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Brain tumor chemotherapy

Cornelia Nitipir, Octav Ginghina, Liliana Popa, Florin Andrei, Nicolaie Tudor, Irina Radu, Cristian Iaciu, Cristina Orlov, Florina Vasilescu, Cristian Balalau, Grigoris Leon, Carolina Negrei, Maria Alexandra Barbu
Although gastric metastases have been estimated to occur in less than 2% of cancer patients, an increased use of upper digestive tract endoscopy allows for a higher detection of secondary gastric tumors. We describe the case of a 66-year-old male patient presenting with mild pain in the sternum and upper abdominal area. Physical examination revealed a right parietal skull tumor, with no other significant clinical changes. Upon exclusion of an acute coronary syndrome, upper digestive tract endoscopy was performed, showing the presence of an ulcerated tumor located in the gastric fundus...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Dong-Dong Shi, Celia M Dong, Leon C Ho, C T W Lam, Xi-Dan Zhou, Ed X Wu, Zhong-Jun Zhou, Xiao-Min Wang, Zhang-Jin Zhang
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, also known as "chemobrain," is a common side effect. The purpose of this study was to examine whether resveratrol, a natural polyphenol that has nootropic effects, could prevent chemobrain and its underlying mechanisms. Mice received three injections of docetaxel, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (DAC) in combination, a common chemotherapy regimen, at two-day intervals within one week. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg per day) was orally administered for three weeks, beginning one week before the DAC treatment...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Faisal S Ali, Maryam R Hussain, Carolina Gutiérrez, Petya Demireva, Leomar Y Ballester, Jiguang-Jay Zhu, Angel Blanco, Yoshua Esquenazi
Cognitive dysfunction is common among patients with intracranial tumors. Most cognitive deficits are subtle, lack specificity, may mimic depression or other neurological disorders and may be recognized in retrospect by the physician. In certain cases, distinguishing between tumor recurrence and cognitive deficits that arise as a consequence of the treatment becomes challenging. Late treatment effects have also become an area of focus as the overall survival and prognosis of patients with brain tumors increases...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Tia H Turner, Mohammad A Alzubi, Sahib S Sohal, Amy L Olex, Mikhail G Dozmorov, J Chuck Harrell
PURPOSE: Basal-like breast cancers are aggressive and often metastasize to vital organs. Treatment is largely limited to chemotherapy. This study aims to characterize the efficacy of cancer therapeutics in vitro and in vivo within the primary tumor and metastatic setting, using patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. METHODS: We employed two basal-like, triple-negative PDX models, WHIM2 and WHIM30. PDX cells, obtained from mammary tumors grown in mice, were treated with twelve cancer therapeutics to evaluate their cytotoxicity in vitro...
March 12, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Ornella Franzese, Fiorenzo Battaini, Grazia Graziani, Lucio Tentori, Maria Luisa Barbaccia, Angelo Aquino, Mario Roselli, Maria Pia Fuggetta, Enzo Bonmassar, Francesco Torino
In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICpI) have provided the ground to bring tumor immunity back to life thanks to their capacity to afford a real clinical benefit in terms of patient's survival. Essential to ICpI success is the presence of tumor-associated neoantigens generated by non-synonymous mutations, since a direct relationship between mutation load of malignant cells and susceptibility to ICpI has been confidently established. However, it has been also suggested that high intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) associated with subclonal neoantigens could not elicit adequate immune responses...
March 9, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Veronica L Cox, Anas A Saeed Bamashmos, Wai Chin Foo, Shiva Gupta, Sireesha Yedururi, Naveen Garg, Hyunseon Christine Kang
Lynch syndrome is the most common hereditary cancer syndrome, the most common cause of heritable colorectal cancer, and the only known heritable cause of endometrial cancer. Other cancers associated with Lynch syndrome include cancers of the ovary, stomach, urothelial tract, and small bowel, and less frequently, cancers of the brain, biliary tract, pancreas, and prostate. The oncogenic tendency of Lynch syndrome stems from a set of genomic alterations of mismatch repair proteins. Defunct mismatch repair proteins cause unusually high instability of regions of the genome called microsatellites...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Avi Ben-Haroush, Irit Ben-Aharon, Yechezkel Lande, Benjamin Fisch
BACKGROUND: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) followed by oocyte retrieval is a leading option for fertility preservation before chemotherapy, yet this procedure causes excessive serum levels of estradiol (E2), which are often detrimental for cancer patients. Aromatase inhibitors are often used in breast cancer patients during COH to prevent elevated levels of E2. OBJECTIVES: To describe our experience with COH for oocyte cryopreservation in non-breast cancer patients using aromatase inhibitors...
