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Brain tumor chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803168/metastatic-cardiac-angiosarcoma-to-the-lung-spine-and-brain-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Chih-Ta Lin, Katrina Ducis, Suzanne Tucker, Bruce Tranmer
BACKGROUND: Metastatic angiosarcoma to the brain is a rare entity without an established management protocol. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors describe a case of primary cardiac angiosarcoma with a rare brain metastasis in an adult. This patient underwent successful resection of his brain metastasis and was initiated on only chemotherapy for his systemic disease. The patient did not develop local recurrence. A review of primary and metastatic CNS angiosarcoma, its pathologic features, clinical disease course, treatment strategies and genomics is also described...
August 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797981/rhabdoid-meningioma-arising-concurrent-in-pulmonary-and-intracranial-with-a-rare-malignant-clinical-progression-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Peng Zhao, Ning Li, Jinfeng Cao, Xiangtao Lin, Changhu Liang
BACKGROUND: Rhabdoid meningioma (RM) is an unusual variant of meningioma, classified as WHO grade III. Although its recurrence is common, extracranial metastasis is rare and usually misdiagnosed. The transfer mechanism and pathway are ambiguous; once it develops, there is a poor prognosis and no effective management. The present case is the first report on concurrent intracranial and pulmonary RM with rapid and widespread metastasis. We hope this report can be a helpful reference for clinicians and radiologists...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791250/immunotherapy-combined-with-large-fractions-of-radiotherapy-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases-implications-for-intraoperative-radiotherapy-after-resection
#3
REVIEW
Carsten Herskind, Frederik Wenz, Frank A Giordano
Brain metastases (BM) affect approximately a third of all cancer patients with systemic disease. Treatment options include surgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) while chemotherapy has only limited activity. In cases where patients undergo resection before irradiation, intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) to the tumor bed may be an alternative modality, which would eliminate the repopulation of residual tumor cells between surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Accumulating evidence has shown that high single doses of ionizing radiation can be highly efficient in eliciting a broad spectrum of local, regional, and systemic tumor-directed immune reactions...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783147/marrow-ablative-chemotherapy-followed-by-tandem-autologous-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-pediatric-patients-with-malignant-brain-tumors
#4
J A Guerra, G Dhall, A Marachelian, E Castillo, J Malvar, K Wong, R Sposto, J L Finlay
To improve survival in young children with malignant brain tumors, irradiation-avoiding or -minimizing marrow-ablative chemotherapy (HDCx) with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AuHCT) has been investigated. We evaluated the outcome of 44 children with malignant brain tumors treated with HDCx and tandem AuHCT at Children's Hospital Los Angeles between June 1999 and July 2012. Forty-four children with malignant brain tumors were studied. Twenty-one had medulloblastoma/primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor, eight atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT), five high-grade glioma, four malignant germ cell tumor, three ependymoma and three choroid plexus carcinoma...
August 7, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766685/salinomycin-s-potential-to-eliminate-glioblastoma-stem-cells-and-treat-glioblastoma-multiforme-review
#5
Justin W Magrath, Yonghyun Kim
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest form of primary brain tumor. Despite treatment with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy with the drug temozolomide, the expected survival after diagnosis remains low. The median survival is only 14.6 months and the two-year survival is a mere 30%. One reason for this is the heterogeneity of GBM including the presence of glioblastoma cancer stem cells (GSCs). GSCs are a subset of cells with the unique ability to proliferate, differentiate, and create tumors...
September 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761209/extranodal-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-of-the-oral-cavity-a-case-report
#6
Babyamma Raghavan Varun, Nettiyat Oommen Varghese, Trivandrum Thanappan Sivakumar, Anna Palliath Joseph
Lymphomas are solid malignant tumors having a wide spectrum of clinical and pathological features. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a subtype of lymphoma with two-thirds of the cases presenting as lymph node enlargement. The remaining one third of NHL cases has been reported in the extranodal sites, including the gastro intestinal tract, Waldeyer's ring, bone, skin, and brain. Intraoral non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is uncommon and may affect either the jaw bones or occur within the soft tissues of the oral cavity...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759950/chemokine-receptor-cxcr7-is-an-independent-prognostic-biomarker-in-glioblastoma
#7
Lina Deng, Wenxin Zheng, Xueshuang Dong, Jianghua Liu, Chunyu Zhu, Dan Lu, Jin Zhang, Laijun Song, Yuchao Wang, Dan Deng
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most fatal primary brain cancer in adults. Due to the complex nature of GBM, its pathogenesis still remain unclear. Accumulating evidence suggest that chemokine receptor CXCR7 contribute to the development of various types of tumors. OBJECTIVE: We aim to examine the prognostic significance of CXCR7 in GBM. METHODS: CXCR7 were first detected by Immunohistochemistry. The association between CXCR7 and overall survival (OS) were examined...
