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cocaine myocardial dysfunction

Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Alcohol consumption with psychostimulants is very common among drug addicts. There is little known about the possible pharmacological interactions between alcohol and psychostimulants. Among most commonly co-abused psychostimulants with alcohol are methamphetamine, cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetaminen, and nicotine. Co-abuse of alcohol with psychostimulants can lead to several neurophysiological dysfunctions such as decrease in brain antioxidant enzymes, disruption of learning and memory processes, cerebral hypo-perfusion, neurotransmitters depletion as well as potentiation of drug seeking behaviour...
June 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Zoltán V Varga, Peter Ferdinandy, Lucas Liaudet, Pál Pacher
Mitochondria has an essential role in myocardial tissue homeostasis; thus deterioration in mitochondrial function eventually leads to cardiomyocyte and endothelial cell death and consequent cardiovascular dysfunction. Several chemical compounds and drugs have been known to directly or indirectly modulate cardiac mitochondrial function, which can account both for the toxicological and pharmacological properties of these substances. In many cases, toxicity problems appear only in the presence of additional cardiovascular disease conditions or develop months/years following the exposure, making the diagnosis difficult...
November 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Narender Goel, James M Pullman, Maria Coco
Cocaine is abused worldwide as a recreational drug. It is a potent activator of the sympathetic nervous system leading to intense vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, platelet activation and decrease in prostaglandins E2 and prostacyclin. Cocaine can lead to widespread systemic adverse effects such as stroke, myocardial infarction, arterial dissection, vascular thrombosis and rhabdomyolysis. In human and rat kidneys, cocaine has been associated with glomerular, tubular, vascular and interstitial injury...
December 2014: Clinical Kidney Journal
Andrea Frustaci, Matteo A Russo, Emanuela Morgante, Fernanda Scopelliti, Katia Aquilano, Maria R Ciriolo, Claudia Grande, Romina Verardo, Cristina Chimenti
AIMS: The pathogenesis of cocaine-related cardiomyopathy (CCM) is still unclear. Oxidative damage from cocaine-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) overcoming myocardial antioxidant reserve has been hypothesized by experimental studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten (2.3%) of 430 consecutive cases with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were attributed to CCM. Endomyocardial biopsies from CCM were retrospectively investigated with histology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry (graded 0-3), and Western blot analysis for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine...
March 2015: European Journal of Heart Failure
Pratik R Agrawal, Tiziano M Scarabelli, Louis Saravolatz, Annapoorna Kini, Abhijay Jalota, Carol Chen-Scarabelli, Valentin Fuster, Jonathan L Halperin
With each successive year, the number of Emergency Department (ED) visits related to illicit drug abuse has progressively increased. Cocaine is the most common illegal drug to cause a visit to the ED. Cocaine use results in a variety of pathophysiological changes with regards to the cardiovascular system, such as constriction of coronary vessels, dysfunction of vascular endothelium, decreased aortic elasticity, hemodynamic disruptions, a hypercoagulable state, and direct toxicity to myocardial and vascular tissue...
November 2015: Cardiology in Review
Fernanda Martins Gazoni, Adriano A M Truffa, Carolina Kawamura, Hélio Penna Guimarães, Renato Delascio Lopes, Letícia Vendrame Sandre, Antonio Carlos Lopes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cocaine is the most commonly used illicit drug and its acute and chronic effects are related to a variety of physiological changes, mainly in the cardiovascular system. This study is a case report of a patient with cardiomyopathy related to cocaine use. CASE REPORT: A 19 year old men, who has been using cocaine and crack since 15 years old, was admitted to the emergency department (ED) in February 2006 with progressive dyspnea during minimal efforts and bloody expectoration...
December 2006: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Alicia M Maceira, Carmen Ripoll, Juan Cosin-Sales, Begoña Igual, Mirella Gavilan, Jose Salazar, Vicente Belloch, Dudley J Pennell
BACKGROUND: Cocaine is an addictive, sympathomimetic drug with potentially lethal effects. The prevalence and features of cocaine cardiotoxicity are not well known. We aimed to assess these effects using a comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) protocol in a large group of asymptomatic cocaine users. METHODS: Consecutive (n = 94, 81 males, 36.6 ±7 years), non-selected, cocaine abusers were recruited and had a medical history, examination, ECG, blood test and CMR...
