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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521703/recent-advances-in-antiepileptic-herbal-medicine
#1
Stephen M Manchishi
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, with about 80 percent of cases thought to be in developing nations where it is mostly linked to superstition. Most cases of epilepsy are idiopathic, though brain injury, brain tumor, severe systemic infection and genetic mutations have been implicated in some cases. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) currently in existence are not sufficient to contain the disorder. This is not only because of their limited availability and cost, but also their adverse side effects...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514905/evodiamine-prevents-glioma-growth-induces-glioblastoma-cell-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-arrest-through-jnk-activation
#2
Wen-Shin Wu, Chih-Chiang Chien, Kao-Hui Liu, Yen-Chou Chen, Wen-Ta Chiu
Evodiamine (EVO) is an active medicinal compound derived from the traditional herbal medicine Evodia rutaecarpa. It has been reported that evodiamine has several beneficial biological properties, including anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities of EVO against the growth of glioblastoma cells remain undefined. EVO induced significant decreases in the viability of U87 and C6 glioma cells, but not of primary astrocytes, according with the occurrence of apoptotic characteristics including DNA ladders, caspase-3 and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein cleavage, and hypodiploid cells...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507205/a-case-of-metastatic-atypical-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-alk-translocation-and-diffuse-brain-metastases
#3
Victoria E Wang, Lauren Young, Siraj Ali, Vincent A Miller, Anatoly Urisman, John Wolfe, Trever G Bivona, Bertil Damato, Shannon Fogh, Emily K Bergsland
A challenge in precision medicine requires identification of actionable driver mutations. Critical to such effort is the deployment of sensitive and well-validated assays for mutation detection. Although identification of such alterations within the tumor tissue remains the gold standard, many advanced non-small cell lung cancer cases have only limited tissue samples, derived from small biopsies or fine-needle aspirates, available for testing. More recently, noninvasive methods using either circulating tumor cells or tumor DNA (ctDNA) have become an alternative method for identifying molecular biomarkers and screening patients eligible for targeted therapies...
May 15, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504360/oxygen-extraction-fraction-mapping-at-3-tesla-using-an-artificial-neural-network-a-feasibility-study
#4
Sebastian Domsch, Bettina Mürle, Sebastian Weingärtner, Jascha Zapp, Frederik Wenz, Lothar R Schad
PURPOSE: The oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is an important biomarker for tissue-viability. MRI enables noninvasive estimation of the OEF based on the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) effect. Quantitative OEF-mapping is commonly applied using least-squares regression (LSR) to an analytical tissue model. However, the LSR method has not yet become clinically established due to the necessity for long acquisition times. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) recently have received increasing interest for robust curve-fitting and might pose an alternative to the conventional LSR method for reduced acquisition times...
May 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487072/isocostunolide-inhibited-glioma-stem-cell-by-suppression-proliferation-and-inducing-caspase-dependent-apoptosis
#5
Zhi Dai, Shi-Rong Li, Pei-Feng Zhu, Lu Liu, Bei Wang, Ya-Ping Liu, Xiao-Dong Luo, Xu-Dong Zhao
Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumor with poor life expectancy, and glioma stem cells (GSCs) are a small population of tumor cells existed in GBM, in which GSCs response to drive GBM recurrence, invasion and contribute to the anti-cancer resistance. GSCs have been identified and developed as a therapeutic target for GBM and can be used in drugs screening. Isocostunolide is a natural sesquiterpenoid and contained abundant resource in medicinal plants, but the anti-cancer efficacies of it against GSCs are still unexplored...
