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Brain tumor medicine

Anna S Berghoff, Priscilla K Brastianos
Brain metastases (BMs) reflect an area of high clinical need, as up to 40% of patients with metastatic cancer will develop this morbid and highly fatal complication. Historically, treatment strategies have relied on local approaches including radiosurgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, and neurosurgical resection. Recently, targeted and immune-modulating therapies have shown promising responses and have been introduced in the clinical management of patients with BMs. Recent improvements in genomic technologies have enriched our understanding of BMs and have demonstrated that BMs present with significant genetic divergence from the originating primary tumor, such that potentially targetable genetic alterations are detected only in the BMs...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Mei Jiang, Xinghui Liu, Denghai Zhang, Ying Wang, Xiaoxia Hu, Fengxia Xu, Mingming Jin, Fanfan Cao, Limin Xu
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of cerebrovascular disease and is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Recently, a study suggested that transformation of microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 state to the anti-inflammatory and tissue-reparative M2 phenotype may be an effective therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Celastrol, a traditional oriental medicine, may have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Maxime Fontanilles, Alberto Duran-Peña, Ahmed Idbaih
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Personalized medicine is a challenge to improve survival and quality of life of patients suffering from primary malignant brain tumor. Molecular biology is integrated in initial diagnosis and relapse, and, in the nearest future, over treatment schedule and monitoring. Liquid biopsy is a minimally invasive way to obtain tumor material. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past years, three fluids have been explored to provide tumor information in primary malignant brain tumor: blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and vitreous liquid...
March 9, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Isabella Zhang, Silvia C Formenti, Jonathan P S Knisely
The role of systemic therapy in the treatment of intracranial metastases has traditionally been limited by the blood-brain barrier, and radiation therapy-either with whole-brain treatment or stereotactic radiosurgery-has remained a primary treatment modality. Recent evidence has demonstrated that antigens released in the brain can inform the systemic immune system, and systemic antibodies can traverse into the brain. This has led to a renewed interest in investigating novel immunotherapy agents to treat both systemic and intracranial disease...
February 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Jacqueline B Stone, Joanne F Kelvin, Lisa M DeAngelis
Background: Fertility preservation (FP) is an infrequently addressed issue for young adults with primary brain tumors. Given the improved prognosis and enhanced technology in reproductive medicine, more primary brain tumor patients see procreation as feasible, making the discussion of FP increasingly important. The goals of this study were to describe patients who received FP counseling by a fertility nurse specialist (FNS) and determine which sociodemographic and disease-related factors predict acceptance of referral to a reproductive specialist...
March 2017: Neuro-oncology Practice
Sathishkumar Baskaran, Markus Mayrhofer, Hanna Göransson Kultima, Tobias Bergström, Lioudmila Elfineh, Lucia Cavelier, Anders Isaksson, Sven Nelander
Background: Primary glioblastoma cell (GC) cultures have emerged as a key model in brain tumor research, with the potential to uncover patient-specific differences in therapy response. However, there is limited quantitative information about the stability of such cells during the initial 20-30 passages of culture. Methods: We interrogated three patient derived GC cultures at dense time intervals during the first 30 passages of culture. Combining state-of-the-art signal processing methods with a mathematical model of growth, we estimated clonal composition, rates of change, affected pathways and correlations between altered gene dosage and transcription...
February 15, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Emmanuel Mandonnet, Hugues Duffau
In the era of evidence-based medicine, clinicians aim to establish standards of care from randomized studies. Following, personalized medicine has emerged, as new individualized biomarkers could help to predict sensitivity to specific treatment. In this paper, we show that, for diffuse low-grade glioma, some specificities - dual goal of both survival and functional gain, long duration of the disease with multistep treatments, multiparametric evaluation of the onco-functional balance of each treatment modality - call for a change of paradigm...
February 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Juan-Juan Li, Shun-Jin Liu, Xiao-Yu Liu, Eng-Ang Ling
BACKGROUND: Activated microglia play a pivotal role neurodegenerative diseases by producing a variety of proinflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1bea (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO) that are toxic to neurons and oligodendrocytes. METHODS: In view of the above, suppression of microglia mediated neuroinflammation is deemed a therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. Several potential Chinese herbal extracts have been reported to exert neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases targeting specifically at the activated microglia...
