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Brain tumor medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095543/background-current-role-and-potential-applications-of-radiogenomics
#1
Katja Pinker, Fuki Shitano, Evis Sala, Richard K Do, Robert J Young, Andreas G Wibmer, Hedvig Hricak, Elizabeth J Sutton, Elizabeth A Morris
With the genomic revolution in the early 1990s, medical research has been driven to study the basis of human disease on a genomic level and to devise precise cancer therapies tailored to the specific genetic makeup of a tumor. To match novel therapeutic concepts conceived in the era of precision medicine, diagnostic tests must be equally sufficient, multilayered, and complex to identify the relevant genetic alterations that render cancers susceptible to treatment. With significant advances in training and medical imaging techniques, image analysis and the development of high-throughput methods to extract and correlate multiple imaging parameters with genomic data, a new direction in medical research has emerged...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081092/galangin-suppresses-pro-inflammatory-gene-expression-in-polyinosinic-polycytidylic-acid-stimulated-microglial-cells
#2
Min-Ji Choi, Jin-Sun Park, Jung-Eun Park, Han Su Kim, Hee-Sun Kim
Galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a polyphenolic compound abundant in honey and medicinal herbs, such as Alpinia officinarum. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of galangin under in vitro and in vivo neuroinflammatory conditions caused by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a viral mimic dsRNA analog. Galangin suppressed the production of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in poly(I:C)-stimulated BV2 microglia. On the other hand, galangin enhanced anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10 production...
November 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061781/probing-the-oncolytic-and-chemosensitizing-effects-of-dihydrotanshinone-in-an-in-vitro-glioblastoma-model
#3
Varun Kumar, Daniel Radin, Donna Leonardi
BACKGROUND: Temozolomide is the primary chemotherapeutic agent used to treat glioblastoma. However, many tumors are initially resistant to or develop resistance to temozolomide, mainly due to high levels of O(6)-methylguanine DNA transferase (MGMT) which repairs DNA damage traditionally caused by temozolomide. Dihydrotanshinone (DHT) is extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza, a Chinese medicinal plant, and has also been shown to have antiproliferative effects on various cancer cell lines...
November 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042522/-surgical-pathology-of-adulthood-epilepsy
#4
Hajime Miyata
Epilepsy may be the consequence of a wide range of disorders affecting the brain, including tumors and non-neoplastic lesions. A broad spectrum of structural brain lesions can be observed in epileptogenic brain tissue specimens surgically resected from patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsies. These include hippocampal sclerosis (HS), low-grade epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors (LEAT), malformations of cortical development (MCD), vascular malformations, dual pathology, glial scar, and encephalitis, as well as no lesion...
October 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035190/brain-tumor-epidemiology-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-the-2017-brain-tumor-epidemiology-consortium-meeting-report
#5
Kimberly J Johnson, Judith Schwartzbaum, Carol Kruchko, Michael E Scheurer, Ching C Lau, Adelheid Woehrer, Johannes A Hainfellner, Joseph Wiemels
The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an international consortium that aims to advance the development of multicenter and interdisciplinary collaborations that focus on research related to the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors. The 18th annual BTEC meeting was held in Banff, AB, Canada, on June 27 - 29, 2017. The meeting focused on the intersection between epidemiology and precision medicine, that is, the use of molecular indicators of risk, early disease and prognosis or precision epidemiology...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030880/direct-saturation-corrected-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-mri-of-glioma-simplified-decoupling-of-amide-proton-transfer-and-nuclear-overhauser-effect-contrasts
#6
Iris Yuwen Zhou, Enfeng Wang, Jerry S Cheung, Dongshuang Lu, Yang Ji, Xiaoan Zhang, Giulia Fulci, Phillip Zhe Sun
PURPOSE: Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI has shown promise in tissue characterization in diseases like stroke and tumor. However, in vivo CEST imaging such as amide proton transfer (APT) MRI is challenging because of concomitant factors such as direct water saturation, macromolecular magnetization transfer, and nuclear overhauser effect (NOE), which lead to a complex contrast in the commonly used asymmetry analysis (MTRasym). Here, we propose a direct saturation-corrected CEST (DISC-CEST) analysis for simplified decoupling and quantification of in vivo CEST effects...
October 13, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016871/cost-effectiveness-of-idh-testing-in-diffuse-gliomas-according-to-the-2016-who-classification-of-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system-recommendations
#7
John C DeWitt, Justin T Jordan, Matthew P Frosch, Wesley R Samore, A John Iafrate, David N Louis, Jochen K Lennerz
Background: Due to the decreasing prevalence of IDH1 mutations in older patients, the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors proposed not to perform sequencing for isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in glioblastoma patients ≥55 years old. We present a cost-effectiveness analysis to estimate the financial impact of these guidelines. Methods: From 2010 to 2015 we performed 1023 IDH tests in gliomas, amounting to ~$1.09 million in direct laboratory test costs...