2014: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Efren Martinez-Quintana, Beatriz Saiz-Udaeta, Natalia Marrero-Negrin, Xavier Lopez-Mérida, Fayna Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Vicente Nieto-Lago
INTRODUCTION: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), a synthetic derivate of testosterone, have become a popular drug among athletes and bodybuilders to enhance muscle mass and improve the athletic performance. Many pathological effects such as hepatic and endocrine dysfunction, behavioural changes and cardiovascular complications have been reported. CASE REPORT: Within these ast ones, we find an increase in left ventricular muscle mass, concentric myocardial hypertrophy, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, arterial hypertension, prothrombotic effects, changes in the concentration of cholesterol levels, particularly a reduction in HDL cholesterol concentration, myocardial infarctions in relation to endothelial dysfunction, vasospasms or thrombosis and sudden cardiac death...
October 2013: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lucas Liaudet, Belinda Calderari, Pal Pacher
Overactivation of the sympatho-adrenergic system is an essential mechanism providing short-term adaptation to the stressful conditions of critical illnesses. In the same way, the administration of exogenous catecholamines is mandatory to support the failing circulation in acutely ill patients. In contrast to these short-term benefits, prolonged adrenergic stress is detrimental to the cardiovascular system by initiating a series of adverse effects triggering significant cardiotoxicity, whose pathophysiological mechanisms are complex and only partially elucidated...
November 2014: Heart Failure Reviews
Chad J Cooper, Sarmad Said, Haider Alkhateeb, Emmanuel Rodriguez, Remi Trien, Shajeea Ajmal, Pedro A Blandon, German T Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Cocaine is a potent sympathomimetic agent associated with the development of possible fatal cardiovascular complications. Dysrhythmias, acute myocardial infarction, hypertension and dilated cardiomyopathy are just some of many cardiovascular effects related to the abuse of cocaine. CASE PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old Hispanic male with a past medical history of hypertension presented with a chief complaint of progressive shortness of breath. The patient confessed to the use of cocaine for almost 18 years once per week...
2013: BMC Research Notes
Monika H Seltenhammer, Katharina Marchart, Pia Paula, Nicole Kordina, Nikolaus Klupp, Barbara Schneider, Christine Fitzl, Daniele U Risser
AIMS: The main intention of this retrospective study was to investigate whether chronic illicit drug abuse, especially the intravenous use of opioids (heroin), could potentially trigger the development of myocardial fibrosis in drug addicts. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study was performed using myocardial tissue samples from both drug-related deaths (DRD) with verifiable opioid abuse and non-drug-related deaths in the same age group. SETTING: Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Austria (1993-94)...
July 2013: Addiction
Aurélia Vergeade, Paul Mulder, Cathy Vendeville, Renée Ventura-Clapier, Christian Thuillez, Christelle Monteil
Recent studies have shown that long-term cocaine use induces diastolic impairment and a myocardial oxidative stress. Recently, we have reported that cocaine-induced cardiac dysfunction may be due to a mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, which occurs at the same time as xanthine oxidase (XO) activation. In this work, we hypothesized that XO activation contributes to mitochondrial ROS overproduction, which in turn contributes to diastolic dysfunction. To test this, we used a well-established in vivo model of cocaine-induced diastolic dysfunction...
December 2012: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
I Riezzo, C Fiore, D De Carlo, N Pascale, M Neri, E Turillazzi, V Fineschi
Cocaine is a powerful stimulant of the sympathetic nervous system by inhibiting catecholamine reuptake, stimulating central sympathetic outflow, and increasing the sensitivity of adrenergic nerve endings to norepinephrine (NE). It is known, from numerous studies, that cocaine causes irreversible structural changes on the brain, heart, lung and other organs such as liver and kidney and there are many mechanisms involved in the genesis of these damages. Some effects are determined by the overstimulation of the adrenergic system...
2012: Current Medicinal Chemistry
D Cerretani, V Fineschi, S Bello, I Riezzo, E Turillazzi, M Neri
Cocaine-induced cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, thrombosis, myocardial dysfunction, cardiac dysrhythmias and endocarditis have received widespread attention in the context of cocaine abuse. The number of sudden deaths from cardiac causes, including myocardial infarction, ventricular tachyarrhythmia or aortic dissection, is also increasing. This manuscript will highlight the recent employment of study about cocaine cardiotoxicity and oxidative stress. Evidence has revealed that cardiac oxidative stress is a prominent early event of cocaine administration, which severely compromises the cardiac antioxidant cellular system and causes cardiac antioxidant cellular system injuries...
