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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325995/acetylshikonin-from-zicao-attenuates-cognitive-impairment-and-hippocampus-senescence-in-d-galactose-induced-aging-mouse-model-via-upregulating-the-expression-of-sirt1
#1
Qisen Li, Jiacheng Zeng, Meiling Su, Yu He, Banghao Zhu
Zicao acts as a pleiotropic medicine in various diseases due to its particular pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and wound healing effects. However, few studies have focused on the function in neurodegenerative diseases of Zicao. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Acetylshikonin (AS) from Zicao on the hippocampus of the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced sub-acute aging mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aging model was established in male Kunming mice by subcutaneous injection of D-gal (150 mg/kg/d) for 60 days, and the mice were given AS (270, 540 and 1080 mg/kg/d) or distilled water intragastrically for 30 days after 30 days of D-gal injection...
January 8, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322616/development-of-methods-and-feasibility-of-using-hyperpolarized-carbon-13-imaging-data-for-evaluating-brain-metabolism-in-patient-studies
#2
Ilwoo Park, Peder E Z Larson, Jeremy W Gordon, Lucas Carvajal, Hsin-Yu Chen, Robert Bok, Mark Van Criekinge, Marcus Ferrone, James B Slater, Duan Xu, John Kurhanewicz, Daniel B Vigneron, Susan Chang, Sarah J Nelson
PURPOSE: Hyperpolarized carbon-13 (13 C) metabolic imaging is a noninvasive imaging modality for evaluating real-time metabolism. The purpose of this study was to develop and implement experimental strategies for using [1-13 C]pyruvate to probe in vivo metabolism for patients with brain tumors and other neurological diseases. METHODS: The 13 C radiofrequency coils and pulse sequences were tested in a phantom and were performed using a 3 Tesla whole-body scanner...
January 10, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321555/fourier-transform-infrared-microscopy-enables-guidance-of-automated-mass-spectrometry-imaging-to-predefined-tissue-morphologies
#3
Jan-Hinrich Rabe, Denis A Sammour, Sandra Schulz, Bogdan Munteanu, Martina Ott, Katharina Ochs, Peter Hohenberger, Alexander Marx, Michael Platten, Christiane A Opitz, Daniel S Ory, Carsten Hopf
Multimodal imaging combines complementary platforms for spatially resolved tissue analysis that are poised for application in life science and personalized medicine. Unlike established clinical in vivo multimodality imaging, automated workflows for in-depth multimodal molecular ex vivo tissue analysis that combine the speed and ease of spectroscopic imaging with molecular details provided by mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) are lagging behind. Here, we present an integrated approach that utilizes non-destructive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI for analysing single-slide tissue specimen...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276222/lavender-essential-oil-and-its-main-constituents-inhibit-the-expression-of-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-cell-adhesion-molecules-in-endothelial-cells
#4
Michinori Aoe, Tomoe Ueno-Iio, Misako Shibakura, Ryoko Shinohata, Shinichi Usui, Yujiro Arao, Satoru Ikeda, Nobuaki Miyahara, Mitsune Tanimoto, Mikio Kataoka
Lavender essential oil (Lvn) has anti-inflammatory effects in an ovalbumin-sensitized murine model of asthma, and inhibits inflammatory cell infiltration into the lungs. The anti-inflammatory effects of Lvn on cell adhesion molecules are not clear. Here we evaluated the effects of Lvn and its main constituents, linalyl acetate (LA) and linalool (LO), on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced cell adhesion molecules in murine brain endothelial bEnd.3 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
December 2017: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235051/development-of-the-cns-tap-tool-for-the-selection-of-precision-medicine-therapies-in-neuro-oncology
#5
Joseph R Linzey, Bernard L Marini, Amy Pasternak, Cory Smith, Zac Miklja, Lili Zhao, Chandan Kumar-Sinha, Alyssa Paul, Nicholas Harris, Patricia L Robertson, Lindsey M Hoffman, Arul Chinnaiyan, Rajen Mody, Carl Koschmann
The number of targeted therapies utilized in precision medicine are rapidly increasing. Neuro-oncology offers a unique challenge due to the varying blood brain barrier (BBB) penetration of each agent. Neuro-oncologists face a difficult task weighing the growing number of potential targeted therapies and their likelihood of BBB penetration. We developed the CNS TAP Working Group and performed an extensive literature review for the evidence-based creation of the CNS TAP tool, which was retrospectively validated by analyzing brain tumor patients who underwent therapy targeted based on genomic results from an academic sequencing study (MiOncoseq, n = 17) or private molecular profiling (Foundation One, n = 7)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222305/biology-of-cns-lymphoma-and-the-potential-of-novel-agents
#6
REVIEW
James L Rubenstein
Primary and secondary CNS lymphomas are aggressive brain tumors that pose an immense challenge to define in terms of molecular pathogenesis, as well as to effectively treat. During the past 10 years improvements in survival have been achieved with the implementation of anti-CD20 immunotherapy and optimization of dose-intensive consolidation strategies. The applications of whole-exome sequencing, comparative genomic hybridization, transcriptional profiling, and examination of the tumor microenvironment, particularly in the context of clinical investigation, provide insights that create a roadmap for the development and implementation of novel targeted agents for this disease...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215406/focal-18f-dopa-uptake-in-brain-parenchyma-surrounding-developmental-venous-anomalies
#7
Lee Condon, John Blazak
