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Daniel M Spagnolo, Rekha Gyanchandani, Yousef Al-Kofahi, Andrew M Stern, Timothy R Lezon, Albert Gough, Dan E Meyer, Fiona Ginty, Brion Sarachan, Jeffrey Fine, Adrian V Lee, D Lansing Taylor, S Chakra Chennubhotla
BACKGROUND: Measures of spatial intratumor heterogeneity are potentially important diagnostic biomarkers for cancer progression, proliferation, and response to therapy. Spatial relationships among cells including cancer and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) are key contributors to heterogeneity. METHODS: We demonstrate how to quantify spatial heterogeneity from immunofluorescence pathology samples, using a set of 3 basic breast cancer biomarkers as a test case...
2016: Journal of Pathology Informatics
Matthew P Cheng, Claire Nour Abou Chakra, Cedric P Yansouni, Sonya Cnossen, Ian Shrier, Dick Menzies, Christina Greenaway
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a known risk factor for developing active tuberculosis (TB). We determined the incidence and relative risk of active TB in cancer patients compared to the general population. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to December 2015: Medline, Medline InProcess, EMBASE, PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cancerlit, and Web of Science. Studies of pathologically confirmed cancer patients were included if active TB was identified concurrently or after the diagnosis...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Chandrasekhar Krishnamurti, Ssc Chakra Rao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Scott Seung W Choi, Chakra Budhathoki, Laura N Gitlin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate co-occurrences of agitation, aggression, and rejection of care in community-dwelling families living with dementia. METHODS: Cross-sectional, secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial testing a nonpharmacological intervention to reduce behavioral symptoms. We examined frequency of occurrence of presenting behaviors at baseline and their combination. Omnibus tests compared those exhibiting combinations of behaviors on contributory factors...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
B L Altshuler, E Cuevas, L B Ioffe, V E Kravtsov
We combine numerical diagonalization with semianalytical calculations to prove the existence of the intermediate nonergodic but delocalized phase in the Anderson model on disordered hierarchical lattices. We suggest a new generalized population dynamics that is able to detect the violation of ergodicity of the delocalized states within the Abou-Chakra, Anderson, and Thouless recursive scheme. This result is supplemented by statistics of random wave functions extracted from exact diagonalization of the Anderson model on ensemble of disordered random regular graphs (RRG) of N sites with the connectivity K=2...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Amanda L Mansouri, Laura N Grese, Erica L Rowe, James C Pino, S Chakra Chennubhotla, Arvind Ramanathan, Hugh M O'Neill, Valerie Berthelier, Christopher B Stanley
Proteins imparted with intrinsic disorder conduct a range of essential cellular functions. To better understand the folding and hydration properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), we used osmotic stress to induce conformational changes in nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) and activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptor (ACTR) separate from their mutual binding. Osmotic stress was applied by the addition of small and polymeric osmolytes, where we discovered that water contributions to NCBD folding always exceeded those for ACTR...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Mohammad J Alhilaly, Megalamane S Bootharaju, Chakra P Joshi, Tabot M Besong, Abdul-Hamid Emwas, Rosalba Juarez-Mosqueda, Sami Kaappa, Sami Malola, Karim Adil, Aleksander Shkurenko, Hannu Häkkinen, Mohamed Eddaoudi, Osman M Bakr
Engineering the surface ligands of metal nanoparticles is critical in designing unique arrangements of metal atoms. Here, we report the synthesis and total structure determination of a large box-shaped Ag67 nanocluster (NC) protected by a mixed shell of thiolate (2,4-dimethylbenzenethiolate, SPhMe2) and phosphine (triphenylphosphine, PPh3) ligands. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) revealed the cluster formula to be [Ag67(SPhMe2)32(PPh3)8](3+). The crystal structure shows an Ag23 metal core covered by a layer of Ag44S32P8 arranged in the shape of a box...
November 9, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Manu Kumar, Chakra Dhar Tripathi, Veena Verma, Biswa Mohan Padhy, Girish Gulab Meshram, B Abhilash
OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive validity of some of the commonly employed models of mania and depression using standard drugs i.e. lithium (70 mg/kg) and lamotrigine (5 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. METHODS: The depression facet of bipolar disorder was evaluated using forced swim test, tail suspension test, and chronic mild stress test. The models used to evaluate the mania facet of bipolar disorder were isolation-induced aggression test, saccharine preference test, and morphine-sensitized hyperlocomotion test...
July 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Zekiye P Guven, Burcin Ustbas, Kellen M Harkness, Hikmet Coskun, Chakra P Joshi, Tabot M D Besong, Francesco Stellacci, Osman M Bakr, Ozge Akbulut
Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. While the chiral ligand led mostly to the formation of nanoparticles, the presence of the achiral ligand drastically increased the yield of nanoclusters with enhanced chiral properties.
July 28, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Chakra Dhar Tripathi, Ashish K Mehta, Amol M Yadav
BACKGROUND: Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus, and the different drug combinations available do not provide effective pain relief. The present study was performed to observe the effect of amitripyline, duloxetine, sitagliptin, and pregabalin, and their combinations on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic neuropathy. METHODS: Diabetic neuropathy was induced by STZ, and the tail-flick test was used to assess thermal hyperalgesia before and after (at 30, 60, and 120 min) drug administration...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Maria Abou Chakra, Christian Hilbe, Arne Traulsen
Brood parasites exploit their host in order to increase their own fitness. Typically, this results in an arms race between parasite trickery and host defence. Thus, it is puzzling to observe hosts that accept parasitism without any resistance. The 'mafia' hypothesis suggests that these hosts accept parasitism to avoid retaliation. Retaliation has been shown to evolve when the hosts condition their response to mafia parasites, who use depredation as a targeted response to rejection. However, it is unclear if acceptance would also emerge when 'farming' parasites are present in the population...