2012: Current Medicinal Chemistry
R H Alasbahi, M F Melzig
Forskolin (7beta-acetoxy-1alpha,6beta,9alpha-trihydroxy-8,13-epoxy-labd-14-en-11-one) is the first main labdane diterpenoid isolated from the roots of the Indian Plectranthus barbatus ANDREWS and one of the most extensively studied constituents of this plant. The unique character of forskolin as a general direct, rapid and reversible activator of adenylyl cyclase not only underlies its wide range of pharmacological effects but also renders it as a valuable tool in the study of the role of cAMP. The purpose of this review is to provide data presenting the utility of forskolin--as a cAMP activator--for studying the function of cAMP from different biological viewpoints as follows: 1) Investigation on the role of cAMP in various cellular processes in different organs such as gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, reproductive organs, endocrine system, urinary system, olfactory system, nervous system, platelet aggregating system, skin, bones, eyes, and smooth muscles...
January 2012: Die Pharmazie
Gregory Whyte, Richard Godfrey, Rory O'Hanlon, Mathew Wilson, John Buckley, Sanjay Sharma
Around 6% of patients suffering an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have normal coronary arteries. The mechanisms responsible are not fully known, but include hypercoagulable state, coronary endothelial dysfunction, aortic dissection, inflammation, coronary thrombosis, aortic wall stiffening, cocaine abuse, carbon monoxide poisoning and paradoxical embolism. Here, the case of a lifelong regular exerciser without risk factors for cardiovascular disease who suffered an AMI with normal coronaries is reported...
2009: BMJ Case Reports
Claudia G Sáez, Paulina Olivares, Julio Pallavicini, Olga Panes, Natalia Moreno, Teresa Massardo, Diego Mezzano, Jaime Pereira
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use has been related with the development of accelerated atherosclerosis and with an increased risk of cardiac and cerebrovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, and ischemic stroke. The underlying mechanisms leading to these complications are not fully understood, although thrombus formation and altered vascular function are prominent findings. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate markers of endothelial dysfunction in chronic cocaine consumers before and after drug withdrawal...
October 2011: Thrombosis Research
Guy L Weinberg, Richard Ripper, Sarah Bern, Bocheng Lin, Lucas Edelman, Guido Digregorio, Mariann Piano, Douglas L Feinstein
BACKGROUND: The authors tested whether cocaine depresses mitochondrial acylcarnitine exchange and if a drug that enhances glucose metabolism could protect against cocaine-induced cardiac dysfunction. METHODS: Oxygen consumption with and without cocaine was compared in rat cardiac mitochondria using octanoylcarnitine (lipid) or pyruvate (nonlipid) substrates. Isolated hearts from rats with or without a pioglitazone-supplemented diet were exposed to cocaine. RESULTS: The 0...
June 2011: Anesthesiology
Fahad Javed, Shahzeb A Khan, Emad F Aziz, Taimur Abbasi, Ramya Suryadevara, Eyal Herzog
INTRODUCTION: The elevation of troponin levels directly corresponds to the extent of myocardial injury. Here we present a case of a robust rise in cardiac biomarkers that correspond to extensive damage to the myocardium but did not spell doom for our patient. It is important to note that, to the best of our knowledge, this is the highest level of troponin I ever reported in the literature after a myocardial injury in an acute setting. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old African American man with an unknown medical history presented to the emergency room of our hospital with chest pain associated with diaphoresis and altered mental status...
2010: Journal of Medical Case Reports
J P Smedema
A 30-year-old Caucasian female was admitted with severe biventricular congestive heart failure secondary to cocaineinduced cardiomyopathy. Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance did not reveal myocardial oedema or focal fibrosis. The systolic ventricular function recovered fully after 10 weeks of abstinence from cocaine and supportive medical treatment. This case report is the first to describe findings with magnetic resonance for this condition, and briefly discusses its potential value in the evaluation of patients with cocaine-induced heart failure...
May 2009: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
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