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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933382/altered-intestinal-microbiota-composition-antibiotic-therapy-and-intestinal-inflammation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-cystic-fibrosis
#1
Maiara Brusco de Freitas, Emilia Addison Machado Moreira, Camila Tomio, Yara Maria Franco Moreno, Felipe Perozzo Daltoe, Eliana Barbosa, Norberto Ludwig Neto, Vittoria Buccigrossi, Alfredo Guarino
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cystic fibrosis and antibiotic therapy on intestinal microbiota composition and intestinal inflammation in children and adolescents. A cross-sectional controlled study was conducted with 36 children and adolescents: 19 in the cystic fibrosis group (CFG) and 17 in the control group (CG) matched for age and sex. The CFG was subdivided based on the use of antibiotic therapy (CFAB group) and non-use of antibiotic therapy (CFnAB group). The following data were evaluated: colonization, antibiotic therapy, mutation, breastfeeding, use of infant formula, type of delivery, introduction of solid foods, body mass index, fecal calprotectin and intestinal microbiota composition (fluorescence in situ hybridization)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932115/a-method-for-developing-rapid-screening-values-for-active-pharmaceutical-ingredients-apis-in-water-and-results-of-initial-application-for-119-apis
#2
Ashley Suchomel, Helen Goeden, Julia Dady
Americans fill upward of four billion prescriptions for pharmaceuticals each year, and many of those pharmaceuticals eventually make their way into the environment. Hundreds of different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are detected in ambient waters and source water used for drinking water in the U.S. Very few of these drugs have health-based guidance values that suggest a safe level for individuals exposed in the ambient environment through drinking water. The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) has developed a novel method to derive screening-level human health guidance values for APIs...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928114/effect-of-food-on-the-pharmacokinetic-characteristics-of-a-single-oral-dose-of-lcb01-0371-a-novel-oxazolidinone-antibiotic
#3
Jung Sunwoo, Yu Kyong Kim, Yewon Choi, Kyung-Sang Yu, Heesook Nam, Young Lag Cho, Seonghae Yoon, Jae-Yong Chung
Background: LCB01-0371 is a novel oxazolidinone antibiotic that blocks protein production by binding to bacterial 23S ribosomes. This antibiotic is active against Gram-positive bacteria. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of LCB01-0371 and evaluate its safety profile. Subjects and methods: A randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study was performed in 18 healthy Korean male subjects. All subjects received a single oral 800 mg dose of LCB01-0371 in each period under fed or fasting condition with a 7-day washout in between...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927626/antibiotic-resistance-in-salmonella-enteritidis-isolates-recovered-from-chicken-chicken-breast-and-humans-through-national-antimicrobial-resistance-monitoring-system-between-1996-and-2014
#4
Narayan Paudyal, Hang Pan, Xiaoliang Li, Weihuan Fang, Min Yue
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the leading causes for human salmonellosis all over the world. We analyzed the surveillance data of 18 years on antimicrobial resistance profiling of S. Enteritidis collected and isolated by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) from humans, chicken, and chicken breasts. Statistical tool based on the unique individual antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) profiling was used to compare antimicrobial resistance in the isolates...
June 21, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925102/safety-and-toxicology-of-magnolol-and-honokiol
#5
Andrea Sarrica, Natalja Kirika, Margherita Romeo, Mario Salmona, Luisa Diomede
Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia obovata bark extracts have been used for thousands of years in Chinese and Japanese traditional medicines and are still widely employed as herbal preparations for their sedative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, and antispastic effects. Neolignans, particularly magnolol and honokiol, are the main substances responsible for the beneficial properties of the magnolia bark extract (MBE). The content of magnolol and honokiol in MBE depends on different factors, including the Magnolia plant species, the area of origin, the part of the plant employed, and the method used to prepare the extract...
June 20, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921172/antimicrobial-resistance-in-south-east-asia-time-to-ask-the-right-questions
#6
Manish Kakkar, Pranab Chatterjee, Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan, Delia Grace, Johanna Lindahl, Arlyne Beeche, Fang Jing, Suwit Chotinan
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a major public health concern, around which the international leadership has come together to form strategic partnerships and action plans. The main driving force behind the emergence of AMR is selection pressure created due to consumption of antibiotics. Consumption of antibiotics in human as well as animal sectors are driven by a complex interplay of determinants, many of which are typical to the local settings. Several sensitive and essential realities are tied with antibiotic consumption - food security, livelihoods, poverty alleviation, healthcare access and national economies, to name a few...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917122/a-method-to-culture-chicken-enterocytes-and-their-characterization
#7
Narayan C Rath, Rohana Liyanage, Anamika Gupta, Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Jackson O Lay
Enterocytes function as both absorptive and protective components of intestine that come in close contact with a variety of enteric factors, such as dietary, microbial, and parasites, that have potential to affect the organismal health. Understanding how enterocytes interact with this complex array of factors may help improve gut health particularly in the context of poultry production where it is also linked to food safety issues. The enterocyte in vitro culture can help screen different factors and their interactions with microbiome, and potentially be utilized in the development of interventions strategies for pathogens such as antibiotic alternatives...
