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Brain tumor chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915584/a-phase-1-dose-escalation-study-of-the-oral-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-abexinostat-in-combination-with-standard-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-in-advanced-solid-tumors
#1
Eric Deutsch, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan Moyal, Vanesa Gregorc, Paolo Andrea Zucali, Jean Menard, Jean-Charles Soria, Ioana Kloos, Jeff Hsu, Ying Luan, Emily Liu, Remus Vezan, Thorsten Graef, Sofia Rivera
Current treatments for advanced solid tumors tend to be only palliative. Although radiotherapy is administered with a curative intent, radioresistance and dose-limiting toxicities pose limitations to treatment. Abexinostat, an oral pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to radiation in various solid tumor cell lines. We conducted an exploratory, phase 1, dose-escalation study of abexinostat in combination with standard hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumors treated in a palliative setting...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906259/radiation-and-immunotherapy-in-high-grade-gliomas-where-do-we-stand
#2
Elizabeth Reznik, Andrew W Smith, Shoshana Taube, Justin Mann, Menachem Z Yondorf, Bhupesh Parashar, A Gabriella Wernicke
High-grade glioma is the most common primary brain tumor, with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounting for 52% of all brain tumors. The current standard of care (SOC) of GBM involves surgery followed by adjuvant fractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, little progress has been made in extending overall survival, progression-free survival, and quality of life. Attempts to characterize and customize treatment of GBM have led to mitigating the deleterious effects of radiotherapy using hypofractionated radiotherapy, as well as various immunotherapies as a promising strategy for the incurable disease...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891980/sinomenine-hydrochloride-inhibits-human-glioblastoma-cell-growth-through-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-autophagy-lysosome-pathway-activation-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#3
Yumao Jiang, Yue Jiao, Zhiguo Wang, Tao Li, Yang Liu, Yujuan Li, Xiaoliang Zhao, Danqiao Wang
Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor, and it is one of the causes of cancer fatality in both adult and pediatric populations. Patients with glioblastoma require chemotherapy after surgical resection and radiotherapy. Therefore, chemotherapy constitutes a viable approach for the eradication of glioblastoma cells. In this study, the anti-tumor activity of sinomenine hydrochloride (SH) was evaluated in U87 and SF767 cells in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that SH potently inhibited U87 and SF767 cell viability and did not cause caspase-dependent cell death, as demonstrated by the absence of significant early apoptosis and caspase-3 cleavage...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884561/tanycytic-ependymoma-of-the-brain-stem-presentations-of-rare-cystic-disease-variants-and-review-of-literature
#4
Ekkehard M Kasper, Franziska M Ippen, Georgios A Maragkos, Matthew P Anderson, Rafael Rojas, Anand Mahadevan
BACKGROUND: Tanycytic ependymoma is a rare variant of ependymoma and management guidelines for patients with this disease are not established. METHODS: We performed a systematic search on Pubmed complimented by hand- searching citation lists to identify patients with pathologically confirmed tanycytic ependymoma. Signs and symptoms, radiological and specific pathological findings as well as reported treatment modalities and outcomes were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: 51 studies involving a total of 77 patients were identified and included in this review...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882604/-contribution-of-temozolomide-chemotherapy-for-intramedullary-grade-ii-spinal-cord-astrocytomas-in-adults-our-experience
#5
E Chaskis, V Minichini, S Luce, D Devriendt, S Goldman, O De Witte, N Sadeghi, F Lefranc
INTRODUCTION: Grade II intramedullary astrocytomas are rare tumors. Despite a well-defined role of adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for brain gliomas, the contribution of this therapy for intramedullary gliomas is not yet clearly defined. METHOD: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 5 adult patients treated with temozolomide between 2008 and 2015 for a grade II intramedullary astrocytoma with progression after surgery. RESULTS: Five patients from 19 to 70 years of age (median, 37years) underwent a second surgery for the progression of a grade II intramedullary astrocytoma (median progression-free survival 26months [8-90])...