July 19, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758896/chemo-brain-or-tumor-brain-that-is-the-question-the-presence-of-extracranial-tumors-profoundly-affects-molecular-processes-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-tumorgraft-mice
#8
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Svitlana Shpyleva, Stepan Melnyk, Igor Pogribny, Amanda Katz, David Sidransky, Olga Kovalchuk, Bryan Kolb
Cancer chemotherapy causes numerous persistent central nervous system complications. This condition is known as chemo brain. Cognitive impairments occur even before treatment, and hence are referred to as cancer associated cognitive changes, or tumor brain. There is much yet to be learned about the mechanisms of both chemo brain and tumor brain. The frequency and timing of chemo brain and tumor brain occurrence and persistence strongly suggest they may be epigenetic in nature and associated with altered gene expression...
July 29, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757800/case-report-recurrent-mucoepidermoid-carcinoma-of-the-tongue-in-adult-female-patient-with-lung-cancer
#9
Arielle Rubin, John Davis, Karim Jreije, Henry Wu, Randy Oppenheimer
There is a steady rise in incidence of malignant salivary gland tumors in the United States, with mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) the most frequent. Although 40% of MECs are found in the parotid gland, these lesions possess the capacity to develop anywhere along the aerodigestive tract. Here, we present a case of recurrent tongue MEC in a young adult female patient with history of lung malignancy and multiple brain metastases. Without a universally accepted management protocol for recurrent MECs, the current clinical practice uses tumor grade, location, and clinical progression to determine both prognosis and goals of care...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Ear, Nose and Throat
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752860/enhancing-the-cytotoxicity-of-chemoradiation-with-radiation-guided-delivery-of-anti-mgmt-morpholino-oligonucleotides-in-non-methylated-solid-tumors
#10
P Ambady, Y J Wu, J M Walker, C Kersch, M A Pagel, R L Woltjer, R Fu, L L Muldoon, E A Neuwelt
The DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is epigenetically silenced in some tumors by MGMT gene promoter methylation. MGMT-hypermethylated solid tumors have enhanced susceptibility to the cytotoxic effects of alkylating chemotherapy such as temozolomide, compared with non-methylated tumors. In glioblastoma, subjects with MGMT hypermethylation have significantly longer survival rates after chemoradiotherapy. We report the first successful use of a non-ablative dose of ionizing radiation to prime human cancer cells to enhance the uptake of unmodified anti-MGMT morpholino oligonucleotide (AMON) sequences...
July 28, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748542/pediatric-intracerebral-histiocytic-sarcoma-with-rhabdoid-features-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Young Hye Kim, Gie-Taek Yie, Na Rae Kim, In-Sang Jeon, Hyun Yee Cho, Jae Yeon Seok, Eung Yeop Kim, Kyu Chan Lee
A 16-year-old boy presented with marked weight loss, weakness of the left extremities and dizziness of 2 months duration and vomiting for 2 days. Brain MRI showed an approximately 6.5 × 5.3 cm-sized huge heterogeneous enhancing mass located in the corpus callosum, extending into the lateral ventricle. Open biopsy showed that the lesion consisted of lymphoplasmacytes and plump histiocytes with rhabdoid morphology, which were stained with S-100 protein, CD68 (KP1) and negative for CD1a. Histiocytic tumor was initially diagnosed...
July 27, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740365/spotlight-on-ceritinib-in-the-treatment-of-alk-nsclc-design-development-and-place-in-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Mariacarmela Santarpia, Maria Grazia Daffinà, Alessandro D'Aveni, Grazia Marabello, Alessia Liguori, Elisa Giovannetti, Niki Karachaliou, Maria Gonzalez Cao, Rafael Rosell, Giuseppe Altavilla
The identification of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has radically changed the treatment of a subset of patients harboring this oncogenic driver. Crizotinib was the first ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor to receive fast approval and is currently indicated as the first-line therapy for advanced, ALK-positive NSCLC patients. However, despite crizotinib's efficacy, patients almost invariably progress, with the central nervous system being one of the most common sites of relapse...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739680/bdnf-an-oncogene-or-tumor-suppressor
#13
REVIEW
Daniel P Radin, Parth Patel
Neurotrophins are a family of growth factors that are vital to the proper development of the central nervous system. Their effects on cells are governed by the expression and activation of the tyrosine kinase receptors TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. TrkB has been immensely implicated in mediating neuronal migration, development and differentiation. It has also been shown to protect several neuronal cell types from an array of cytotoxic stressors after activation by its conjugate ligand brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736348/pathological-progression-possible-origin-and-management-of-multiple-primary-intracranial-neuroendocrine-carcinomas-a-case-report
#14
Jingwei Cao, Wenzhe Xu, Zhenhui Du, Bin Sun, Feng Li, Yuguang Liu
BACKGROUND: Primary intracranial neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are extremely rare malignant tumors with no previous reports of multiple ones in the literatures. CASE DESCRIPTION: The clinical presentation, preoperative and reexamined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, as well as the histopathological studies of a 56-year-old female subject with multiple intracranial NECs mimicking multiple intracranial meningiomas, who underwent three operations with left parietal craniotomy, right occipital parietal craniotomy, and left frontal craniotomy, separately and chronologically are presented in this article...
