions-of-the-ftsz-protein-surface-through-site-directed-insertions-discovery-of-fully-functional-ftsz-fluorescent-proteins
#9
Desmond A Moore, Zakiya N Whatley, Chandra P Joshi, Masaki Osawa, Harold P Erickson
: FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin homologue, is a cytoskeletal protein that assembles into protofilaments that are one subunit thick. These protofilaments assemble further to form a "Z ring" at the center of prokaryotic cells. The Z ring generates a constriction force on the inner membrane and also serves as a scaffold to recruit cell wall remodeling proteins for complete cell division in vivo One model of the Z ring proposes that protofilaments associate via lateral bonds to form ribbons; however, lateral bonds are still only hypothetical...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774138/discovery-of-fluorescence-polarization-probe-for-the-elisa-based-antagonist-screening-of-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors
#10
Zhao Ma, Zhenzhen Liu, Tianyu Jiang, Tianchao Zhang, Huateng Zhang, Lupei Du, Minyong Li
High-throughput screening (HTS) of ligand library to find new active molecules for G protein-coupled receptors is still a major interest, as well as an actual challenge. Fluorescence polarization (FP) assay portrays an essential role in HTS; however, in many cases, it was restricted by the absence of FP probes, the narrow measurement window, and low signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Herein, based on the modification of our previous probe 1 (QFL), we discovered an FP probe 3 (QGGFL) for α1-adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs), which has satisfactory fluorescence intensity, specific binding ability to receptors, and suitable fluorescence properties that were compatible with the filters in the FP system...
October 13, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723301/photoswitchable-fluorescent-proteins-do-not-always-look-on-the-bright-side
#11
Karin Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich Nienhaus
Photoactivatable fluorescent proteins (FPs) have become essential markers for nanoscopy on live specimens. In this issue of ACS Nano, Wang et al. present a reversibly photoswitching FP, GMars-Q, which they promote as an advanced marker for RESOLFT imaging because of its low residual intensity in the off state and low switching fatigue. Here, we explain the observed peculiar photobleaching behavior of GMars-Q by a mechanism that involves efficient shelving of proteins in dark states, resulting in low switching fatigue and low residual off intensity...
October 10, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661584/hybrid-algorithm-for-phase-retrieval-from-a-single-spatial-carrier-fringe-pattern
#12
Zhichao Dong, Haobo Cheng
A hybrid algorithm is proposed in this study for demodulating a single spatial carrier fringe pattern (FP) of interferometric measurement, which essentially combines the spatial carrier phase shift (SCPS) method and Fourier transform (FT) method. It firstly extracts three phase-shifted FPs from a single spatial carrier FP, then employs the FT method and a subtraction operation to determine the phase shift of three phase-shifted FPs, and finally retrieves the phase map using a least-square phase shift algorithm...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637411/-facial-palsy-in-children
#13
P Guerreschi, P-E Gabert, D Labbé, V Martinot-Duquennoy
Facial palsy (FP) in children is congenital or acquired. When present at birth (congenital), etiologies are mostly traumatic and rarely developmental. Acquired FP needs investigation. Research on the etiology helps to determine prognostic and treatment. At most times, no specific cause is found. Treatment of idiopathic FP consists of early oral corticosteroid therapy and ocular protection. Treating the sequelae is essential and the physician has to consider the dynamic balance of both sides of the face. Dynamic rehabilitation should mainly concern the inferior facial third...
October 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317178/conditional-rnai-using-the-lentiviral-gltr-system
#14
Elisabeth Pfeiffenberger, Reinhard Sigl, Stephan Geley
RNA interference (RNAi) has become an essential technology for functional gene analysis. Its success depends on the effective expression of target gene-specific RNAi-inducing small double-stranded interfering RNA molecules (siRNAs). Here, were describe the use of a recently developed lentiviral RNAi system that allows the rapid generation of stable cell lines with inducible RNAi based on conditional expression of double-stranded short hairpin RNA (shRNA). These lentiviral vectors can be generated rapidly using the GATEWAY recombination cloning technology...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27290659/validation-of-an-automated-morphological-mri-based-123-i-fp-cit-spect-evaluation-method
#15
Gabor Perlaki, Sarolta Szekeres, Gergely Orsi, Laszlo Papp, Balazs Suha, Szilvia Anett Nagy, Tamas Doczi, Jozsef Janszky, Katalin Zambo, Norbert Kovacs
INTRODUCTION: Dopamine transporter imaging with (123)I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is helpful for the differential diagnosis between Parkinsonian syndrome (PS) and essential tremor (ET). Although visual assessment and time-consuming manual evaluation techniques are readily available, a fully objective and automated dopamine transporter quantification technique is always preferable, at least in research and follow-up investigations. Our aim was to develop a novel automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based evaluation technique of dopamine transporter SPECT images and to compare its diagnostic accuracy with those of the gold-standard visual grading and manual dopamine transporter binding quantification methods...