April 26, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481580/neurocognitive-deficits-in-children-with-chronic-health-conditions
#6
Bruce E Compas, Sarah S Jaser, Kristen Reeslund, Niral Patel, Janet Yarboi
Over 4 million children in the United States suffer from chronic health conditions, including cancer, sickle cell disease, and diabetes. Because of major advances in the early identification and treatment of these conditions, survival rates for these children continue to rise, and the majority now lives into adulthood. However, increases in survival have come with costs related to long-term effects of disease processes and treatments. Foremost among these consequences is impairment in brain development and neurocognitive function that may affect a substantial portion of children with chronic health conditions and follow many into adulthood...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481046/human-neural-stem-cell-biodistribution-and-predicted-tumor-coverage-by-a-diffusible-therapeutic-in-a-mouse-glioma-model
#7
Michael E Barish, Kelsey Herrmann, Yang Tang, Siranush Argalian Herculian, Marianne Metz, Soraya Aramburo, Revathiswari Tirughana, Margarita Gutova, Alexander Annala, Rex A Moats, Leanne Goldstein, Russell C Rockne, Jennifer Gutierrez, Christine E Brown, Lucy Ghoda, Karen S Aboody
Engineered neural stem cells (NSCs) intrinsically migrating to brain tumors offer a promising mechanism for local therapeutic delivery. However, difficulties in quantitative assessments of NSC migration and in estimates of tumor coverage by diffusible therapeutics have impeded development and refinement of NSC-based therapies. To address this need, we developed techniques by which conventional serial-sectioned formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) brains can be analyzed in their entirety across multiple test animals...
May 8, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480589/quantification-and-tracking-of-genetically-engineered-dendritic-cells-for-studying-immunotherapy
#8
Amnon Bar-Shir, Lina Alon, Michael J Korrer, Hong Seo Lim, Nirbhay N Yadav, Yoshinori Kato, Arvind P Pathak, Jeff W M Bulte, Assaf A Gilad
PURPOSE: Genetically encoded reporters can assist in visualizing biological processes in live organisms and have been proposed for longitudinal and noninvasive tracking of therapeutic cells in deep tissue. Cells can be labeled in situ or ex vivo and followed in live subjects over time. Nevertheless, a major challenge for reporter systems is to identify the cell population that actually expresses an active reporter. METHODS: We have used a nucleoside analog, pyrrolo-2'-deoxycytidine, as an imaging probe for the putative reporter gene, Drosophila melanogaster 2'-deoxynucleoside kinase...
May 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471848/l-borneol-induces-transient-opening-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-enhances-the-therapeutic-effect-of-cisplatin
#9
Yi Yin, Liu Cao, Hongfei Ge, Wangsheng Duanmu, Liang Tan, Jichao Yuan, Chen Tunan, Fei Li, Rong Hu, Fabao Gao, Hua Feng
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the central nervous system from external insults by limiting substance diffusion through the endothelial interface. The presence of the BBB makes drug delivery in neurological disorders very challenging. Cisplatin has been shown to be cytotoxic to glioma cells, but substantial limitations exist in its clinical applications due to difficulties in penetration across the BBB. Here, we show that L-borneol, a messenger drug widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, can induce transient disruption of the BBB after 20 min of oral administration...
May 3, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459367/glioblastoma-synthesized-g-csf-and-gm-csf-contribute-to-growth-and-immunosuppression-potential-therapeutic-benefit-from-dapsone-fenofibrate-and-ribavirin
#10
Richard E Kast, Quentin A Hill, Didier Wion, Håkan Mellstedt, Daniele Focosi, Georg Karpel-Massler, Tim Heiland, Marc-Eric Halatsch
Increased ratio of circulating neutrophils to lymphocytes is a common finding in glioblastoma and other cancers. Data reviewed establish that any damage to brain tissue tends to cause an increase in G-CSF and/or GM-CSF (G(M)-CSF) synthesized by the brain. Glioblastoma cells themselves also synthesize G(M)-CSF. G(M)-CSF synthesized by brain due to damage by a growing tumor and by the tumor itself stimulates bone marrow to shift hematopoiesis toward granulocytic lineages away from lymphocytic lineages. This shift is immunosuppressive and generates the relative lymphopenia characteristic of glioblastoma...