We report the finding of increased F-DOPA uptake within parenchyma surrounding a developmental venous anomaly, found incidentally in a 64-year-old woman undergoing PET scan to assess for Parkinson's disease. Not identified on previous T1/T2 MRI, susceptibility-weighted imaging MRI performed post-PET scan demonstrated the presence of developmental venous anomaly within the left cerebellar hemisphere. Focal uptake of F-DOPA may suggest the presence of a brain tumor and prompt invasive diagnostic investigations...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212474/coptis-chinensis-affects-the-function-of-glioma-cells-through-the-down-regulation-of-phosphorylation-of-stat3-by-reducing-hdac3
#8
Jiangan Li, Lulu Ni, Bing Li, Mingdeng Wang, Zhemin Ding, Chunrong Xiong, Xiaojie Lu
BACKGROUND: Glioma remains the most common cause of brain cancer-related mortality. Glioma accounts for 50-60% of brain cancer. Due to their low toxicity and infrequent side effects, traditional herbs have been increasingly popular. Coptis Chinensis is commonly used in cancer treatment in combination with other Chinese Medicine herbs. However, little is known about its biological functions and mechanisms in glioma cells. METHODS: In this study, the anti-glioma cell effect of Coptis Chinensis was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, plate clone test, scratch tests, flow cytometry, western blotting and a glioma xenograft tumor model...
December 6, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183026/late-effects-and-long-term-follow-up-after-cancer-in-childhood
#9
Thorsten Langer, Desiree Grabow, Diana Steinmann, Bernhard Wörmann, Gabriele Calaminus
Today, 80% of children and adolescents with cancer survive their disease. From the results of aftercare research arises the question: Are the survivors also healthy? Many late effects depend on the type of cancer and its treatment. Patients with brain tumors and with malignant sarcomas are very often affected by secondary diseases. Data from the USA report that around 2/3 of all patients still living 30 years after their cancer treatment in childhood suffer from late complications. Equivalent figures for Germany were previously unavailable...
2017: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179523/management-of-intracranial-melanomas-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#10
REVIEW
Grace J Young, Wenya Linda Bi, Winona W Wu, Tanner M Johanns, Gavin P Dunn, Ian F Dunn
Melanoma is the most lethal of skin cancers, in part because of its proclivity for rapid and distant metastasis. It is also potentially the most neurotropic cancer in terms of probability of CNS metastasis from the primary lesion. Despite surgical resection and radiotherapy, prognosis remains guarded for patients with brain metastases. Over the past five years, a new domain of personalized therapy has emerged for advanced melanoma patients with the introduction of BRAF and other MAP kinase pathway inhibitors, immunotherapy, and combinatory therapeutic strategies...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170836/phase-contrast-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-qualitative-evaluation-of-patency-of-csf-flow-pathways-prior-to-infusion-of-chemotherapeutic-and-other-agents-into-the-fourth-ventricle
#11
Rajan P Patel, Clark W Sitton, Leena M Ketonen, Ping Hou, Jason M Johnson, Seferino Romo, Stephen Fletcher, Manish N Shah, Marcia Kerr, Wafik Zaky, Michael E Rytting, Soumen Khatua, David I Sandberg
PURPOSE: Nuclear medicine studies have previously been utilized to assess for blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow prior to intraventricular chemotherapy infusions. To assess CSF flow without nuclear medicine studies, we obtained cine phase-contrast MRI sequences that assess CSF flow from the fourth ventricle down to the sacrum. METHODS: In three clinical trials, 18 patients with recurrent malignant posterior fossa tumors underwent implantation of a ventricular access device (VAD) into the fourth ventricle, either with or without simultaneous tumor resection...
November 23, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163522/the-vagus-nerve-in-the-neuro-immune-axis-implications-in-the-pathology-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#12
REVIEW
Bruno Bonaz, Valérie Sinniger, Sonia Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the sympathetic nervous system. There is classically an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. An imbalance of the ANS is observed in various pathologic conditions. The VN, a mixed nerve with 4/5 afferent and 1/5 efferent fibers, is a key component of the neuro-immune and brain-gut axes through a bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095543/background-current-role-and-potential-applications-of-radiogenomics
#13
Katja Pinker, Fuki Shitano, Evis Sala, Richard K Do, Robert J Young, Andreas G Wibmer, Hedvig Hricak, Elizabeth J Sutton, Elizabeth A Morris
With the genomic revolution in the early 1990s, medical research has been driven to study the basis of human disease on a genomic level and to devise precise cancer therapies tailored to the specific genetic makeup of a tumor. To match novel therapeutic concepts conceived in the era of precision medicine, diagnostic tests must be equally sufficient, multilayered, and complex to identify the relevant genetic alterations that render cancers susceptible to treatment. With significant advances in training and medical imaging techniques, image analysis and the development of high-throughput methods to extract and correlate multiple imaging parameters with genomic data, a new direction in medical research has emerged...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081092/galangin-suppresses-pro-inflammatory-gene-expression-in-polyinosinic-polycytidylic-acid-stimulated-microglial-cells
#14
Min-Ji Choi, Jin-Sun Park, Jung-Eun Park, Han Su Kim, Hee-Sun Kim
Galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a polyphenolic compound abundant in honey and medicinal herbs, such as Alpinia officinarum. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of galangin under in vitro and in vivo neuroinflammatory conditions caused by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a viral mimic dsRNA analog. Galangin suppressed the production of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in poly(I:C)-stimulated BV2 microglia. On the other hand, galangin enhanced anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10 production...