May 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Ravi Chakra Turaga, Lu Yin, Jenny J Yang, Hsiauwei Lee, Ivaylo Ivanov, Chunli Yan, Hua Yang, Hans E Grossniklaus, Siming Wang, Cheng Ma, Li Sun, Zhi-Ren Liu
Integrin αvβ3 expression is altered in various diseases and has been proposed as a drug target. Here we use a rational design approach to develop a therapeutic protein, which we call ProAgio, that binds to integrin αvβ3 outside the classical ligand-binding site. We show ProAgio induces apoptosis of integrin αvβ3-expressing cells by recruiting and activating caspase 8 to the cytoplasmic domain of integrin αvβ3. ProAgio also has anti-angiogenic activity and strongly inhibits growth of tumour xenografts, but does not affect the established vasculature...
2016: Nature Communications
Pegah Matourypour, Zohreh Vanaki, Zahra Zare, Valiolah Mehrzad, Mojtaba Dehghan, Mehdi Ranjbaran
BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting are the worst and the most prevalent complications experienced by 70-80% of patients. Complementary treatments including therapeutic touch are cost-effective and low-risk, independent nursing interventions. Present research aims at investigating the effect of therapeutic touch on the intensity of acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As a single-blind, randomized clinical trial, the present research was carried out on women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy in Isfahan, Iran...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
Joseph J Loizzo
Meditation research has begun to clarify the brain effects and mechanisms of contemplative practices while generating a range of typologies and explanatory models to guide further study. This comparative review explores a neglected area relevant to current research: the validity of a traditional central nervous system (CNS) model that coevolved with the practices most studied today and that provides the first comprehensive neural-based typology and mechanistic framework of contemplative practices. The subtle body model, popularly known as the chakra system from Indian yoga, was and is used as a map of CNS function in traditional Indian and Tibetan medicine, neuropsychiatry, and neuropsychology...
June 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
B Abhilash, Chakra Dhar Tripathi, Anoop Raj Gogia, Girish Gulab Meshram, Manu Kumar, B Suraj
BACKGROUND: Cefotaxime is a widely utilized cephalosporin in most intensive care units of India. However, no data are available about its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic variability in critically ill patients of the Indian population. AIM: To investigate the variability in the plasma concentration and pharmacodynamic profile of intermittent dosing of cefotaxime in critically ill patients, according to their locus of infection and causative organism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cefotaxime levels were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography by grouping patients according to their locus of infection as hepatobiliary, renal, pulmonary, and others...
January 2016: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
Khurram S Joya, Lutfan Sinatra, Lina G AbdulHalim, Chakra P Joshi, M N Hedhili, Osman M Bakr, Irshad Hussain
Achieving water splitting at low overpotential with high oxygen evolution efficiency and stability is important for realizing solar to chemical energy conversion devices. Herein we report the synthesis, characterization and electrochemical evaluation of highly active nickel nanoclusters (Ni NCs) for water oxidation at low overpotential. These atomically precise and monodisperse Ni NCs are characterized by using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction and mass spectrometry. The molecular formulae of these Ni NCs are found to be Ni4(PET)8 and Ni6(PET)12 and are highly active electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution without any pre-conditioning...
May 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Gomathi Balasubramanian, Ganapathy Ramanathan
Today, the world's ever-changing lifestyles demand a reliable, comprehensive system of integrative medicine with minimal side effects. One of the most prominent candidates for such a system is music, an enjoyable health care approach, and in response to the need for that system, the present article formulates one that is music based. Specifically, the authors have explored the physician-patient interaction, developing a model of that interaction within the context of music therapy. That model is based on ancient Ayurvedic principles and on research from modern physics and biology, such as that on quantum consciousness, chaos theory, the statistical theory of communication, information theory, and neurodynamics...
April 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Julia Haafke, Maria Abou Chakra, Lutz Becks
Although numerous hypotheses exist to explain the overwhelming presence of sexual reproduction across the tree of life, we still cannot explain its prevalence when considering all inherent costs involved. The Red Queen hypothesis states that sex is maintained because it can create novel genotypes with a selective advantage. This occurs when the interactions between species induce frequent environmental change. Here, we investigate whether coevolution and eco-evolutionary feedback dynamics in a predator-prey system allows for indirect selection and maintenance of sexual reproduction in the predator...
March 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Nicole Warren, Rachel Breman, Chakra Budhathoki, Jason Farley, Lynda Law Wilson
BACKGROUND: It is important to define global health competencies for health professionals. To date, we know little about perspectives of nurses in Africa where environments are particularly challenging. PURPOSE: The purpose was to describe perceptions of nursing faculty in Africa about global health competencies and compare those to faculty from the Americas. METHODS: A 32-item online survey with a convenience sample of nursing faculty. RESULTS: Data from 63 nurses in 21 African countries and 618 in the Americas were analyzed...
March 2016: Nursing Outlook
Kristin Hagel, Maria Abou Chakra, Benedikt Bauer, Arne Traulsen
In collective risk dilemmas, cooperation prevents collective loss only when players contribute sufficiently. In these more complex variants of a social dilemma, the form of the risk curve is crucial and can strongly affect the feasibility of a cooperative outcome. The risk typically depends on the sum of all individual contributions. Here, we introduce a general approach to analyze the stabilization of cooperation under any decreasing risk curve and discuss how different risk curves affect cooperative outcomes...
January 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
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