May 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458714/antiaging-and-anxiolytic-effects-of-combinatory-formulas-based-on-four-medicinal-herbs
#11
Rui Li, Wingman Chan, Waikin Mat, Yiucheong Ho, Rigil K Yeung, Shuiying Tsang, Hong Xue
The objective of the present study was to search for medicinal-herb combinations based on Radix Bupleurum chinense DC ("B"), Rhizoma Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang ("Y"), Caulis Polygonum multiflorum Thunb ("P"), and Flos Albizia julibrissin Durazz ("A") for antiaging, anxiolytic, and sedative effects. Application of the D-galactose induced accelerated-aging model employing male ICR mice showed that oral administration of some combinations of B, Y, P, and A significantly improved spatial memory in Y-maze test and reduced brain levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 based on immunoassays and oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde, based on the thiobarbituric acid test, and the loss of whiskers, indicating antiaging and antineurodegeneration effects...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452565/administration-of-wasabia-koreana-ameliorates-irritable-bowel-syndrome-like-symptoms-in-a-zymosan-induced-mouse-model
#12
Bo-Kyung Park, Eunho Chun, Jeong June Choi, Younmin Shin, Young Tak Kho, Seung Hyun Oh, Sun Yeou Kim, Taek Hwan Lee, Tae-Wan Kim, Eunju Shin, Seon-Gil Do, Mirim Jin
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with complex pathophysiology involving the brain-gut axis. To assess the effects of Wasabia koreana (WK) on IBS, we employed a mouse model of colonic zymosan injection presenting with diarrhea-predominant IBS-like symptoms. Oral WK administration significantly diminished stool score, suppressed colon length and weight change, and minimized body weight loss without affecting food intake. In WK-treated mice, the submucosal thickening and epithelial lining of the colon were inhibited and were similar to those of naïve mice...
May 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440967/toxicity-of-cisplatin-loaded-poly-butyl-cyanoacrylate-nanoparticles-in-a-brain-cancer-cell-line-anionic-polymerization-results
#13
Nejad Mohamadi, S Maryam Kazemi, Mahshid Mohammadian, Attabak Toofani Milani, Younes Moradi, Maryam Yasemi, Meysam Ebrahimi far, Maral Mazloumi Tabrizi, Hasan Ebrahimi Shahmabadi, Azim Akbarzadeh Khiyavi
Cancer is one of the most important issues in modern medicine and the most common cause of death after cardiovascular diseases in many countries. Brain cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death among men and women, ranking third. Chemotherapeutic drugs that aim to prevent uncontrolled proliferation of cells in tissues of the body and induce apoptosis of tumor cells are prominent candidates for development. Since cisplatin has an apoptosisinducing role, it is widely used as an anticancer agent...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427196/breast-cancer-subtypes-predict-the-preferential-site-of-distant-metastases-a-seer-based-study
#14
Qi Wu, Juanjuan Li, Shan Zhu, Juan Wu, Chuang Chen, Qian Liu, Wen Wei, Yimin Zhang, Shengrong Sun
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to access possible relationships between breast cancer subtypes and sites of distant metastasis in breast cancer. RESULTS: A total of 243,896 patients, including 226,451 cases in control groups were identified. Bone metastasis was found in 8848 cases, compared with 1,000 brain metastasis cases, 3434 liver metastasis cases and 4167 lung metastasis cases. Patients with all subtypes were most prone to bone metastases, the incidence of bone metastasis in HR+/HER2+ subtype was up to 5...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421396/-11-c-methionine-pet-ct-findings-in-benign-brain-disease
#15
REVIEW
Reiko Nakajima, Ken Kimura, Koichiro Abe, Shuji Sakai
(11)C-methionine (MET) is one of the most commonly used positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for evaluation of malignant brain tumor, with MET-PET being a sensitive technique for visualization of primary and recurrent malignant brain tumors. However, previous reports have demonstrated MET uptake in lesions associated with benign brain diseases. These diseases usually show an increase in MET uptake similar to that of malignant tumors. This pitfall in MET-PET image interpretation is important not only for nuclear medicine professionals, but also for radiologists...