June 28, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994492/quality-of-clinical-brain-tumor-mr-spectra-judged-by-humans-and-machine-learning-tools
#8
Sreenath P Kyathanahally, Victor Mocioiu, Nuno Pedrosa de Barros, Johannes Slotboom, Alan J Wright, Margarida Julià-Sapé, Carles Arús, Roland Kreis
PURPOSE: To investigate and compare human judgment and machine learning tools for quality assessment of clinical MR spectra of brain tumors. METHODS: A very large set of 2574 single voxel spectra with short and long echo time from the eTUMOUR and INTERPRET databases were used for this analysis. Original human quality ratings from these studies as well as new human guidelines were used to train different machine learning algorithms for automatic quality control (AQC) based on various feature extraction methods and classification tools...
October 10, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993810/computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-are-equivalent-in-mensuration-and-similarly-inaccurate-in-grade-and-type-predictability-of-canine-intracranial-gliomas
#9
Krystina L Stadler, Jeffrey D Ruth, Theresa E Pancotto, Stephen R Werre, John H Rossmeisl
While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold-standard imaging modality for diagnosis of intracranial neoplasia, computed tomography (CT) remains commonly used for diagnosis and therapeutic planning in veterinary medicine. Despite the routine use of both imaging modalities, comparison of CT and MRI has not been described in the canine patient. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate CT and MRI studies of 15 dogs with histologically confirmed glioma. Multiple lesion measurements were obtained, including two-dimensional and volumetric dimensions in pre-contrast and post-contrast images...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993799/genetic-characterization-of-brain-metastases-in-the-era-of-targeted-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Catherine H Han, Priscilla K Brastianos
In the current era of molecularly targeted therapies and precision medicine, choice of cancer treatment has been increasingly tailored according to the molecular or genomic characterization of the cancer the individual has. Previously, the clinical observation of inadequate control of brain metastases was widely attributed to a lack of central nervous system (CNS) penetration of the anticancer drugs. However, more recent data have suggested that there are genetic explanations for such observations. Genomic analyses of brain metastases and matching primary tumor and other extracranial metastases have revealed that brain metastases can harbor potentially actionable driver mutations that are unique to them...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987196/overview-of-neuroradiology
#11
Elna-Marie Larsson, Johan Wikström
Neuroradiology with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential for the initial evaluation of patients with a clinical suspicion of brain and spine disorders. Morphologic imaging is required to obtain a probable diagnosis to support the treatment decisions in pre- and perinatal disorders, vascular diseases, traumatic injuries, metabolic disorders, epilepsy, infection/inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, degenerative spinal disease, and tumors of the central nervous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987192/bioimaging-and-surgery-of-brain-tumors
#12
Georg Widhalm, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Johannes A Hainfellner, Michal Bienkowski, Stefan Wolfsberger, Thomas Czech
Bioimaging of brain tumors using nuclear medicine techniques complements computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), thus allowing more accurate diagnosis in clinically ambiguous situations. Special tracers for positron emission tomography (PET) have been developed which allow monitoring and planning of therapy. PET data may provide also presurgical evidence with regard to the presence of clinically relevant molecular brain tumor biomarkers. Combined PET/CT and PET/MR hybrid imaging systems will further enhance bioimaging-based brain tumor analysis...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985560/ferroptosis-a-regulated-cell-death-nexus-linking-metabolism-redox-biology-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Brent R Stockwell, José Pedro Friedmann Angeli, Hülya Bayir, Ashley I Bush, Marcus Conrad, Scott J Dixon, Simone Fulda, Sergio Gascón, Stavroula K Hatzios, Valerian E Kagan, Kay Noel, Xuejun Jiang, Andreas Linkermann, Maureen E Murphy, Michael Overholtzer, Atsushi Oyagi, Gabriela C Pagnussat, Jason Park, Qitao Ran, Craig S Rosenfeld, Konstantin Salnikow, Daolin Tang, Frank M Torti, Suzy V Torti, Shinya Toyokuni, K A Woerpel, Donna D Zhang
Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death characterized by the iron-dependent accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides to lethal levels. Emerging evidence suggests that ferroptosis represents an ancient vulnerability caused by the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into cellular membranes, and cells have developed complex systems that exploit and defend against this vulnerability in different contexts. The sensitivity to ferroptosis is tightly linked to numerous biological processes, including amino acid, iron, and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and the biosynthesis of glutathione, phospholipids, NADPH, and coenzyme Q10...
October 5, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982489/palliative-care-in-neurology
#14
REVIEW
Maisha T Robinson, Robert G Holloway
Palliative medicine is a specialty that focuses on improving the quality of life for patients with serious or advanced medical conditions, and it is appropriate at any stage of disease, including at the time of diagnosis. Neurologic conditions tend to have high symptom burdens, variable disease courses, and poor prognoses that affect not only patients but also their families and caregivers. Patients with a variety of neurologic conditions such as Parkinson disease, dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain tumors, stroke, and acute neurologic illnesses have substantial unmet needs that can be addressed through a combination of primary and specialty palliative care...