November 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061781/probing-the-oncolytic-and-chemosensitizing-effects-of-dihydrotanshinone-in-an-in-vitro-glioblastoma-model
#15
Varun Kumar, Daniel Radin, Donna Leonardi
BACKGROUND: Temozolomide is the primary chemotherapeutic agent used to treat glioblastoma. However, many tumors are initially resistant to or develop resistance to temozolomide, mainly due to high levels of O(6)-methylguanine DNA transferase (MGMT) which repairs DNA damage traditionally caused by temozolomide. Dihydrotanshinone (DHT) is extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza, a Chinese medicinal plant, and has also been shown to have antiproliferative effects on various cancer cell lines...
November 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042522/-surgical-pathology-of-adulthood-epilepsy
#16
Hajime Miyata
Epilepsy may be the consequence of a wide range of disorders affecting the brain, including tumors and non-neoplastic lesions. A broad spectrum of structural brain lesions can be observed in epileptogenic brain tissue specimens surgically resected from patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsies. These include hippocampal sclerosis (HS), low-grade epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors (LEAT), malformations of cortical development (MCD), vascular malformations, dual pathology, glial scar, and encephalitis, as well as no lesion...
October 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035190/brain-tumor-epidemiology-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-the-2017-brain-tumor-epidemiology-consortium-meeting-report
#17
Kimberly J Johnson, Judith Schwartzbaum, Carol Kruchko, Michael E Scheurer, Ching C Lau, Adelheid Woehrer, Johannes A Hainfellner, Joseph Wiemels
The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an international consortium that aims to advance the development of multicenter and interdisciplinary collaborations that focus on research related to the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors. The 18th annual BTEC meeting was held in Banff, AB, Canada, on June 27 - 29, 2017. The meeting focused on the intersection between epidemiology and precision medicine, that is, the use of molecular indicators of risk, early disease and prognosis or precision epidemiology...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030880/direct-saturation-corrected-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-mri-of-glioma-simplified-decoupling-of-amide-proton-transfer-and-nuclear-overhauser-effect-contrasts
#18
Iris Yuwen Zhou, Enfeng Wang, Jerry S Cheung, Dongshuang Lu, Yang Ji, Xiaoan Zhang, Giulia Fulci, Phillip Zhe Sun
PURPOSE: Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI has shown promise in tissue characterization in diseases like stroke and tumor. However, in vivo CEST imaging such as amide proton transfer (APT) MRI is challenging because of concomitant factors such as direct water saturation, macromolecular magnetization transfer, and nuclear overhauser effect (NOE), which lead to a complex contrast in the commonly used asymmetry analysis (MTRasym). Here, we propose a direct saturation-corrected CEST (DISC-CEST) analysis for simplified decoupling and quantification of in vivo CEST effects...
October 13, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016871/cost-effectiveness-of-idh-testing-in-diffuse-gliomas-according-to-the-2016-who-classification-of-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system-recommendations
#19
John C DeWitt, Justin T Jordan, Matthew P Frosch, Wesley R Samore, A John Iafrate, David N Louis, Jochen K Lennerz
Background: Due to the decreasing prevalence of IDH1 mutations in older patients, the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors proposed not to perform sequencing for isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in glioblastoma patients ≥55 years old. We present a cost-effectiveness analysis to estimate the financial impact of these guidelines. Methods: From 2010 to 2015 we performed 1023 IDH tests in gliomas, amounting to ~$1.09 million in direct laboratory test costs...
November 29, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994492/quality-of-clinical-brain-tumor-mr-spectra-judged-by-humans-and-machine-learning-tools
#20
Sreenath P Kyathanahally, Victor Mocioiu, Nuno Pedrosa de Barros, Johannes Slotboom, Alan J Wright, Margarida Julià-Sapé, Carles Arús, Roland Kreis
PURPOSE: To investigate and compare human judgment and machine learning tools for quality assessment of clinical MR spectra of brain tumors. METHODS: A very large set of 2574 single voxel spectra with short and long echo time from the eTUMOUR and INTERPRET databases were used for this analysis. Original human quality ratings from these studies as well as new human guidelines were used to train different machine learning algorithms for automatic quality control (AQC) based on various feature extraction methods and classification tools...
October 10, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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