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Brain tumor chemotherapy

Nicholas F Brown, Thomas Carter, Paul Mulholland
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare brain tumor. Anaplastic features are found in 20-30% of cases of PXA and are associated with poor outcomes. Typical treatment is with gross total resection, followed by radiation therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy at relapse. BRAFV600 mutations have been identified in 38-60% of patients with PXA. Several case reports and small case series have identified clinical benefit with BRAF inhibition in patients with BRAFV600-mutated PXA. We report the second published case of successful treatment with the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib in a female patient with relapsed anaplastic PXA with a BRAFV600 mutation, and the first published case of dabrafinib treatment following intolerance to vemurafenib...
October 26, 2016: CNS Oncology
Eva Vidomanova, Peter Racay, Ivana Pilchova, Erika Halasova, Jozef Hatok
Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent and biologically the most aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Standard treatment for newly diagnosed GB consists of surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Resistance to therapy is a major obstacle, even with optimal treatment with a survival median of only 12-15 months. The heterogeneity and treatment response of GB makes this tumor type a challenging area of research. The aim of our study was to study the response of normal human astrocyte (HA) and human GB (T98G) cell lines to apoptosis inhibitors in vitro...
October 21, 2016: Oncology Reports
David R Raleigh, Bryan Tomlin, Benedict Del Buono, Erika Roddy, Katherine Sear, Lennox Byer, Erin Felton, Anu Banerjee, Joseph Torkildson, David Samuel, Biljana Horn, Steve E Braunstein, Daphne A Haas-Kogan, Sabine Mueller
Pediatric embryonal brain tumor patients treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) are at risk for adverse effects, with greater severity in younger patients. Here we compare outcomes of CSI vs. high-dose chemotherapy (HD), stem cell transplant (SCT) and delayed CSI in newly diagnosed patients. Two hundred one consecutive patients treated for medulloblastoma (72 %), supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET; 18 %) or pineoblastoma (10 %) at two institutions between 1988 and 2014 were retrospectively identified...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
N Garg, D Bakhshinyan, C Venugopal, S Mahendram, D A Rosa, T Vijayakumar, B Manoranjan, R Hallett, N McFarlane, K H Delaney, J M Kwiecien, C C Arpin, P-S Lai, R F Gómez-Biagi, A M Ali, E D de Araujo, O A Ajani, J A Hassell, P T Gunning, S K Singh
Medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant paediatric brain tumor, is currently treated using a combination of surgery, craniospinal radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Owing to MB stem cells (MBSCs), a subset of MB patients remains untreatable despite standard therapy. CD133 is used to identify MBSCs although its functional role in tumorigenesis has yet to be determined. In this work, we showed enrichment of CD133 in Group 3 MB is associated with increased rate of metastasis and poor clinical outcome. The signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) pathway are selectively activated in CD133(+) MBSCs and promote tumorigenesis through regulation of c-MYC, a key genetic driver of Group 3 MB...
October 24, 2016: Oncogene
Himanshi Kapoor, Nalini Yadav, Madhu Chopra, Sushil Chandra Mahapatra, Veena Agrawal
Glioblastoma has been reckoned as the prime cause of death due to brain tumours, being most invasive and lethal. Available treatment options, i.e. surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapies are not effective in improving prognosis, so an alternate therapy is insistent. Plant based drugs are efficient due to their synergistic action, multi-targeted approach and least side effects. Present investigation reports the strong anti-tumorous potential of Nardostachys jatamansi rhizome extract (NJRE) on U87 MG glioblastoma cells...
October 19, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Neil M D'Souza, Penny Fang, Jennifer Logan, Jinzhong Yang, Wen Jiang, Jing Li
Malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly glioblastoma and brain metastases from a variety of disease sites, are difficult to treat despite advances in multimodality approaches consisting of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy (RT). Recent successes of immunotherapeutic strategies including immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) via anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies against aggressive cancers, such as melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma, have presented an exciting opportunity to translate these strategies for CNS malignancies...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
S Boissonneau, L-M Terrier, S De La Rosa Morilla, L Troude, J P Lavieille, P-H Roche
BACKGROUND: Gangliogliomas are rare tumors of the central nervous system. We report two unusual cases of gangliogliomas located in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). POPULATION AND METHODS: The first patient was a 57-year-old woman, who presented with dizziness and harbored a non-enhanced heterogeneous mass located in the cisternal space of the CPA. A partial microsurgical removal was performed, and the pathological examination concluded a grade I ganglioglioma according to the WHO Classification...
