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Brain tumor medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210976/regenerative-medicine-for-parkinson-s-disease-using-differentiated-nerve-cells-derived-from-human-buccal-fat-pad-stem-cells
#1
Haruka Takahashi, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Akira Tanaka
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of human adipose stem cells derived from the buccal fat pad (hBFP-ASCs) for nerve regeneration. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons. PD is a candidate disease for cell replacement therapy because it has no fundamental therapeutic methods. We examined the properties of neural-related cells induced from hBFP-ASCs as a cell source for PD treatment. hBFP-ASCs were cultured in neurogenic differentiation medium for about 2 weeks...
February 16, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191774/novel-peripherally-derived-neural-like-stem-cells-as-therapeutic-carriers-for-treating-glioblastomas
#2
Alexander Birbrair, Anirudh Sattiraju, Dongqin Zhu, Gilberto Zulato, Izadora Batista, Van T Nguyen, Maria Laura Messi, Kiran Kumar Solingapuram Sai, Frank C Marini, Osvaldo Delbono, Akiva Mintz
Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common primary malignant adult brain tumor characterized by extensive invasiveness, heterogeneity, and angiogenesis. Standard treatment options such as radiation and chemotherapy have proven to be only marginally effective in treating GBM because of its invasive nature. Therefore, extensive efforts have been put forth to develop tumor-tropic stem cells as viable therapeutic vehicles with potential to treat even the most invasive tumor cells that are harbored within areas of normal brain...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186109/astragali-radix-could-it-be-an-adjuvant-for-oxaliplatin-induced-neuropathy
#3
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Alessandra Pacini, Laura Micheli, Angelo Pietro Femia, Mario Maresca, Matteo Zanardelli, Alfredo Vannacci, Eugenia Gallo, Anna Rita Bilia, Giovanna Caderni, Fabio Firenzuoli, Alessandro Mugelli, Carla Ghelardini
Neurotoxicity is a major side effect of platinum derivatives both during and after treatment. In the absence of effective pharmacological compounds, the opportunity to identify safe adjuvant treatments among medicinal plants seems appropriate. Astragali radix is an adaptogenic herbal product recently analyzed in platinum-treated cancer patients. With the aim of evaluating the anti-neuropathic profile of Astragali radix, a previously characterized aqueous (Aqu) and two hydroalcoholic (20%HA and 50%HA) extracts were tested in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169457/improving-labeling-efficiency-in-automatic-quality-control-of-mrsi-data
#4
Nuno Pedrosa de Barros, Richard McKinley, Roland Wiest, Johannes Slotboom
PURPOSE: To improve the efficiency of the labeling task in automatic quality control of MR spectroscopy imaging data. METHODS: 28'432 short and long echo time (TE) spectra (1.5 tesla; point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS); repetition time (TR)= 1,500 ms) from 18 different brain tumor patients were labeled by two experts as either accept or reject, depending on their quality. For each spectrum, 47 signal features were extracted. The data was then used to run several simulations and test an active learning approach using uncertainty sampling...
February 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168001/the-neuroprotective-effects-of-tao-ren-cheng-qi-tang-against-embolic-stroke-in-rats
#5
Ling-Wei Hsu, Wei-Cheng Shiao, Nen-Chung Chang, Meng-Che Yu, Ting-Lin Yen, Philip Aloysius Thomas, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Joen-Rong Sheu
BACKGROUND: Combinations of the traditional Chinese and Western medicines have been used to treat numerous diseases throughout the world, and there is a growing body of evidence showing that some of the herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine elicit significant pharmacological effects. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of Tao-Ren-Cheng-Qi Tang (TRCQT) in combination with aspirin following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced embolic stroke in rats...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156607/yoga-program-for-patients-with-brain-tumors-undergoing-radiotherapy-xrt-and-their-family-caregivers
#6
Smith Mallaiah, Anita Mahajan, Terri S Armstrong, Shiao-Pei S Weathers, Kathryn E Moss, Nazli Goktepe, Amy Spelman, Lorenzo Cohen
: 200 Background: The role of behavioral medicine in the symptom management of glioma patients is largely unknown. Moreover, although the literature revealed that family caregivers are at risk of physical and psychological burden, the needs of caregivers generally remain unaddressed. The purpose of this study was to establish feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a couple-based Yoga (CBY) intervention in glioma patients and their caregivers targeting QOL outcomes. METHODS: This small, single-arm pilot trial included adults with low and high grade glioma undergoing XRT and their family caregivers...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104717/clinical-targeted-exome-based-sequencing-in-combination-with-genome-wide-copy-number-profiling-precision-medicine-analysis-of-203-pediatric-brain-tumors
#7
Shakti H Ramkissoon, Pratiti Bandopadhayay, Jaeho Hwang, Lori A Ramkissoon, Noah F Greenwald, Steven E Schumacher, Ryan O'Rourke, Nathan Pinches, Patricia Ho, Hayley Malkin, Claire Sinai, Mariella Filbin, Ashley Plant, Wenya Linda Bi, Michael S Chang, Edward Yang, Karen D Wright, Peter E Manley, Matthew Ducar, Sanda Alexandrescu, Hart Lidov, Ivana Delalle, Liliana C Goumnerova, Alanna J Church, Katherine A Janeway, Marian H Harris, Laura E MacConaill, Rebecca D Folkerth, Neal I Lindeman, Charles D Stiles, Mark W Kieran, Azra H Ligon, Sandro Santagata, Adrian M Dubuc, Susan N Chi, Rameen Beroukhim, Keith L Ligon
BACKGROUND: Clinical genomics platforms are needed to identify targetable alterations, but implementation of these technologies and best practices in routine clinical pediatric oncology practice are not yet well established. METHODS: Profile is an institution-wide prospective clinical research initiative that uses targeted sequencing to identify targetable alterations in tumors. OncoPanel, a multiplexed targeted exome-sequencing platform that includes 300 cancer-causing genes, was used to assess single nucleotide variants and rearrangements/indels...