June 15, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916034/differences-in-carbohydrates-utilization-and-antibiotic-resistance-between-streptococcus-macedonicus-and-streptococcus-thermophilus-strains-isolated-from-dairy-products-in-italy
#8
Armin Tarrah, Laura Treu, Sabrina Giaretta, Vinicius Duarte, Viviana Corich, Alessio Giacomini
Streptococcus thermophilus and S. macedonicus are the only two species of the genus related to food productions so far known. In the present study, eight S. thermophilus and seven S. macedonicus strains isolated from dairy environments in Italy were compared in order to evidence possible species-specific technological characteristics. Their capability to use lactose, galactose, fructose, and glucose, sugars commonly present in foods and two carbohydrates considered as prebiotics, xylose and inulin, along with the respective growth kinetics were studied...
June 18, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911266/one-step-bioprocess-of-inulin-to-product-inulo-oligosaccharides-using-bacillus-subtilis-secreting-an-extracellular-endo-inulinase
#9
Ruifan Jiang, Yibin Qiu, Weiwei Huang, Li Zhang, Feng Xue, Hao Ni, Difen Mei, Jian Gao, Hong Xu
Inulo-oligosaccharides (IOSs), a novel food additive and health product, represent a promising alternative to antibiotics. As prebiotics, IOSs can be obtained from inulin by endo-inulinase-mediated hydrolysis. Nonetheless, enzymatic catalysis is not feasible industrially because of the required catalytic conditions and cost. In this study, a 2331-bp optimized gene inuQ (from Pseudomonas mucidolens) encoding endo-inulinase was cloned into shuttle vector PHY300PLK and transfected into Bacillus subtilis WB800-R, with the simultaneous deletion of gene sacC encoding levanase...
June 18, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911211/the-global-allergy-and-asthma-european-network-galen-rhinosinusitis-cohort-a-large-european-cross-sectional-study-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients-with-and-without-nasal-polyps
#10
A Khan, G Vandeplas, T M T Huynh, V N Joish, L Mannent, P Tomassen, T Van Zele, L O Cardell, J Arebro, H Olze, U Foerster-Ruhrmann, M L Kowalski, A Olszewska-Ziaber, G Holtappels, N De Ruyck, C van Drunen, J Mullol, P W Hellings, V Hox, E Toskala, G Scadding, V J Lund, W J Fokkens, C Bachert
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common yet under-recognised chronic inflammatory disease of the nose and paranasal sinuses that is classified according to the presence (CRSwNP) or absence (CRSsNP) of nasal polyps. METHODS: This paper reports the methodology and descriptive results of the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GALEN) rhinosinusitis cohort. We established a large CRS cohort within the GALEN consortium (European FP6 research initiative) to identify inflammatory endotypes, the natural disease course, and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL)...
June 17, 2018: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910786/characteristics-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-ready-to-eat-vegetables-in-china
#11
Bao-Tao Liu, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Shu-Wei Wan, Jun-Jie Hao, Rui-De Jiang, Feng-Jing Song
Vegetables harboring bacteria resistant to antibiotics are a growing food safety issue. However, data concerning carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in ready-to-eat fresh vegetables is still rare. In this study, 411 vegetable samples from 36 supermarkets or farmer's markets in 18 cities in China, were analyzed for CRE. Carbapenemase-encoding genes and other resistance genes were analyzed among the CRE isolates. Plasmids carrying carbapenemase genes were studied by conjugation, replicon typing, S1-PFGE southern blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910462/the-rise-and-rise-of-eosinophilic-gut-diseases-including-eosinophilic-esophagitis-is-probably-not-explained-by-the-disappearance-of-helicobacter-pylori-so-who-or-what-s-to-blame
#12
EDITORIAL
Nicholas J Talley, Marjorie M Walker
A dramatic increase in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and atopic disease and a dramatic decline in Helicobacter pylori infection has been observed in the last few decades. Previously, it was speculated that the immune response to H. pylori may protect against allergic diseases including EoE, but this study by Molina-Infante et al. shows no clear relationship, and suggests that any correlation is not causal. In truth it is likely that a combination of many factors, including a changing microbiome with increasing hygiene and alterations in early life such as antibiotic exposure, changing diet and other lifestyle factors drive increasing atopic diseases including food allergies and EoE...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909308/the-multilevel-antibiotic-induced-perturbations-to-biological-systems-early-life-exposure-induces-long-lasting-damages-to-muscle-structure-and-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-flies
#13
David Renault, Hesham Yousef, Amr A Mohamed
Antibiotics have been increasingly used over the past decades for human medicine, food-animal agriculture, aquaculture, and plant production. A significant part of the active molecules of antibiotics can be released into the environment, in turn affecting ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical processes. At lower organizational scales, these substances affect bacterial symbionts of insects, with negative consequences on growth and development of juveniles, and population dynamics. Yet, the multiple alterations of cellular physiology and metabolic processes have remained insufficiently explored in insects...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897533/comparative-genetic-characterization-of-third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-from-chicken-meat-produced-by-integrated-broiler-operations-in-south-korea
#14
Kwang Won Seo, Yeong Bin Kim, Hye Young Jeon, Suk-Kyung Lim, Young Ju Lee
Vertical integration of the broiler industry allows producers to combine different biosecurity and sanitation practices, housing technologies, and feeding regimens to improve food safety. The objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial resistance pattern of β-lactamase-producing E. coli and to compare the characteristics of E. coli recovered from 7 different integrated broiler operations in South Korea. Among 200 chicken meat samples, 101 were observed to be positive for E. coli. However, the prevalence varied from 37...