April 18, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410266/2-3-5-4-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-prevention-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depressive-like-behaviors-in-mice-involves-neuroinflammation-and-oxido-nitrosative-stress-inhibition
#16
Zhuo Chen, Chao Huang, Haiyan He, Wenbin Ding
Although numerous hypotheses have been raised in recent years, the exact mechanisms that promote the development of major depression are largely unknown. Recently, strategies targeting the process of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in depression have been attracting greater attention. 2, 3, 5, 4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), a compound purified from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine polygonummultiflorum, has been widely reported to inhibit neuroinflammation and oxidative stress...
April 13, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405533/scalp-seeding-post-craniotomy-and-radiosurgery-for-solitary-brain-metastasis-a-case-report-and-systematic-review
#17
Waseem Sharieff, Liam Mulroy, Adrienne Weeks, Samina Mansoor, Rajbir Pahil, Muhammad U Islam
BACKGROUND  : Radiosurgery is being increasingly used post craniotomy for brain metastasis, instead of whole-brain radiation. We report a case of scalp metastasis following craniotomy and radiosurgery, along with a systematic review of the literature. METHODS        : Our patient was a 70-year-old male who presented with a scalp metastasis, two years after craniotomy and radiosurgery, for a solitary brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma. Using Medline® (United States National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD), we performed a systematic review of the literature to identify cases of isolated scalp metastases following craniotomy for brain lesions...
March 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401643/ultrafast-compartmentalized-relaxation-time-mapping-with-linear-algebraic-modeling
#18
Yi Zhang, Xiaoyang Liu, Jinyuan Zhou, Paul A Bottomley
PURPOSE: To dramatically accelerate compartmental-average longitudinal (T1 ) and transverse (T2 ) relaxation measurements using the minimal-acquisition linear algebraic modeling (SLAM) method, and to validate it in phantoms and humans. METHODS: Relaxation times were imaged at 3 Tesla in phantoms, in the abdomens of six volunteers, and in six brain tumor patients using standard inversion recovery and multi-spin-echo sequences. k-space was fully sampled to provide reference T1 and T2 measurements, and SLAM was performed using a limited set of phase encodes from central k-space...
April 11, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392281/human-stem-cell-modeling-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-nf1
#19
REVIEW
Michelle L Wegscheid, Corina Anastasaki, David H Gutmann
The future of precision medicine is heavily reliant on the use of human tissues to identify the key determinants that account for differences between individuals with the same disorder. This need is exemplified by the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) neurogenetic condition. As such, individuals with NF1 are born with a germline mutation in the NF1 gene, but may develop numerous distinct neurological problems, ranging from autism and attention deficit to brain and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Coupled with accurate preclinical mouse models, the availability of NF1 patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides new opportunities to define the critical factors that underlie NF1-associated nervous system disease pathogenesis and progression...
April 6, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353033/a-novel-all-in-one-intraoperative-genotyping-system-for-idh1-mutant-glioma
#20
Fumiharu Ohka, Akane Yamamichi, Michihiro Kurimoto, Kazuya Motomura, Kuniaki Tanahashi, Hiromichi Suzuki, Kosuke Aoki, Shoichi Deguchi, Lushun Chalise, Masaki Hirano, Akira Kato, Yusuke Nishimura, Masahito Hara, Yukinari Kato, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Atsushi Natsume
IDH1 gene mutation has been demonstrated to be an oncogenic driver in a majority of lower-grade gliomas (LGGs). In contrast to other central nervous neoplasms and normal brain tissue without IDH1 mutation, almost 80% of LGGs exhibit IDH1 mutation. Therefore, expeditious detection of IDH1 mutation is useful, not only for intraoperative diagnosis of these gliomas but also for determination of the border between the tumor and normal brain tissue. In this study, we established a rapid genotyping assay with a simple DNA extraction method, involving only incubation of the tumor specimen with Tris-EDTA buffer, which can be easily performed in an operating room...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
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