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Precision 2.0

Nail Altunay, Adil Elik, Ramazan Gürkan
Acrylamide (AAm) is a carcinogenic chemical that can form in thermally processed foods by the Maillard reaction of glucose with asparagine. AAm can easily be formed especially in frequently consumed chips and cereal-based foods depending on processing conditions. Considering these properties of AAm, a new, simple and green method is proposed for the extraction of AAm from thermally processed food samples. In this study, an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [Bmim][BF4]) as extractant was used in the presence of a cationic phenazine group dye, 3,7-diamino-5-phenylphenazinium chloride (PSH(+), phenosafranine) at pH 7...
October 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Simon Vanstone, Sarah F Cordery, James M Stone, Sergey N Gordeev, Richard H Guy
Drug treatment of diseases of the human nail remains a difficult challenge; topical therapy, in particular, is limited by very poor transport of active agents across the nail itself. The objective of this research was to examine the potential of controlled, and fibre-optic delivered, femtosecond laser light pulses to provide new pathways and opportunities for drug access to targets within and beneath the nail plate. Optical, confocal fluorescence and scanning electron microscopies demonstrated partial and complete laser poration of human nail samples, with the energy per pore and the exposure duration being the key modulating parameters that determined the extent of ablation achieved...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Jason C Nellis, Masaru Ishii, Kristin L Bater, Ira D Papel, Theda C Kontis, Patrick J Byrne, Kofi D O Boahene, Lisa E Ishii
Importance: To date, the impact of rhinoplasty surgery on social perceptions has not been quantified. Objective: To measure the association of rhinoplasty with observer-graded perceived attractiveness, success, and overall health. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a web-based survey, blinded casual observers viewed independent images of 13 unique patient faces before or after rhinoplasty. Delphi method was used to select standardized patient images, confirming appropriate patient candidacy and overall surgical effect...
October 19, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Yaron Niv
The WHO published a new classification of colonic polyps in 2010, including the group of serrated polyps, which can be divided into hyperplastic polyps (HP), traditional serrated adenomas, and sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) or polyps. To assess the rate of re-diagnosis of HP to SSA and to look for possible predictors for changing the diagnosis. English Medical literature searches were performed for 'reassessment' OR 'reclassification' AND 'hyperplastic polyp' OR 'sessile serrated adenoma' till 31 January 2017...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Jiaying Zhao, Xiaomin Li, Xiaohua Lu, Qinghe Zhang, Weibing Zhang
A method for the determination of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in olive oil by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescent detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed. The olive oil samples were diluted with isopropanol and cleaned-up by a solid phase extraction cartridge with π-π specificity. Critical isomers were separated by gradient elution with water-acetonitrile on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse PAH column (100 mm×2...
July 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Zhen Long, Paul Gamache, Zhimou Guo, Yuanyuan Pan, Yanhai Zhang, Xiaoda Liu, Yan Jin, LüYe Liu, Lina Liang, Renyong Li
The determination of antioxidants continues to be interested, since the oxidative damage is thought to be one of the main mechanisms involved in nearly all chronic renal pathologies. A highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method was developed for evaluating the antioxidant properties of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Dan Shen). The method was optimized with respect to selectivity and sensitivity. Chromatographic conditions, including mobile phase pH value, buffer concentration, buffer type, organic solvent type, gradient profile and flow rate, were systematically investigated...
August 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Xinjie Wang, Jiyu Wang, Heng Li, Xian Hui, Wenyun Gao
A method was developed for the determination of diacetyl in liquors by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) coupled with precolumn derivatization using derivatization reagent 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB). Diacetyl reacted with DAB at room temperature for 10 min. Then the separation was carried out on a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a diode array detector (DAD). A Shim-pack VP-ODS (250 mm×4.6 mm, 4.6 μ m) column was employed using water-methanol mobile phases for gradient at a flow rate of 0...
August 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Jiong Li, Jiaofei Wang, Hongyu Qiu, Wei Li
A modified high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of the five nucleotides (uridine monophosphate (UMP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), inosine monophosphate (IMP), guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and cytidine monophosphate (CMP)) in infant formula milk powder. The samples were extracted by water, deproteinized by acetic acid and purified with an HLB SPE cartridge. The analytes were separated by a Waters XBrigde Amide column (150 mm×4.6 mm, 3.5 μ m). Acetonitrile, 10 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution and 0...
August 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Ming Zhang, Fangliang Tang, Jianfen Xu, Bo Yu, Wei Zhang, Jianliang Yao, Minhua Hu
A high-throughput detection method has been developed for the determination of nine perfluorinated compound precursors (PFCPs) in atmospheric precipitation by solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The atmospheric precipitation samples were concentrated and purified with HLB solid phase extraction cartridges. The UPLC separation was performed on an HSS T3 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) utilizing a gradient elution program of methanol and water as the mobile phases at a flow rate of 0...