September 4, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881745/whole-tumor-rna-sequencing-and-deconvolution-reveal-a-clinically-prognostic-pten-pi3k-regulated-glioma-transcriptional-signature
#6
Yuan Pan, Erin C Bush, Joseph A Toonen, Yu Ma, Anne C Solga, Peter A Sims, David H Gutmann
The concept that solid tumors are maintained by a productive interplay between neoplastic and non-neoplastic elements has gained traction with the demonstration that stromal fibroblasts and immune system cells dictate cancer development and progression. While less studied, brain tumor (glioma) biology is likewise influenced by non-neoplastic immune system cells (macrophages and microglia) which interact with neoplastic glioma cells to create a unique physiological state (glioma ecosystem) distinct from that found in the normal tissue...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881488/case-series-of-pleomorphic-carcinomas-of-the-lung-treated-with-nivolumab
#7
Masaki Kanazu, Takeshi Uenami, Yukihiro Yano, Saeko Nakatsubo, Yuki Hosono, Mikako Ishijima, Yuki Akazawa, Toshihiko Yamaguchi, Koji Urasaki, Masahide Mori, Soichiro Yokota
Pleomorphic carcinoma (PC) of the lung is a rare type of non-small cell lung cancer, exhibiting aggressive behavior and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A previous study reported that PCs expressed high levels of PD-L1, suggesting the potential efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in these tumors. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of three patients with PC of the lung treated with nivolumab: a 59-year-old woman (Case 1), a 66-year-old man (Case 2), and an 83-year-old man (Case 3)...
September 7, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879167/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-irradiation-and-axitinib-have-diverse-effects-on-motility-and-proliferation-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-cells
#8
Reinhardt Krcek, Veronika Matschke, Verena Theis, Irenäus Anton Adamietz, Helmut Bühler, Carsten Theiss
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor. It is highly aggressive with an unfavorable prognosis for the patients despite therapies including surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy. One important characteristic of highly vascularized GBM is the strong expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF has become a new target in the treatment of GBM, and targeted therapies such as the VEGF-receptor blocker axitinib are in clinical trials. Most studies focus on VEGF-induced angiogenesis, but only very few investigations analyze autocrine or paracrine effects of VEGF on the tumor cells...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878657/targeted-approaches-applied-to-uncommon-diseases-a-case-of-salivary-duct-carcinoma-metastatic-to-the-brain-treated-with-the-multikinase-inhibitor-neratinib
#9
Karl R Sorenson, Guilherme Piovezani Ramos, Jose Caetano Villasboas Bisneto, Katharine Price
Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare malignancy associated with hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression. Local surgical control is the cornerstone of therapy, but a subset of patients develops metastatic disease portending a poor prognosis and limited management options. Intracranial metastases are an uncommon manifestation and present a therapeutic challenge. We report the case of a 31-year-old male who presented with facial pain and swelling subsequently diagnosed with salivary duct carcinoma...
May 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877739/estrogen-and-soy-isoflavonoids-decrease-sensitivity-of-medulloblastoma-and-central-nervous-system-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-cells-to-chemotherapeutic-cytotoxicity
#10
Scott M Belcher, Caleb C Burton, Clifford J Cookman, Michelle Kirby, Gabriel L Miranda, Fatima O Saeed, Kathleen E Wray
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies demonstrated that growth and migration of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant brain tumor in children, are stimulated by 17β-estradiol. The growth stimulating effects of estrogens are mediated through ERβ and insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling to inhibit caspase 3 activity and reduce tumor cell apoptosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether estrogens decreased sensitivity of MB cells to cytotoxic actions of chemotherapeutic drugs...