March 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Darya Alizadeh, Ethan E White, Teresa C Sanchez, Shunan Liu, Leying Zhang, Behnam Badie, Jacob M Berlin
Even when treated with aggressive current therapies, patients with glioblastoma usually survive less than two years and exhibit a high rate of recurrence. CpG is an oligonucleotide that activates the innate immune system via TLR9 activation. Injection of CpG into glioblastoma tumors showed promise as an immunotherapy in mouse models but proved disappointing in human trials. One aspect of glioma that is not addressed by CpG therapy alone is the highly invasive nature of glioma cells, which is associated with resistance to radiation and chemotherapy...
March 10, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Luisa Iacovelli, Rosamaria Orlando, Alessandro Rossi, Paola Spinsanti, Daniela Melchiorri, Ferdinando Nicoletti
In spite of the recent advancement in the molecular characterization of malignant gliomas and medulloblastomas, the treatment of primary brain tumors remains suboptimal. The use of small molecule inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways, inhibitors of angiogenesis, and immunotherapic agents is limited by systemic adverse effects, limited brain penetration, and, in some cases, lack of efficacy. Thus, adjuvant chemo-therapy and radiotherapy still remain the gold standard in the treatment of grade-IV astrocytoma (glioblastoma multiforme) and medulloblastoma...
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Federico Bianchi, Gianpiero Tamburrini, Marco Gessi, Paolo Frassanito, Luca Massimi, Massimo Caldarelli
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system (CNS) neuroblastoma is a rare intracranial tumor affecting children mainly in the first years of life. It is usually a supratentorial tumor with a wide spectrum of clinical presentation, seizures, and focal neurological deficits being the most common presenting signs. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 2-year-old child was admitted to our ward after a generalized seizure. Neurological examination was normal. Radiological studies showed a small DWI hyperintense lesion of the right rectus gyrus...
March 8, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Fangjie Shao, Chong Liu
High-grade glioma, particularly, glioblastoma, is the most aggressive cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Due to its heterogeneous nature, glioblastoma almost inevitably relapses after surgical resection and radio-/chemotherapy, and is thus highly lethal and associated with a dismal prognosis. Identifying the cell of origin has been considered an important aspect in understanding tumor heterogeneity, thereby holding great promise in designing novel therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma. Taking advantage of genetic lineage-tracing techniques, performed mainly on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), multiple cell types in the CNS have been suggested as potential cells of origin for glioblastoma, among which adult neural stem cells (NSCs) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are the major candidates...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Landon Mott, Kai Su, Daniel W Pack
Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is a malignant carcinoma with aggressive motility and rapid growth. Accounting for 15% of breast cancers, BLBC often exhibits a poor prognosis and tends to metastasize to the brain and lungs. Because most BLBC display a triple-negative phenotype (ER-, PR-, and HER2-), conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the only treatment option despite poor success and high rate of relapse. The overexpression of the forkhead-box transcription factor C1 (FOXC1) was recently identified as a biomarker of BLBC...
March 6, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Kohei Chida, Atsushi Sugawara, Takahiro Koji, Takaaki Beppu, Yoshiharu Mue, Tamotsu Sugai, Knuaki Ogasawara
A 79-year-old man presented with primary intramedullary malignant lymphoma with a presyrinx state in the cervical cord manifesting as left hemiparesis and hemidysesthesia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed an intramedullary mass in the cervical spinal cord at the level of C1 and T2-weighted image prolongation from the medulla to the level of C5. According to the progression of hemiparesis, he underwent an emergency removal of the tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was totally removed, and the peritumoral signal abnormality was not present in the postoperative MRI...
December 30, 2017: Curēus
Takashi Ishihara, Keiji Nogami, Yasufumi Takeshita, Satoshi Ochi, Midori Shima
Thrombosis and hemorrhage are serious complications in pediatric patients with solid tumors, and enhanced fibrinolysis associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is often observed. Fibrinolytic enzymes also play an important role in metastasis. Limited information is available, however, on the assessment of overall hemostatic function in children with malignant solid tumors. Methods We have investigated comprehensive hemostatic potential in these circumstances using simultaneous thrombin/plasmin generation assay (T/P-GA)...
