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Canine play behavior

C H C Halsey, D H Thamm, K M Weishaar, J H Burton, J B Charles, D L Gustafson, A C Avery, E J Ehrhart
Canine cutaneous mast cell tumor (MCT) is the most common canine skin tumor and exhibits variable biologic behavior. Signaling through the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cellular proliferation and survival and has been shown to play a role in MCT progression. Despite investigations into numerous biomarkers and the proposal of several grading schemas, no single marker or grading system can accurately predict outcome in canine MCT. The first aim of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical assay to measure phosphorylated KIT (pKIT) to investigate its association with 2 commonly used grading systems and other established prognostic markers for canine MCT...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
Xiaolin Ding, Jin Hu, Hanying Zhang, Yinxue Xu
Stathmin 1 (STMN1) is a neuronal growth-associated protein that is involved in microtubule dynamics and plays an important role in synaptic outgrowth and plasticity. Given that STMN1 affects fear behavior, we hypothesized that genetic variations in the STMN1 transcriptional regulatory region affect gene transcription activity and control fear behavior. In this study, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), g. -327 A>G and g. -125 C>T, were identified in 317 English Springer Spaniels. A bioinformatics analysis revealed that both were loci located in the canine STMN1 putative promoter region and affected transcription factor binding...
2016: PloS One
David M Lane, Sarah A Hill
Despite the rise in popularity of both acupuncture and manual therapy in veterinary medicine, and the increasing number of Canadian veterinarians practising these techniques, there is little research demonstrating their effectiveness. In this repeated measures, therapeutic trial, 47 client-owned dogs with naturally occurring lameness were assessed for clinical response to treatment. Owners were blinded to the treatment schedule and completed questionnaires to assess their dogs' comfort and mobility. Comparison between pre- and post-treatment results demonstrated that combined acupuncture and manual therapy provides immediate short-term improvement in comfort and mobility, as demonstrated by owner observed changes in play behavior (P = 0...
April 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Sarah-Elizabeth Byosiere, Julia Espinosa, Barbara Smuts
Play bows are a common, highly stereotyped canine behavior widely considered to be a 'play signal,' but only one study has researched their function. Bekoff (1995) found that play bows function as behavioral modifiers to help clarify playful intent before or after easily misinterpretable behaviors, such as bite-shakes. To further examine the function of play bows, the current study analyzed five types of behaviors displayed by the bower and the partner immediately before and after a play bow during dyadic play...
April 2016: Behavioural Processes
Mathias Kaiser, Sudharani Chalapala, Christian Gorzelanny, Ramu Sridhar Perali, Francisco Martin Goycoolea
Capsaicin is known to interfere with tight junctions (TJs) of epithelial cells and therefore to enhance paracellular permeability of poorly absorbable drugs. However, due to its low water solubility, pungency, and cytotoxicity, its pharmacologic use is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of capsaicin derivatives of synthetic (e.g., 10-hydroxy-N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)decanamide, etc.) and natural (olvanil and dihydrocapsaicin) origin on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney-C7 cells. Impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the transepithelial electrical resistance and the capacitance...
February 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Tomohiro Osaki, Yuji Sunden, Akihiko Sugiyama, Kazuo Azuma, Yusuke Murahata, Takeshi Tsuka, Norihiko Ito, Tomohiro Imagawa, Yoshiharu Okamoto
Canine mammary gland tumors (CMGTs), which are the most common neoplasms in sexually intact female dogs, have been suggested as a model for studying human breast cancer because of several similarities, including relative age of onset, risk factors, incidence, histological and molecular features, biological behavior, metastatic pattern, and responses to therapy. In the present study, we established a new cell line, the SNP cell line, from a CMGT. A tumor formed in each NOD.CB17-Prkdc(scid)/J mouse at the site of subcutaneous SNP cell injection...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Science
F Piro, L Leonardi
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone. It is responsible for 80-85% of the primary bone tumors affecting dogs and it is characterized by aggressive and invasive behavior, with a high metastatic potential. Several studies on cancer and related tumorigenesis, show an involvement of the mechanisms of programmed cell death and cell survival. Many signals seem to be involved in the related mechanism of autophagy and in particular, our interest is focused on the expression of a family of Bcl-2 that seems to be involved either in the control of biomolecular mechanisms like autophagy and apoptosis...
2015: Open veterinary journal
Margaret E Gruen, Beth C Case, Melanie L Foster, Lucia Lazarowski, Richard E Fish, Gary Landsberg, Venita DePuy, David C Dorman, Barbara L Sherman
Previous studies have shown that the playing of thunderstorm recordings during an open-field task elicits fearful or anxious responses in adult beagles. The goal of our study was to apply this open field test to assess sound-induced behaviors in Labrador retrievers drawn from a pool of candidate improvised explosive devices (IED)-detection dogs. Being robust to fear-inducing sounds and recovering quickly is a critical requirement of these military working dogs. This study presented male and female dogs, with 3 minutes of either ambient noise (Days 1, 3 and 5), recorded thunderstorm (Day 2), or gunfire (Day 4) sounds in an open field arena...
July 2015: Journal of Veterinary Behavior
Daniela Cihalova, Frantisek Staud, Martina Ceckova
PURPOSE: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an important role in multidrug resistance (MDR) toward anticancer drugs. Here, we evaluated interactions of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKi) AT-7519, flavopiridol and SNS-032 with the following ABC transporters in vitro: P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (ABCC1). METHODS: Inhibitory potency of studied CDKi to the transporters was evaluated by accumulation assays using fluorescent substrates and MDCKII cells overexpressing human ABCB1, ABCG2 or ABCC1...