October 19, 2016: Neuro-Chirurgie
Touria Derkaoui, Joaira Bakkach, Mohamed Mansouri, Ali Loudiyi, Mohamed Fihri, Fatima Zahra Alaoui, Amina Barakat, Bouchra El Yemlahi, Hassan Bihri, Naima Ghailani Nourouti, Mohcine Bennani Mechita
BACKGROUND: Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is defined by a lack of estrogen and progesterone receptor gene expression and by the absence of overexpression on HER2. It is associated to a poor prognosis. We propose to analyze the clinicopathologic and prognostic characteristics of this breast cancer subtype in a Mediterranean population originated or resident in the North of Morocco. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 279 patients diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2010 and January 2015...
October 22, 2016: BMC Women's Health
Medine Cumhur Cüre, Erkan Cüre, Yıldıray Kalkan, Aynur Kırbaş, Levent Tümkaya, Arif Yılmaz, Ayşegül Küçükali Türkyılmaz, İbrahim Şehitoğlu, Süleyman Yüce
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin (Cis) is one of the most commonly used antineoplastic drugs. It is used as chemotherapy for many solid organ malignancies such as brain, neck, male and female urogenital, vesical and pulmonary cancers. Infliximab blocks tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Several studies have reported that infliximab ameliorates cell damage by reducing cytokine levels. AIMS: We aimed to investigate whether infliximab has a preventive effect against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and whether it has a synergistic effect when combined with Cis...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Yukio Maezawa, Tsutomu Sato, Kazuki Kano, Kenki Segami, Tetsushi Nakajima, Taiichi Kawabe, Junya Shirai, Hiroto Fujikawa, Toru Aoyama, Tsutomu Hayashi, Kousuke Ikeda, Takanobu Yamada, Satoshi Tsuchida, Naoto Yamamoto, Takashi Ohshima, Yasushi Rino, Munetaka Masuda, Takashi Ogata, Haruhiko Cho, Takaki Yoshikawa
A30 -year-old woman underwent total gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection after being diagnosed with clinical T3, N2, M0, Stage III B gastric cancer. The postoperative pathological findings revealed a T3(SE), N2, M0, Stage III B tumor. Headache, dizziness, and vomiting occurred during chemotherapy for peritoneal recurrence, using weekly paclitaxel on days 1, 8, and 15. Head CT showed a solitary tumor with a diameter of 28mm in the cerebellum, as well as cerebellar swelling and hydrocephalus. She underwent an emergency craniotomy and tumor enucleation...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
J H Liang, Y Cheng, X Deng, Y Y Yu, X X Li
: Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of large spot indirect ophthalmoscopy laser alone or combined with systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of early and middle stage retinoblastoma. Methods: Retrospective series case study. Clinical data of 21 patients (22 eyes) who were diagnosed as retinoblastoma (RB) in Peking University People's Hospital from March 2009 to August 2014 were collected. Medical and family history, ocular ultrasound, orbital and cranial MRI or CT examination of RB Children were detailed recorded...
October 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Nathan B Roberts, Aniket S Wadajkar, Jeffrey A Winkles, Eduardo Davila, Anthony J Kim, Graeme F Woodworth
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a fatal brain cancer for which new treatment options are sorely needed. Platinum-based drugs have been investigated extensively for GBM treatment but few have shown significant efficacy without major central nervous system (CNS) and systemic toxicities. The relative success of platinum drugs for treatment of non-CNS cancers indicates great therapeutic potential when effectively delivered to the tumor region(s). New insights into the broad anticancer effects of platinum drugs, particularly immunomodulatory effects, and innovative delivery strategies that can maximize these multi-modal effects and minimize toxicities may promote the re-purposing of this chemotherapeutic drug class for GBM treatment...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Andreas Maus, Godefridus J Peters
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common type of primary brain tumor. It has a devastating prognosis with a 2-year-overall survival rate of only 26 % after standard treatment, which includes surgery, radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Also lower grade gliomas are difficult to treat, because they diffusely spread into the brain, where extensive removal of tissue is critical. Better understanding of the cancer's biology is a key for the development of more effective therapy approaches...