August 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265468/structure-of-transmembrane-subunits-gp47-of-the-foamy-virus-envelope-glycoproteins
#16
M Wang, H Zhang, Q-M Liu, Y Sun, Z Li, W-H Liu, X-H He, J Song, Y-X Wang
The successful foamy viruses (FVs) infection includes at least two essential events, attachment to the cell surface and fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane. For the FVs, membrane fusion between virus and cell is mediated by envelope glycoprotein (Env) transmembrane (TM) subunit gp47. Compared with other retroviruses, FV TM subunit shares a similar but not identical structural characteristic. This paper focuses on in sillico analyses of all 15 available FV TM subunits gp47 based on their amino acid sequences...
June 2016: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175483/contraceptive-use-among-hiv-infected-women-and-men-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-lusaka-zambia-a-cross-sectional-survey
#17
Nancy L Hancock, Carla J Chibwesha, Samuel Bosomprah, Jonathan Newman, Mwangelwa Mubiana-Mbewe, Elizabeth Siyama Sitali, Carolyn Bolton-Moore, Clara Mbwili-Muleya, Benjamin H Chi
BACKGROUND: Family planning (FP) is an essential health service and an important part of comprehensive HIV care. However, there is limited information about the contraceptive needs of people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, which in turn has hampered efforts to expand and integrate FP services into existing HIV programs. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey to determine FP prevalence and predictors among HIV-positive women and men attending 18 public antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics in Lusaka, Zambia...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27051309/step-down-therapy-in-well-controlled-asthmatic-patients-using-salmeterol-xinafoate-fluticasone-propionate-combination-therapy
#18
Kazuya Horiuchi, Keita Kasahara, Yusuke Kuroda, Haruna Morohoshi, Yosuke Hagiwara, Gen Ishii
PURPOSE: A combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting β agonist (LABA) is the standard treatment for asthmatic patients, and step-down treatment is recommended once control has been achieved. However, little data exist that evaluate the long-term outcomes after step-down treatment. OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term outcomes of step-down therapy with ICS/LABA or ICS alone for asthmatic patients who have achieved well-controlled asthma by the ICS (250 µg fluticasone)/LABA (50 µg salmeterol) combination (SFC, two puffs per day)...
2016: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27037919/discussing-reproductive-health-in-spinal-care-part-ii-fertility-issues
#19
N S Korse, M P J Nicolai, S Both, C L A Vleggeert-Lankamp, H W Elzevier
PURPOSE: Due to advancing insights, discussing fertility in spinal care is an emerging topic. Studies among neurosurgeons to evaluate clinical practice about discussing fertility are non-existent. The aim of this study is to review knowledge, attitude and practice patterns regarding discussing fertility in spinal care. METHODS: Dutch neurosurgeons and residents were sent a mail-based questionnaire addressing attitude, knowledge and practice patterns regarding discussing fertility...
September 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030273/identification-of-the-fusion-peptide-containing-region-in-betacoronavirus-spike-glycoproteins
#20
Xiuyuan Ou, Wangliang Zheng, Yiwei Shan, Zhixia Mu, Samuel R Dominguez, Kathryn V Holmes, Zhaohui Qian
UNLABELLED: The fusion peptides (FP) play an essential role in fusion of viral envelope with cellular membranes. The location and properties of the FPs in the spike (S) glycoproteins of different coronaviruses (CoV) have not yet been determined. Through amino acid sequence analysis of S proteins of representative CoVs, we identified a common region as a possible FP (pFP) that shares the characteristics of FPs of class I viral fusion proteins, including high Ala/Gly content, intermediate hydrophobicity, and few charged residues...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
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