March 5, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Erik Ladomersky, Lijie Zhai, Alicia Lenzen, Kristen L Lauing, Jun Qian, Denise M Scholtens, Galina Gritsina, Xuebing Sun, Ye Liu, Fenglong Yu, Wenfeng Gong, Yong Liu, Beibei Jiang, Zhiyu Tang, Ricky Patel, Leonidas C Platanias, C David James, Roger Stupp, Rimas V Lukas, David C Binder, Derek A Wainwright
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor in adults with a median survival of 15-20 months. Numerous approaches and novel therapeutics for treating GBM have been investigated in the setting of phase III clinical trials, including a recent analysis of the immune checkpoint inhibitor, Nivolumab (anti-PD-1), which failed to improve recurrent GBM patient survival. However, rather than abandoning immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment for GBM, which has shown promise in other types of cancer, ongoing studies are currently evaluating this therapeutic class when combined with other agents...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Kenny Kwok-Hei Yu, Jessica T Taylor, Omar N Pathmanaban, Amir Saam Youshani, Deniz Beyit, Joanna Dutko-Gwozdz, Roderick Benson, Gareth Griffiths, Ian Peers, Peter Cueppens, Brian A Telfer, Kaye J Williams, Catherine McBain, Ian D Kamaly-Asl, Brian W Bigger
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain malignancy in adults, yet survival outcomes remain poor. First line treatment is well established, however disease invariably recurs and improving prognosis is challenging. With the aim of personalizing therapy at recurrence, we have established a high content screening (HCS) platform to analyze the sensitivity profile of seven patient-derived cancer stem cell lines to 83 FDA-approved chemotherapy drugs, with and without irradiation...
2018: PloS One
Hila Rosenfeld-Keidar, Rinat Eshel, Aviva Pinhasov, Menachem Bitan, Sabina Edelman, Marcela Broitman, Rina Dvir, Efraim Sadot, Dror Levin, Michal Manisterski, Sivan Berger-Achituv, Ronit Elhasid
Numerous adults' studies demonstrated that preaphaeresis CD34+ cells significantly correlate with the number of CD34+ cells collected by the aphaeresis procedure. Equivalent studies in children are scarce. We studied retrospectively 92 aphaeresis procedures performed following chemotherapy (44) or in steady state (48) in 60 pediatric patients (40 males, 20 females), median age of 7.5 years. Aphaeresis procedures were performed using a SPECTRA Optica (TERUMOBCT) continuous flow cell separator. CD34+ cell concentrations were assessed using flow cytometry...
March 2, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Byung Jo Park, Jong Ho Cho, Jung Hee Lee, Sumin Shin, Hong Kwan Kim, Yong Soo Choi, Jae Ill Zo, Young Mog Shim, Jong-Mu Sun, Se-Hoon Lee, Jin Seok Ahn, Myung-Ju Ahn, Keunchil Park, Jhingook Kim
OBJECTIVES: Understanding the timing and pattern of cancer recurrence is essential to explain the causes of treatment failure. We investigated the recurrence pattern and rate over time in patients with completely resected N1-stage II lung adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 333 patients who underwent complete surgical resection for N1-stage II lung adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: The median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 38...
March 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Signe Regner Michaelsen, Derya Aslan, Thomas Urup, Hans Skovgaard Poulsen, Kirsten Grønbæk, Helle Broholm, Lasse Sommer Kristensen
Complete surgical resection of glioblastoma is difficult due to the invasive nature of this primary brain tumor, for which the molecular mechanisms behind remain poorly understood. The three human ELMO genes play key roles in cellular motility, and have been linked to metastasis and poor prognosis in other cancer types. The aim of this study was to investigate methylation levels of the ELMO genes and their correlation to clinical characteristics and outcome in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma. To measure DNA methylation levels we designed pyrosequencing assays targeting the promoter CpG island of each the ELMO genes...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Laura Attademo, Stefano De Falco, Mario Rosanova, Marcello Esposito, Federica Mazio, Francesca Foschini, Antonio Santaniello, Giovanni Fiore, Elide Matano, Fiore Manganelli, Chiara Carlomagno
RATIONALE: Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is one of the most common causes of neurologic paraneoplastic syndromes, with unclear pathogenesis. While several reports published in the last decades showed the occurrence of PLE in a variety of cancers, only a few cases have been associated with colon cancer. PATIENT CONCERNS: In February 2017, a 54-year-old man with clinical history of radically resected colon cancer started first line chemotherapy with FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab, after radiological diagnosis of multiple liver and bone metastases...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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