September 6, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875440/targeting-brain-tumors-by-intra-arterial-delivery-of-cell-penetrating-peptides-a-novel-approach-for-primary-and-metastatic-brain-malignancy
#11
Shailendra Joshi, Johann R N Cooke, Jason A Ellis, Charles W Emala, Jeffrey N Bruce
Computational modeling shows that intra-arterial delivery is most efficient when the delivered drugs rapidly and avidly bind to the target site. The cell-penetrating peptide trans-activator of transcription (TAT) is a candidate carrier molecule that could mediate such specificity for brain tumor chemotherapeutics. To test this hypothesis we first performed in vitro studies testing the uptake of TAT by one primary and three potentially metastatic brain cancer cell lines (9L, 4T-1, LLC, SKOV-3). Then we performed in vivo studies in a rat model where TAT was delivered either intra-arterially (IA) or intravenously (IV) to 9L brain tumors...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868193/cervical-cancer-metastasis-to-the-brain-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#12
REVIEW
Kaleigh Fetcko, Dibson D Gondim, Jose M Bonnin, Mahua Dey
BACKGROUND: Intracranial metastasis from cervical cancer is a rare occurrence. METHODS: In this study we describe a case of cervical cancer metastasis to the brain and perform an extensive review of literature from 1956 to 2016, to characterize clearly the clinical presentation, treatment options, molecular markers, targeted therapies, and survival of patients with this condition. RESULTS: An elderly woman with history of cervical cancer in remission, presented 2 years later with a right temporo-parietal tumor, which was treated with surgery and subsequent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the resection cavity...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867360/the-use-of-tmz-embedded-hydrogels-for-the-treatment-of-orthotopic-human-glioma-xenografts
#13
Bandita Adhikari, Jie Li, Michael G Brandel, Diahnn Futalan, Johnny Akers, Timothy Deming, Clark C Chen, Bob S Carter
The current treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is limited by the restricted arsenal of agents which effectively cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). For example, only a fraction of temozolomide (TMZ) administered systemically is available for therapeutic effect because of the BBB and the instability of TMZ under physiologic conditions. A novel approach to overcome this obstacle is to bypass the BBB and locally deliver chemotherapeutic agents directly to the tumor mass. We have explored the loading of TMZ into a novel hydrogel matrix, which can be delivered in liquid form and then solidifies in situ and releases chemotherapy as the matrix dissolves...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864225/rna-interference-for-glioblastoma-therapy-innovation-ladder-from-the-bench-to-clinical-trials
#14
REVIEW
Eunice L Lozada-Delgado, Nilmary Grafals-Ruiz, Pablo E Vivas-Mejía
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest type of primary brain tumor with a prognosis of 14months after diagnosis. Current treatment for GBM patients includes "total" tumor resection, temozolomide-based chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination of these options. Although, several targeted therapies, gene therapy, and immunotherapy are currently in the clinic and/or in clinical trials, the overall survival of GBM patients has hardly improved over the last two decades. Therefore, novel multitarget modalities are urgently needed...
August 29, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863455/characterization-of-2-novel-ependymoma-cell-lines-with-chromosome-1q-gain-derived-from-posterior-fossa-tumors-of-childhood
#15
Vladimir Amani, Andrew M Donson, Seth C Lummus, Eric W Prince, Andrea M Griesinger, Davis A Witt, Todd C Hankinson, Michael H Handler, Kathleen Dorris, Rajeev Vibhakar, Nicholas K Foreman, Lindsey M Hoffman
Ependymoma (EPN) is a common brain tumor of childhood that, despite standard surgery and radiation therapy, has a relapse rate of 50%. Clinical trials have been unsuccessful in improving outcome by addition of chemotherapy, and identification of novel therapeutics has been hampered by a lack of in vitro and in vivo models. We describe 2 unique EPN cell lines (811 and 928) derived from recurrent intracranial metastases. Both cell lines harbor the high-risk chromosome 1q gain (1q+) and a derivative chromosome 6, and both are classified as molecular group A according to transcriptomic analysis...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861994/on-demand-drug-release-from-dual-targeting-small-nanoparticles-triggered-by-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-enhanced-glioblastoma-targeting-therapy
#16
Zimiao Luo, Kai Jin, Qiang Pang, Shun Shen, Zhiqiang Yan, Ting Jiang, Xiaoyan Zhu, Lei Yu, Zhiqing Pang, Xinguo Jiang
Glioblastoma is one of the most challenging and intractable tumors with the difficult treatment and poor prognosis. Unsatisfactory traditional systemic chemotherapies for glioblastoma are mainly attributed to the insufficient and nonspecific drug delivery into the brain tumors as well as the incomplete drug release at the tumor sites. Inspired by the facts that angiopep-2 peptide is an acknowledged dual-targeting moiety for brain tumor-targeting delivery and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an ideal trigger for drug release with an ultrahigh energy and millimeter-sized focus ability, in the present study, a novel HIFU-responsive angiopep-2-modified small poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) hybrid nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery system holding doxorubicin/perfluorooctyl bromide (ANP-D/P) was designed to increase the intratumoral drug accumulation, further trigger on-demand drug release at the glioblastoma sites, and enhance glioblastoma therapy...