July 2015: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Wen Liu, Feyza Selçuk, Barbara C Rütgen, Mohammed Moulay, Saskia Willenbrock, Sabine E Hammer, Katharina Anna Sterenczak, Christian Junghanss, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein, Ingo Nolte, Hugo Murua Escobar
BACKGROUND: Canine lymphoma has lately drawn focus as a model of human non-Hodgkin's lymphoma due to its spontaneous occurrence and similar biological behavior. Cells with stem cell-like characteristics are believed to play a key role in therapeutic failure. Thus, an initial characterization and the possibility of specific detection of such cells could bear significant value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of 12 stem cell markers were analyzed in two canine B-cell lymphoma cell lines, their generated spheres, and in primary lymphoma samples by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and partially by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry...
May 2015: Anticancer Research
Tom P J Wyatt, Andrew R Harris, Maxine Lam, Qian Cheng, Julien Bellis, Andrea Dimitracopoulos, Alexandre J Kabla, Guillaume T Charras, Buzz Baum
Cell division plays an important role in animal tissue morphogenesis, which depends, critically, on the orientation of divisions. In isolated adherent cells, the orientation of mitotic spindles is sensitive to interphase cell shape and the direction of extrinsic mechanical forces. In epithelia, the relative importance of these two factors is challenging to assess. To do this, we used suspended monolayers devoid of ECM, where divisions become oriented following a stretch, allowing the regulation and function of epithelial division orientation in stress relaxation to be characterized...
May 5, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Y Liu, M A Kelly, T J Sexton, J F Neumaier
Located in the nerve terminals of serotonergic neurons, 5-HT1B autoreceptors are poised to modulate synaptic 5-HT levels with precise temporal and spatial control, and play an important role in various emotional behaviors. This study characterized two novel, complementary viral vector strategies to investigate the contribution of 5-HT1B autoreceptors to fear expression, displayed as freezing, during contextual fear conditioning. Increased expression of 5-HT1B autoreceptors throughout the brain significantly decreased fear expression in both wild-type (WT) and 5-HT1B knockout (1BKO) mice when receptor levels were increased with a cell-type-specific herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector injected into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN)...
July 9, 2015: Neuroscience
Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Zsófia Virányi, Friederike Range
Inhibitory control i.e. blocking an impulsive or prepotent response in favour of a more appropriate alternative, has been suggested to play an important role in cooperative behaviour. Interestingly, while dogs and wolves show a similar social organization, they differ in their intraspecific cooperation tendencies in that wolves rely more heavily on group coordination in regard to hunting and pup-rearing compared to dogs. Hence, based on the 'canine cooperation' hypothesis wolves should show better inhibitory control than dogs...
2015: PloS One
Tabue N Raymond, Madgan E Roland, Kenfack M M Françoise, Zeukeng Francis, Esemu F Livo, Seumen T H Clovis
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. In Cameroon, efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies are often thwarted by the lack of community awareness. The community knowledge, as well as attitudes and perception on rabies, is therefore important for both prevention of human deaths and control in animals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the level of community knowledge as well as the role of open garbage dumps (OGDs) in the epidemiology of human rabies...
2015: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Marti G Drum, Barbara Bockstahler, David Levine, Denis J Marcellin-Little
Cats have orthopedic problems, including osteoarthritis, fractures, and luxations that are positively impacted by physical rehabilitation. Most cats have an independent behavior that requires using a tactful approach to rehabilitation. Cats often do well with manual therapy and electrophysical modalities. Feline rehabilitation sessions may be shorter than canine rehabilitation sessions. Cats do best with therapeutic exercises when these exercises are linked to hunting, playing, or feeding.
January 2015: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
P Arvelius, H Eken Asp, W F Fikse, E Strandberg, K Nilsson
Fear-related problems are common among Rough Collies in Sweden. Annually, on average, >200 Rough Collies are subjected to the dog mentality assessment (DMA), a temperament test during which 33 behavioral reactions are rated. Previous research has shown that a dog's DMA result can be condensed into 5 underlying personality traits. The aim of the study was to evaluate if it is possible to use the DMA for selection for temperament in Swedish Rough Collies, in particular to decrease everyday life fearfulness...
November 2014: Journal of Animal Science
Kerri Norman, Sergio Pellis, Louise Barrett, S Peter Henzi
We used two sets of videotaped data of playing domestic dog dyads to determine whether rolling over during play served as a signal of submission or whether it was a combat maneuver adopted as part of an ongoing play sequence. Our results provide strong support for the latter. In the absence of any overt indication of agonism, the frequency with which rollovers occurred was determined primarily by play bout length. The discrepancy in partner size had no effect on the probability that rollovers would occur and there was no evidence that smaller dogs were more likely to rollover or to sustain a supine posture for longer, if they did...
January 2015: Behavioural Processes
Joseph Wakshlag, Justin Shmalberg
Conformation, genetics, and behavioral drive are the major determinants of success in canine athletes, although controllable variables, such as training and nutrition, play an important role. The scope and breadth of canine athletic events has expanded dramatically in the past 30 years, but with limited research on performance nutrition. There are considerable data examining nutritional physiology in endurance dogs and in sprinting dogs; however, nutritional studies for agility, field trial, and detection are rare...
July 2014: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Sarah Heath, Clare Wilson
As general veterinary practitioners, we have a duty of care that applies not only to the physical health needs of our patients but also to their mental well-being. Advising clients about how to enrich their home and kennel environments is an important part of fulfilling that duty of care and will also enrich the relationship between the veterinary practitioner and client. This article discusses how to optimize welfare for dogs and cats in the home and kenneled environments through appropriate environmental enrichment and understanding of species-typical behavioral requirements...
May 2014: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Clarence Bagshaw, Allen E Isdell, Dharma S Thiruvaiyaru, I Lehr Brisbin, Susan Sanchez
More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV...
June 1, 2014: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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