April 20, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896333/first-detection-of-fox-1-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamase-gene-expression-among-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-abattoir-samples-in-abakaliki-nigeria
#15
Ejikeugwu Chika, Esimone Charles, Iroha Ifeanyichukwu, Adikwu Michael
Objectives: Gram-negative bacteria represent the most relevant reservoir of resistance to antibiotics in the environment. The natural selection of resistant clones of bacteria in the environment by antimicrobial selective pressure is a relevant mechanism for spreading antibiotic resistance traits in both the community and hospital environment. This is in scenarios where antimicrobials are used irrationally, and even in the propagation of livestock, poultry birds, and for other veterinary purposes...
May 2018: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894885/emergence-of-mcr-1-plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-seawater
#16
Rezak Drali, Meryem Berrazeg, Laldja Lilia Zidouni, Fella Hamitouche, Amina Aicha Abbas, Abdelhamid Deriet, Fawzia Mouffok
Colistin is currently regarded as one of the 'last-resort' antibiotics used for the treatment of critical infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Recently, there have been numerous reports of the emergence of a transferable plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1 in patients, animals, food, and environment. Here, we characterize the support of colistin resistance among environmental isolates collected from seawater of Algiers coast. Our study was carried out on 246 isolates resistant to colistin (MIC > 2 μg/L)...
June 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891863/antibiotics-as-food-for-bacteria
#17
Christopher J Schofield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 11, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891148/knowledge-attitude-and-perception-regarding-antimicrobial-resistance-and-usage-among-ruminant-farmers-in-selangor-malaysia
#18
M B Sadiq, S S Syed-Hussain, S Z Ramanoon, A A Saharee, N I Ahmad, Noraziah Mohd Zin, S F Khalid, D S Naseeha, A A Syahirah, R Mansor
The increasing public health problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been linked to the extensive antimicrobial use (AMU) in food animals. We conducted a survey among ruminant farmers in Selangor, Malaysia to assess their level of awareness on AMR, attitudes towards AMU, and determinants that influence their practices. The survey was developed in English and Malay, validated, and administered to ruminant farmers in Selangor. A total of 84 farmers (response rate of 55%) completed the structured questionnaire...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885365/impact-of-curcumin-liposomes-with-anti-quorum-sensing-properties-against-foodborne-pathogens-aeromonas-hydrophila-and-serratia-grimesii
#19
Ting Ding, Tingting Li, Jianrong Li
Quorum sensing (QS) is a signal sensing system by which bacteria monitor the density of their population, thus, targeting to QS system may be an alternative approach to control diverse cellular processes including the microbial contamination and the virulence of human and plant pathogens as bacteria have been evolving resistance to antibiotics. In this study, curcumin liposomes were prepared by film dispersion method to increase its bioavailability against QS systems of food-borne epathogenic bacteria, i.e...
June 6, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883627/comparative-pathogenesis-of-enteric-clostridial-infections-in-humans-and-animals
#20
Francisco A Uzal, Mauricio A Navarro, J Jihong Li, John C Freedman, Archana Shrestha, Bruce A McClane
Several enteric clostridial diseases can affect humans and animals. Of these, the enteric infections caused by Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile are amongst the most prevalent and they are reviewed here. C. perfringens type A strains encoding alpha toxin (CPA) are frequently associated with enteric disease of many animal mammalian species, but their role in these diseased mammals remains to be clarified. C. perfringens type B encoding CPA, beta (CPB) and epsilon (ETX) toxins causes necro-hemorrhagic enteritis, mostly in sheep, and these strains have been recently suggested to be involved in multiple sclerosis in humans, although evidence of this involvement is lacking...
June 5, 2018: Anaerobe
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