February 14, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Tae Hwan Kim, Soyoung Shin, Sun Dong Yoo, Beom Soo Shin
Pungent spice constituents such as piperine, capsaicin and [6]-gingerol consumed via daily diet or traditional Chinese medicine, have been reported to possess various pharmacological activities. These dietary phytochemicals have also been reported to inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro and act as an alternative to synthetic P-gp modulators. However, the in vivo effects on P-gp inhibition are currently unknown. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that phytochemical P-gp inhibitors, i.e., piperine, capsaicin and [6]-gingerol, modulate the in vivo tissue distribution of doxorubicin, a representative P-gp substrate...
February 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hsiao-Chien Ting, Chia-Yu Chang, Kang-Yun Lu, Hong-Meng Chuang, Sheng-Feng Tsai, Mao-Hsuan Huang, Ching-Ann Liu, Shinn-Zong Lin, Horng-Jyh Harn
Traditional Chinese medicine has been practiced for centuries in East Asia. Herbs are used to maintain health and cure disease. Certain Chinese herbs are known to protect and improve the brain, memory, and nervous system. To apply ancient knowledge to modern science, some major natural therapeutic compounds in herbs were extracted and evaluated in recent decades. Emerging studies have shown that herbal compounds have neuroprotective effects or can ameliorate neurodegenerative diseases. To understand the mechanisms of herbal compounds that protect against neurodegenerative diseases, we summarize studies that discovered neuroprotection by herbal compounds and compound-related mechanisms in neurodegenerative disease models...
January 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Timm Ubben, Andreas Kluge, Nasreddin Abolmaali, Emilia Iannilli
PURPOSE: The identification of a brain tumor imaged with PET or SPECT is usually performed with visual inspection of an expert medical clinician. However an automated diagnostic of such images hasn't been established or applied. In the present study we explored the possibility of establishing an automated statistical analysis for the diagnosis of glioma by means of IPA-SPECT data. METHODS: Based on a dataset of 100 patients that have undergone MRI and IPA-SPECT acquisition, in this work we identify an automated workflow...
January 25, 2018: Medical Physics
Zhen Liu, Emily B Ehlerding, Weibo Cai, Xiaoli Lan
Amino acid-based tracers have been extensively investigated for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of brain tumors, and 11C-methionine (11C-MET) is one of the most extensively investigated. However, widespread clinical use of 11C-MET is challenging due to the short half-life of 11C and low radiolabeling yield. In this issue of the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Yang and colleagues report an 18F-labeled boron-derived methionine analog, 18F-B-MET, as a potential substitute for 11C-MET in PET imaging of glioma...
January 18, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Qisen Li, Jiacheng Zeng, Meiling Su, Yu He, Banghao Zhu
Zicao acts as a pleiotropic medicine in various diseases due to its particular pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and wound healing effects. However, few studies have focused on the function in neurodegenerative diseases of Zicao. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Acetylshikonin (AS) from Zicao on the hippocampus of the d-galactose (d-gal)-induced sub-acute aging mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aging model was established in male Kunming mice by subcutaneous injection of d-gal (150 mg/kg/d) for 60 days, and the mice were given AS (270, 540 and 1080 mg/kg/d) or distilled water intragastrically for 30 days after 30 days of d-gal injection...
January 9, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Ilwoo Park, Peder E Z Larson, Jeremy W Gordon, Lucas Carvajal, Hsin-Yu Chen, Robert Bok, Mark Van Criekinge, Marcus Ferrone, James B Slater, Duan Xu, John Kurhanewicz, Daniel B Vigneron, Susan Chang, Sarah J Nelson
PURPOSE: Hyperpolarized carbon-13 (13 C) metabolic imaging is a noninvasive imaging modality for evaluating real-time metabolism. The purpose of this study was to develop and implement experimental strategies for using [1-13 C]pyruvate to probe in vivo metabolism for patients with brain tumors and other neurological diseases. METHODS: The 13 C radiofrequency coils and pulse sequences were tested in a phantom and were performed using a 3 Tesla whole-body scanner...