October 17, 2016: Amino Acids
Le Xie, Guang-Hong Xiang, Tao Tang, Yan Tang, Ling-Yun Zhao, Dong Liu, You-Ren Zhang, Jin-Tian Tang, Shen Zhou, Da-Hua Wu
Human glioma is the most common type of primary brain tumor and one of the most invasive and aggressive tumors, which, even with treatments including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, often relapses and exhibits resistance to conventional treatment methods. Developing novel strategies to control human glioma is, therefore, an important research focus. The present study investigated the mechanism of apoptosis induction in U251 human glioma cells by capsaicin (Cap) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), the major pungent ingredients of red chili pepper, using the Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay, transmission electron microscopy analysis, flow cytometry analysis, laser scanning confocal microscope analysis and immunohistochemical staining...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Masakuni Sakaguchi, Toshiya Maebayashi, Takuya Aizawa, Naoya Ishibashi, Tsutomu Saito
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is indicated for limited disease (LD) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients who achieve a complete or near-complete response; however, it is sometimes not administered because of possible adverse reactions or patient refusal. Here we assessed treatment outcomes among patients with SCLC who were not treated with PCI. METHODS: The medical records of 60 patients (45 men, 15 women; mean age, 68 years; age range, 51-82 years) with SCLC were retrospectively reviewed...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Sheldon Greer, Tieran Han, Cristina Dieguez, Nicola McLean, Rafael Saer, Isildinha Reis, Joe Levi, Victor E Marquez
Enzymatic activity from tumor and adjacent normal tissue of 200 patients involving deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), uridine/cytidine kinase (U/CK), cytidine deaminase (CD) and deoxycytidylate deaminase (dCMPD) was quantified. . Patients with brain (17), colon (24), and breast (30) tumors, 53, 67, and 73%, respectively, had an elevated T/N value (Specific Activity of tumor/ Specific Activity of normal tissue) involving dCK and dCMPD suggesting chemo therapy with 5-fluorodeoxycytidine (5-FdC) alone or in combination with thymidine plus deoxytetrahydrouridine, or with the radiosensitizer, 5-chlorodeoxycytidine (5-CldC) plus tetrahydrouridine (H4U)...
October 13, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Juyoung Park, Muna Aryal, Natalia Vykhodtseva, Yong-Zhi Zhang, Nathan McDannold
Drug delivery in brain tumors is challenging because of the presence of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-tumor barrier (BTB). Focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with microbubbles can enhance the permeability of the BTB in brain tumors, as well as disrupting the BBB in the surrounding tissue. In this study, dynamic contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) was used to characterize FUS-induced permeability changes in a rat glioma model and in the normal brain and to investigate the relationship between these changes and the resulting concentration of the chemotherapy agent doxorubicin (DOX)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Chuanbao Zhang, Jiye Li, Haoyuan Wang, Sonya Wei Song
High grade gliomas contribute to most brain tumor mortality. A few studies reported that the immune system affected glioma development, and immune biomarkers helped understand the disease and formulate effective immunotherapy for patients. Currently, no B lymphocyte-based prognostic signature was reported in gliomas. By applying 78 B cell lineage-specific genes, we conducted a whole-genome gene expression analysis in 782 high grade gliomas derived from three independent datasets by Cox regression analysis and risk score method for signature identification, and then used Gene Ontology, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, and other statistical methods for functional annotations of the signature-defined differences...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Didier Frappaz, Alexandre Vasiljevic, Pierre-Aurelien Beuriat, Claire Alapetite, Jacques Grill, Alexandru Szathmari, Cécile Faure-Conter
Ependymomas represent 10% of pediatric brain tumors. In the recent WHO 2016 classification, pathology is enriched by localization and molecular biology. Whatever the age, total removal by one or several looks when required remains a major prognostic factor. In children, focal radiation remains a standard, while the role of chemotherapy is matter of randomized studies. In infants, front line chemotherapy is the standard. Inclusion in the SIOP ependymoma II protocol is encouraged. In case of relapse, further surgery and radiation are advised, while inclusion in innovative trials including re-irradiation, and phase I-II should be encouraged...
October 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
Norman C Charles, Carisa K Petris, Eleanore T Kim
The authors describe an esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma) that occurred within the nasal cavity and brain in a 31-year-old man. Following excision, the tumor recurred in the left orbit and in mediastinal lymph nodes. Treatment included orbital excision and systemic chemotherapy. Histopathology showed a high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with positive immunohistochemical markers for neuroendocrine and epithelial components, an unusual combination raising issues concerning taxonomy.
August 12, 2016: Orbit
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