October 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Michel Y Fares, Nada S Abdelwahab, Maha M Abdelrahman, Hamdy M Abdel-Rahman
Two accurate, precise and highly selective stability-indicating methods were adopted for simultaneous determination of benztropine mesylate (BNZ) in presence of its hepatotoxic and carcinogenic degradation product, benzophenone (BPH) either in pure form or in the pharmaceutical formulation without any preliminary separation steps. The first method is a thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometric method that depended on separation of BNZ from its degradate on TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 as the stationary phase using a developing system consisted of hexane:methylene chloride:triethylamine (5:5:0...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Chang-Seob Seo, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin
Yongdamsagan-tang (YDSGT) has been used clinically for the treatment of acute- and chronic-urethritis, cystitis, orchitis and hypertension in Korea. In this study, a powerful method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detection was established and validated for the quantitative analysis of eight components: chlorogenic acid, gentiopicroside, liquiritin apioside, liquiritin, nodakenin, baicalin, wogonoside and glycyrrhizin in YDSGT extract. The compounds were separated with a Gemini C18 analytical column (column temperature: 40°C; mobile phase: 0...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Alejandro Díaz, Araceli Peña-Alvarez
A simple method was developed using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) combined with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the simultaneous determination of eight different pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) (ibuprofen, 2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol, naproxen, triclosan, ketoprofen, diclofenac, bisphenol A and estrone) in river sediment. UAE conditions were optimized involving extraction variables such as extraction solvent, extraction time, sample amount, extraction temperature, pH and salt addition...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
S Raghavender Reddy, K Hussain Reddy, P Madhava Reddy, G Amarnatha Reddy, M Narendra Kumar, Hemant Kumar Sharma
A specific GC method has been developed, optimized and validated for the determination of seven related substances namely N,N-dimethyl valpronamide, valeric acid, 2-methyl valeric acid, 2-ethyl valeric acid, 2-isopropyl valeric acid, 2-n-butyl valeric acid and 2-propyl-2-pentenoic acid in divalproex sodium (DPS) drug substance. Chromatographic separations of these seven impurities were achieved on DB-FFAP column (30 m × 0.53 mm, 1.0 μm), which consists nitroterephthalic acid modified polyethylene glycol material as stationary phase...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Lara N Moody, Lindsey M Poe, Warren K Bickel
Despite reductions in cigarette smoking in the United States, approximately 40 million Americans are smokers. Innovative interventions are needed to help remaining smokers quit. To develop innovative interventions, precise and effective tools are needed. Here, a laboratory model of smoking relapse is assessed for its ability to detect increased resistance to smoking across 2 interventions and for its sensitivity to differing degrees of effectiveness. Nicotine-deprived participants (N = 36) completed, in randomized order, 4 smoking resistance sessions with and without implementation intentions and monetary incentives...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Hao Pan, Fumin Zhang, Chunzhao Shi, Xinghua Qu
The long fiber frequency sampling method is used to eliminate the nonlinearity of laser tuning in the frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser detection and ranging (FMCW ladar) technique. However, although it has high precision, it is affected by the picket fence effect and spectrum leakage. In this paper, we propose a novel frequency estimation method, multiple signal classification (MUSIC), to be used instead of the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based algorithm in order to obtain better range precision...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Linsheng Liu, Kazuhiro Nonaka
To further study the microscopic mechanism and beam diameter effect during light depolarization (LDP), we developed a compact laser instrument (λ=632.8  nm) with an adjustable beam diameter of ≥18  μm (approximately 28λ). Six nickel plate samples with rms roughness, Rq, of 42 nm to 2.3 μm (i.e., 0.067-3.7λ) fabricated by the fine-honing method are examined. To analyze the beam diameter effect as applying LDP for submicron and micron Rq evaluation, the cross-sectional beam-spot size (BSS) is adjusted from 20 μm to 650 μm during off-specular inspections...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Zhijian Li, Jiancheng Lai, Chunyong Wang, Wei Yan, Zhenhua Li
Dead-time has a significant influence on the detection efficiency and range performance of a photon-counting laser radar system with a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode. In this paper, a rapid universal recursive model of the detection probability of discrete time under various dead-times is proposed, which is verified with controlled parameters. Our model has the advantage of fast computing speed and unifies multi-trigger, single-trigger, and zero-dead-time models. The computing speed is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude faster than Gatt's and Zhao's models under a short dead-time condition, with relative errors less than 0...
August 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Upendra N Singh, Tamer F Refaat, Syed Ismail, Kenneth J Davis, Stephan R Kawa, Robert T Menzies, Mulugeta Petros
Sustained high-quality column carbon dioxide (CO2) atmospheric measurements from space are required to improve estimates of regional and continental-scale sources and sinks of CO2. Modeling of a space-based 2 μm, high pulse energy, triple-pulse, direct detection integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar was conducted to demonstrate CO2 measurement capability and to evaluate random and systematic errors. Parameters based on recent technology developments in the 2 μm laser and state-of-the-art HgCdTe (MCT) electron-initiated avalanche photodiode (e-APD) detection system were incorporated in this model...
August 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Yonggui Yuan, Dongchuan Lu, Jun Yang, Jianguo Wang, Hanyang Li, Zhangjun Yu, Haoliang Zhang, Feng Peng, Zhihai Liu, Libo Yuan
We propose an effective and promising method to extend the continuous range of the optical delay line in white light interferometry. The method adopts the combination of switchable fixed delays and a continuous-scanning stage laid in one arm of the interferometer. Moreover, a fiber ring constructed by a fiber coupler is employed in the other arm to achieve self-calibration and improve the delay precision, voiding the use of a specialized measurement instrument. The range-extension method maintains the original performances of the stage just through the process of orderly copying and jointing...
June 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Axel Amediek, Gerhard Ehret, Andreas Fix, Martin Wirth, Christian Büdenbender, Mathieu Quatrevalet, Christoph Kiemle, Christoph Gerbig
The integrated-path differential-absorption lidar CHARM-F (CO2 and CH4 Remote Monitoring-Flugzeug) was developed for the simultaneous measurement of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 onboard the German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft). The purpose is to derive the weighted, column-averaged dry-air mixing ratios of the two gases with high precision and accuracy between aircraft and ground or cloud tops. This paper presents the first measurements, performed in the spring of 2015, and shows performance analyses as well as the methodology for the quantification of strong point sources applied on example cases...
June 20, 2017: Applied Optics
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