January 19, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096971/carthamus-tinctorius-l-ameliorates-brain-injury-followed-by-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats-by-antioxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-mechanisms
#8
Pin-Kuei Fu, Tai-Long Pan, Chi-Yu Yang, Kee-Ching Jeng, Nou-Ying Tang, Ching-Liang Hsieh
OBJECTIVES: Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) or safflower is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. This study investigated the effects of CT extract (CTE) on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) brain injury and elucidated the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The I/R model was conducted by occlusion of both common carotid arteries and right middle cerebral artery for 90 min followed by 24 hr reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. CTE (0.2-0.6 g/kg) was administered intraperitoneally before and during ischemia, and during reperfusion period...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078795/a-continuous-infusion-dynamic-mri-model-at-3-0-tesla-for-the-serial-quantitative-evaluation-of-microvascular-proliferation-in-an-animal-model-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#9
Hunter R Underhill
PURPOSE: To develop a continuous-infusion dynamic MRI technique to characterize tumor-associated microvascular proliferation (MVP) in a rat brain model of glioblastoma multiforme. METHODS: The proposed model assumes effects due to tumor-associated MVP (eg, vascular permeability, K(trans) ; intravascular plasma fraction, vp ) cannot be individually separated and solves for a single parameter (k(vasc) ) that quantifies the T1 -weighted contrast enhancement from dynamic images acquired during continuous contrast agent (CA) infusion...
January 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061549/fast-and-simple-detection-methods-for-the-4-base-pair-deletion-of-canine-mdr1-abcb1-gene-by-pcr-and-isothermal-amplification
#10
Cathrin P Stiedl, Karin Weber
Dogs with a 4-bp deletion in the MDR1 (or ABCB1) gene show intolerance to certain drugs routinely used in veterinary medicine, such as ivermectin, vincristine, and doxorubicin. The mutation leads to a dysfunctional P-glycoprotein drug transporter, which results in drug accumulation in the brain and severe neurotoxicity. A rapid and accurate in-house test to determine the genotype of patients in cases of acute neurotoxic signs or in tumor patients is desirable. We describe a cost-effective detection method with simple technical equipment for veterinary practice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054416/anomalous-diffusion-in-cerebral-glioma-assessed-using-a-fractional-motion-model
#11
Boyan Xu, Lu Su, Zhenxiong Wang, Yang Fan, Gaolang Gong, Wenzhen Zhu, Peiyi Gao, Jia-Hong Gao
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the capability of the fractional motion (FM) model for describing anomalous diffusion in cerebral gliomas and to assess the potential feasibility of FM for grading these tumors. METHODS: Diffusion MRI images were acquired from brain tumor patients using a special Stejskal-Tanner diffusion sequence with variable diffusion gradient amplitudes and separation times. Patients with histopathologically confirmed gliomas, including astrocytic and oligoastrocytic tumors, were selected...
January 5, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002793/next-generation-sequencing-of-vitreoretinal-lymphomas-from-small-volume-intraocular-liquid-biopsies-new-routes-to-targeted-therapies
#12
Andi K Cani, Daniel H Hovelson, Hakan Demirci, Mark W Johnson, Scott A Tomlins, Rajesh C Rao
BACKGROUND: Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL), the most common lymphoma of the eye, is a rare form of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). Most frequently a high-grade diffuse large B cell lymphoma, VRL can cause vision loss and its prognosis remains dismal: the overall survival time is 3 years after diagnosis. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used but remain frequently ineffective, and no standardized treatment regimen exists. Furthermore, no biologically targeted treatments, based on the genetic profile of the tumor, are available, as VRL has hitherto not comprehensively been profiled...
January 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981499/direct-conversion-of-somatic-cells-into-induced-neurons
#13
REVIEW
Na An, Huiming Xu, Wei-Qiang Gao, Hao Yang
The progressive loss and degeneration of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), as a result of traumas or diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease, stroke, and traumatic injury to the brain and spinal cord, can usually have devastating effects on quality of life. The current strategies available for treatments are described including drug delivery, surgery, electrical stimulation, and cell-based tissue engineering approaches. However, apart from cell-based therapy, other attempts are limited in improving clinical outcomes...