January 10, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Jan-Hinrich Rabe, Denis A Sammour, Sandra Schulz, Bogdan Munteanu, Martina Ott, Katharina Ochs, Peter Hohenberger, Alexander Marx, Michael Platten, Christiane A Opitz, Daniel S Ory, Carsten Hopf
Multimodal imaging combines complementary platforms for spatially resolved tissue analysis that are poised for application in life science and personalized medicine. Unlike established clinical in vivo multimodality imaging, automated workflows for in-depth multimodal molecular ex vivo tissue analysis that combine the speed and ease of spectroscopic imaging with molecular details provided by mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) are lagging behind. Here, we present an integrated approach that utilizes non-destructive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI for analysing single-slide tissue specimen...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michinori Aoe, Tomoe Ueno-Iio, Misako Shibakura, Ryoko Shinohata, Shinichi Usui, Yujiro Arao, Satoru Ikeda, Nobuaki Miyahara, Mitsune Tanimoto, Mikio Kataoka
Lavender essential oil (Lvn) has anti-inflammatory effects in an ovalbumin-sensitized murine model of asthma, and inhibits inflammatory cell infiltration into the lungs. The anti-inflammatory effects of Lvn on cell adhesion molecules are not clear. Here we evaluated the effects of Lvn and its main constituents, linalyl acetate (LA) and linalool (LO), on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced cell adhesion molecules in murine brain endothelial bEnd.3 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
December 2017: Acta Medica Okayama
Joseph R Linzey, Bernard L Marini, Amy Pasternak, Cory Smith, Zac Miklja, Lili Zhao, Chandan Kumar-Sinha, Alyssa Paul, Nicholas Harris, Patricia L Robertson, Lindsey M Hoffman, Arul Chinnaiyan, Rajen Mody, Carl Koschmann
The number of targeted therapies utilized in precision medicine are rapidly increasing. Neuro-oncology offers a unique challenge due to the varying blood brain barrier (BBB) penetration of each agent. Neuro-oncologists face a difficult task weighing the growing number of potential targeted therapies and their likelihood of BBB penetration. We developed the CNS TAP Working Group and performed an extensive literature review for the evidence-based creation of the CNS TAP tool, which was retrospectively validated by analyzing brain tumor patients who underwent therapy targeted based on genomic results from an academic sequencing study (MiOncoseq, n = 17) or private molecular profiling (Foundation One, n = 7)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
James L Rubenstein
Primary and secondary CNS lymphomas are aggressive brain tumors that pose an immense challenge to define in terms of molecular pathogenesis, as well as to effectively treat. During the past 10 years improvements in survival have been achieved with the implementation of anti-CD20 immunotherapy and optimization of dose-intensive consolidation strategies. The applications of whole-exome sequencing, comparative genomic hybridization, transcriptional profiling, and examination of the tumor microenvironment, particularly in the context of clinical investigation, provide insights that create a roadmap for the development and implementation of novel targeted agents for this disease...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Lee Condon, John Blazak
We report the finding of increased F-DOPA uptake within parenchyma surrounding a developmental venous anomaly, found incidentally in a 64-year-old woman undergoing PET scan to assess for Parkinson's disease. Not identified on previous T1/T2 MRI, susceptibility-weighted imaging MRI performed post-PET scan demonstrated the presence of developmental venous anomaly within the left cerebellar hemisphere. Focal uptake of F-DOPA may suggest the presence of a brain tumor and prompt invasive diagnostic investigations...
February 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Jiangan Li, Lulu Ni, Bing Li, Mingdeng Wang, Zhemin Ding, Chunrong Xiong, Xiaojie Lu
BACKGROUND: Glioma remains the most common cause of brain cancer-related mortality. Glioma accounts for 50-60% of brain cancer. Due to their low toxicity and infrequent side effects, traditional herbs have been increasingly popular. Coptis Chinensis is commonly used in cancer treatment in combination with other Chinese Medicine herbs. However, little is known about its biological functions and mechanisms in glioma cells. METHODS: In this study, the anti-glioma cell effect of Coptis Chinensis was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, plate clone test, scratch tests, flow cytometry, western blotting and a glioma xenograft tumor model...
December 6, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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