July 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734793/hardware-failure-in-patients-with-metastatic-cancer-to-the-spine
#15
Rachel Pedreira, Nancy Abu-Bonsrah, A Karim Ahmed, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, C Rory Goodwin, Ziya L Gokaslan, Justin Sacks, Daniel M Sciubba
BACKGROUND: The spine is the most common site of skeletal metastases, affecting approximately 30% of individuals with cancer. The aim of surgical treatment for metastatic spine disease is generally palliative to address pain and/or neurologic compromise, significantly improving patients' quality of life. Patients with metastatic spine disease, however, represent a vulnerable cohort and may have comorbidities or previous treatments that impair the structural integrity of spinal hardware...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730266/-malignant-melanoma-current-status
#16
REVIEW
J K Winkler, K Buder-Bakhaya, A Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A Enk, J C Hassel
CLINICAL ISSUE: The incidence of malignant melanoma is continuously increasing. The prognosis of metastatic disease is still limited. STANDARD TREATMENT: Until a few years ago palliative chemotherapy with a limited response rate was the standard treatment for metastatic melanoma. TREATMENT INNOVATIONS: Immunotherapy and targeted therapy provide new treatment options. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved the prognosis. DIAGNOSTIC WORK-UP: Regional lymph node sonography, computed tomography (CT) of the neck, chest and abdomen and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used...
July 20, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729151/standard-dose-pembrolizumab-in-combination-with-reduced-dose-ipilimumab-for-patients-with-advanced-melanoma-keynote-029-an-open-label-phase-1b-trial
#17
Georgina V Long, Victoria Atkinson, Jonathan S Cebon, Michael B Jameson, Bernie M Fitzharris, Catriona M McNeil, Andrew G Hill, Antoni Ribas, Michael B Atkins, John A Thompson, Wen-Jen Hwu, F Stephen Hodi, Alexander M Menzies, Alexander D Guminski, Richard Kefford, Benjamin Y Kong, Babak Tamjid, Archana Srivastava, Anna J Lomax, Mohammed Islam, Xinxin Shu, Scot Ebbinghaus, Nageatte Ibrahim, Matteo S Carlino
BACKGROUND: Reduced-dose nivolumab in combination with standard-dose ipilimumab improves objective response and progression-free survival compared with standard-dose ipilimumab alone, but increases toxicity. We assessed the safety and anti-tumour activity of standard-dose pembrolizumab in combination with reduced-dose ipilimumab. METHODS: In this open-label, phase 1b trial, we recruited patients from 12 medical centres in Australia, New Zealand, and the USA. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years, had advanced melanoma, had an Eastern Coooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, had measurable disease according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1...
July 17, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729027/micrornas-as-multifaceted-players-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#18
Neri Mercatelli, Silvia Galardi, Silvia Anna Ciafrè
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and inevitably lethal primary brain tumor, with a median survival rate of only 15 months from diagnosis. The current standard treatment involves maximal surgical resection flanked by radiotherapy and chemotherapy with the alkylating agent temozolomide. However, even such aggressive treatment is never curative, and recurrent tumors always arise, commonly in more aggressive, chemo- and radio-resistant forms, leading to untreatable and deadly tumors. MicroRNAs, recognized major players in cancer, are deeply involved in GBM, as shown by more than a decade of studies...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723673/energy-metabolism-in-glioblastoma-stem-cells-ppar%C3%AE-a-metabolic-adaptor-to-intratumoral-microenvironment
#19
Alessia Fidoamore, Loredana Cristiano, Chiara Laezza, Renato Galzio, Elisabetta Benedetti, Benedetta Cinque, Andrea Antonosante, Michele d'Angelo, Vanessa Castelli, Maria Grazia Cifone, Rodolfo Ippoliti, Antonio Giordano, Annamaria Cimini
Glioblastoma (GB), the most-common cancer in the adult brain, despite surgery and radio/ chemotherapy, is to date almost incurable. Many hypoxic tumors, including GB, show metabolic reprogramming to sustain uncontrolled proliferation, hypoxic conditions and angiogenesis. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors (PPAR), particularly the α isotype, have been involved in the control of energetic metabolism. Herein, we characterized patient-derived GB neurospheres focusing on their energetic metabolism and PPARα expression...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723281/imaging-correlates-of-adult-glioma-genotypes
#20
REVIEW
Marion Smits, Martin J van den Bent
Primary brain tumors, most commonly gliomas, are histopathologically typed and graded as World Health Organization (WHO) grades I-IV according to increasing degrees of malignancy. These grades provide prognostic information and guidance on treatment such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy after surgery. Despite the confirmed value of the WHO grading system, results of a multitude of studies and prospective interventional trials now indicate that tumors with identical morphologic criteria can have highly different outcomes...
August 2017: Radiology
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