December 16, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930095/multi-omics-data-integration-and-mapping-of-altered-kinases-to-pathways-reveal-gonadotropin-hormone-signaling-in-glioblastoma
#14
Savita Jayaram, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Rajesh Raju, Poonam Gautam, Ravi Sirdeshmukh
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most lethal brain tumors with an inadequately understood pathophysiology. Biomarkers that guide accurate diagnosis and treatment decisions would greatly support precision medicine for GBM. Previous studies of GBM have focused on signaling pathways such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs), notch, wnt, and others, identified with single omics technology platforms (genomics, transcriptomics, or proteomics), but not with their integrated use...
December 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909971/gastrodin-attenuates-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-by-modulating-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-associated-inflammatory-responses-in-mice
#15
Liming Chen, Xinan Liu, Hua Wang, Min Qu
Gastrodin, the major component isolated from the rhizome of the Chinese traditional medicinal herb Gastrodia elata ("Tianma"), has a long history in the treatment of epilepsy and other neurological disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms are not clear. Here, we found that gastrodin ameliorated pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizures with improvement of the electroencephalographic pattern in mice. Further studies demonstrated that gastrodin decreased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α while increasing interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine in the brain...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859563/direct-estimation-of-tracer-kinetic-parameter-maps-from-highly-undersampled-brain-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#16
Yi Guo, Sajan Goud Lingala, Yinghua Zhu, R Marc Lebel, Krishna S Nayak
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a T1 -weighted dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI methodology where tracer-kinetic (TK) parameter maps are directly estimated from undersampled (k,t)-space data. THEORY AND METHODS: The proposed reconstruction involves solving a nonlinear least squares optimization problem that includes explicit use of a full forward model to convert parameter maps to (k,t)-space, utilizing the Patlak TK model. The proposed scheme is compared against an indirect method that creates intermediate images by parallel imaging and compressed sensing before to TK modeling...
November 17, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855689/metformin-reduces-morphine-tolerance-by-inhibiting-microglial-mediated-neuroinflammation
#17
Yinbing Pan, Xiaodi Sun, Lai Jiang, Liang Hu, Hong Kong, Yuan Han, Cheng Qian, Chao Song, Yanning Qian, Wentao Liu
BACKGROUND: Tolerance seriously impedes the application of morphine in clinical medicine. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the exact mechanisms and efficient treatment. Microglial activation and neuroinflammation in the spinal cord are thought to play pivotal roles on the genesis and maintaining of morphine tolerance. Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) has been associated with the inhibition of inflammatory nociception. Metformin, a biguanide class of antidiabetic drugs and activator of AMPK, has a potential anti-inflammatory effect...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851877/understanding-the-continuum-of-radionecrosis-and-vascular-disorders-in-the-brain-following-gamma-knife-irradiation-an-mri-study
#18
Julie Constanzo, Laurence Masson-Côté, Luc Tremblay, Jérémie P Fouquet, Philippe Sarret, Sameh Geha, Kevin Whittingstall, Benoit Paquette, Martin Lepage
PURPOSE: The radiation dose delivered to brain tumors is limited by the possibility to induce vascular damage and necrosis in surrounding healthy tissue. In the present study, we assessed the ability of MRI to monitor the cascade of events occurring in the healthy rat brain after stereotactic radiosurgery, which could be used to optimize the radiation treatment planning. METHODS: The primary somatosensory forelimb area (S1FL) and the primary motor cortex in the right hemisphere of Fischer rats (n = 6) were irradiated with a single dose of Gamma Knife radiation (Leksell Perfexion, Elekta AG, Stockholm, Sweden)...
November 10, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851873/mri-surveillance-of-cancer-cell-fate-in-a-brain-metastasis-model-after-early-radiotherapy
#19
Donna H Murrell, Niloufar Zarghami, Michael D Jensen, Fiona Dickson, Ann F Chambers, Eugene Wong, Paula J Foster
PURPOSE: Incidence of brain metastasis attributed to breast cancer is increasing and prognosis is poor. It is thought that disseminated dormant cancer cells persist in metastatic organs and may evade treatments, thereby facilitating a mechanism for recurrence. Radiotherapy is used to treat brain metastases clinically, but assessment has been limited to macroscopic tumor volumes detectable by clinical imaging. Here, we use cellular MRI to understand the concurrent responses of metastases and nonproliferative or slowly cycling cancer cells to radiotherapy...
November 14, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837553/biobanking-an-important-resource-for-precision-medicine-in-glioblastoma
#20
Si Yan Melanie Tan, Edwin Sandanaraj, Carol Tang, Beng Ti Christopher Ang
The Cancer Genome Atlas effort has generated significant interest in a new paradigm shift in tumor tissue analysis, patient diagnosis and subsequent treatment decision. Findings have highlighted the limitation of sole reliance on histology, which can be confounded by inter-observer variability. Such studies demonstrate that histologically similar grade IV brain tumors can be divided into four molecular subtypes based on gene expression, with each subtype demonstrating unique genomic aberrations and clinical outcome...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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