October 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979313/synthesis-quality-control-and-stability-studies-of-2-18-f-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-18-f-fdg-at-different-conditions-of-temperature-by-physicochemical-and-microbiological-assays
#15
Siyavash Rahmani, Soraya Shahhoseini, Reza Mohamadi, Mostafa Vojdani
The introduction of 2-[(18)F] fluor-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)FDG) has provided a valuable tool for the study of glucose metabolism in both normal and diseased tissue in conjunction with positron emission tomography (PET). (18)FDG is the most important radiopharmaceutical to be used in Nuclear Medicine for studying the brain, heart and tumor. The advancement in synthesis and quality control of (18)FDG and its approval by US FDA are main reasons for increasing clinical application of (18)FDG over the last 20 years...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977847/an-immunocompetent-mouse-model-of-human-glioblastoma
#16
Samantha Semenkow, Shen Li, Ulf D Kahlert, Eric H Raabe, Jiadi Xu, Antje Arnold, Miroslaw Janowski, Byoung Chol Oh, Gerald Brandacher, Jeff W M Bulte, Charles G Eberhart, Piotr Walczak
Orthotopic xenotransplantation studies represent the final stage in preclinical cancer research and could facilitate the implementation of precision medicine. To date, these xenografts have been tested in immunodeficient animals, but complete elimination of the adaptive immunity is a significant drawback. We present a method of efficient human glioblastoma (GBM) cell engraftment in adult mice with intact immune systems, mediated by a transient blockade of T-cell co-stimulation. Compared to transplants grown in immunodeficient hosts, the resulting tumors more accurately resemble the clinical pathophysiology of patient GBMs, which are characterized by blood-brain-barrier leakage and strong neo-vascularization...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946610/coptidis-rhizoma-prevents-heat-stress-induced-brain-damage-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#17
Minho Moon, Eugene Huh, Wonil Lee, Eun Ji Song, Deok-Sang Hwang, Tae Hee Lee, Myung Sook Oh
Heat stress conditions lead to neuroinflammation, neuronal death, and memory loss in animals. Coptidis Rhizoma (CR) exhibits potent fever-reducing effects and has been used as an important traditional medicinal herb for treating fever. However, to date, the effects of antipyretic CR on heat-induced brain damages have not been investigated. In this study, CR significantly reduced the elevation of ear and rectal temperatures after exposure to heat in mice. Additionally, CR attenuated hyperthermia-induced stress responses, such as release of cortisol into the blood, and upregulation of heat shock protein and c-Fos in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of mice...
September 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944915/neuroprotective-effect-of-total-flavonoids-from-ilex-pubescens-against-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#18
Xiaoyan Fang, Yujie Li, Jingyi Qiao, Ying Guo, Mingsan Miao
Ilex pubescens is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease and stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Ilex pubescens total flavonoids (IPTF) on neuroprotection and the potential mechanisms in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Rats were pretreated with intragastric administration of IPTF at doses of 200 and 100 mg/kg for 5 days; middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery was then performed to induce cerebral I/R injury...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932944/-cognitive-deficits-following-brain-tumor-radiation-therapy
#19
REVIEW
M Buthut, R Haussmann, A Seidlitz, M Krause, M Donix
Brain radiation is an important treatment option for malignant and benign brain diseases. The possible acute or chronic impact of radiation therapy on cognitive performance is important for daily functioning and quality of life. A detailed evaluation of cognitive impairment is important in the context of how to control disease progression. The susceptibility of the hippocampus to radiation-induced neuronal damage and its important role in memory highlight that therapeutic strategies require precision medicine...
September 20, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930547/use-of-non-ionizing-electromagnetic-fields-for-the-treatment-of-cancer
#20
Hugo Jimenez, Carl Blackman, Glenn Lesser, Waldemar Debinski, Michael Chan, Sambad Sharma, Kounosuke Watabe, Hui-Wen Lo, Alexandra Thomas, Dwayne Godwin, William Blackstock, Albert Mudry, James Posey, Rodney O'Connor, Ivan Brezovich, Keith Bonin, Daniel Kim-Shapiro, Alexandre Barbault, Boris Pasche
Cancer treatment and treatment options are quite limited in circumstances such as when the tumor is inoperable, in brain cancers when the drugs cannot penetrate the blood-brain-barrier, or when there is no tumor-specific target for generation of effective therapeutic antibodies. Despite the fact that electromagnetic fields (EMF) in medicine have been used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, the use of non-ionizing EMF for cancer treatment is a new emerging concept. Here we summarize the history of EMF from the 1890's to the novel and new innovative methods that target and treat cancer by non-ionizing radiation...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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