September 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860444/-nearly-complete-response-after-second-line-therapy-with-nab-paclitaxel-monotherapy-in-a-patient-with-recurrent-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Masamitsu Shimizu, Toshimichi Miya, Akihiko Takahashi, Yumiko Kobayashi, Kaoru Kubota, Akihiko Gemma, Takashi Hirose
A 62-year-old woman was diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. After resection of a metastatic brain tumor, she had received first-line chemotherapy consisting of 6 courses of carboplatin and pemetrexed, then 14 courses of maintenance therapy of pemetrexed until disease progression. As second-line treatment, she was administered nanoparticle albuminbound paclitaxel(nab-paclitaxel)monotherapy. A nearly complete response(nearly CR)has been maintained for 3 years without any severe adverse events. Although there is insufficient evidence for the use of nab-paclitaxel monotherapy as second-line chemotherapy, it could be an effective treatment option for patients with recurrent advanced non-small cell lung cancer...
August 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856088/syndrome-of-inappropriate-secretion-of-anti-diuretic-hormone-siadh-as-an-initial-presenting-sign-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Praneet Iyer, Mohammad Ibrahim, Waqas Siddiqui, Ahmed Dirweesh
Association of SIADH with malignancy was first reported in 1957, when it was described in two patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. While the association with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is well known, that with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been rarely reported. We report a case of 70 year old male who was found to have hyponatremia secondary to SIADH. Radiological tests revealed right hilar lung mass with mediastinal adenopathy. Bronchoscopic biopsy revealed non-small cell lung cancer of type squamous cell...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844078/long-term-effects-of-radiation-therapy-on-white-matter-of-the-corpus-callosum-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-children
#19
Monwabisi Makola, M Douglas Ris, E Mark Mahone, Keith Owen Yeates, Kim M Cecil
BACKGROUND: Despite improving survival rates, children are at risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral difficulties following the diagnosis and treatment of a brain tumor. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy have all been shown to impact the developing brain, especially the white matter. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of radiation therapy on white matter integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging, in pediatric brain tumor patients 2 years after the end of radiation treatment, while controlling for surgical interventions...
August 26, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843258/cd24-and-nanog-expression-in-stem-cells-in-glioblastoma-correlation-with-response-to-chemoradiation-and-overall-survival
#20
Priyanka Soni, Sumaira Qayoom, Nuzhat Husain, Praveen Kumar, Anil Chandra, Bal Krishan Ojha, Rakesh Kumar Gupta
Background and aim: Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most common and aggressive brain tumors with a median survival of 12-14 months. The aim of present study was to evaluate the gene expression profile of stem cell markers Nanog and CD24 in GBM and to determine its relationship to outcome in terms of treatment response and overall survival. Material and methods: This was a retrospective as well as retrospective study which included 51 histologically confirmed cases of GBM. Expression of CD24, and Nanog was evaluated by RT-PCR...
August 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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