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Northeastern Coyote

Sarah K Peltier, Justin D Brown, Mark Ternent, Kevin D Niedringhaus, Krysten Schuler, Elizabeth M Bunting, Megan Kirchgessner, Michael J Yabsley
Since the early 1990s there has been an increase in the number of cases and geographic expansion of severe mange in the black bear (Ursus americanus) population in Pennsylvania. Although there are 3 species of mites associated with mange in bears, Sarcoptes scabiei has been identified as the etiologic agent in these Pennsylvania cases. Historically, S. scabiei-associated mange in bears has been uncommon and sporadic, although it is widespread and relatively common in canid populations. To better understand this recent emergence of sarcoptic mange in bears in Pennsylvania and nearby states, we genetically characterized S...
October 2017: Journal of Parasitology
Bridgett M vonHoldt, Roland Kays, John P Pollinger, Robert K Wayne
Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America...
June 2016: Molecular Ecology
Joseph W Hinton, Michael J Chamberlain, David R Rabon
By the 1970s, government-supported eradication campaigns reduced red wolves to a remnant population of less than 100 individuals on the southern border of Texas and Louisiana. Restoration efforts in the region were deemed unpromising because of predator-control programs and hybridization with coyotes. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) removed the last remaining red wolves from the wild and placed them in a captive-breeding program. In 1980, the USFWS declared red wolves extinct in the wild. During 1987, the USFWS, through the Red Wolf Recovery Program, reintroduced red wolves into northeastern North Carolina...
2013: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Joseph W Hinton, Frank T van Manen, Michael J Chamberlain
Little information exists on coyote (Canis latrans) space use and habitat selection in the southeastern United States and most studies conducted in the Southeast have been carried out within small study areas (e.g., ≤1,000 km2). Therefore, studying the placement, size, and habitat composition of coyote home ranges over broad geographic areas could provide relevant insights regarding how coyote populations adjust to regionally varying ecological conditions. Despite an increasing number of studies of coyote ecology, few studies have assessed the role of transiency as a life-history strategy among coyotes...
2015: PloS One
Javier Monzón
Previous genetic studies of eastern coyotes ( Canis latrans) are based on one of two strategies: sampling many individuals using one or very few molecular markers, or sampling very few individuals using many genomic markers. Thus, a regional analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in eastern coyotes using many samples and several molecular markers is lacking. I evaluated genetic diversity and population structure in 385 northeastern coyotes using 16 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
2014: F1000Research
Ryan M Brockerville, Michael J McGrath, Brettney L Pilgrim, H Dawn Marshall
Three genes, Mc1r, Agouti, and CBD103, interact in a type-switching process that controls much of the pigmentation variation observed in mammals. A deletion in the CBD103 gene is responsible for dominant black color in dogs, while the white-phased black bear ("spirit bear") of British Columbia, Canada, is the lightest documented color variant caused by a mutation in Mc1r. Rare all-white animals have recently been discovered in a new northeastern population of the coyote in insular Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada...
April 2013: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Astrid V Stronen, Nathalie Tessier, Hélène Jolicoeur, Paul C Paquet, Michel Hénault, Mario Villemure, Brent R Patterson, Tim Sallows, Gloria Goulet, François-Joseph Lapointe
Contemporary evolution through human-induced hybridization occurs throughout the taxonomic range. Formerly allopatric species appear especially susceptible to hybridization. Consequently, hybridization is expected to be more common in regions with recent sympatry owing to human activity than in areas of historical range overlap. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and gray wolves (C. lupus) are historically sympatric in western North America. Following European settlement gray wolf range contracted, whereas coyote range expanded to include eastern North America...
September 2012: Ecology and Evolution
Taal Levi, A Marm Kilpatrick, Marc Mangel, Christopher C Wilmers
Lyme disease is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in North America, and both the annual incidence and geographic range are increasing. The emergence of Lyme disease has been attributed to a century-long recovery of deer, an important reproductive host for adult ticks. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that Lyme disease risk may now be more dynamically linked to fluctuations in the abundance of small-mammal hosts that are thought to infect the majority of ticks. The continuing and rapid increase in Lyme disease over the past two decades, long after the recolonization of deer, suggests that other factors, including changes in the ecology of small-mammal hosts may be responsible for the continuing emergence of Lyme disease...
July 3, 2012: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A R Berentsen, M R Dunbar, S R Johnson, S Robbe-Austerman, L Martinez, R L Jones
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Michigan, USA, and research suggests transmission to cattle. Prevalence of the disease in deer is estimated at 1.8%, but as prevalence decreases the difficulty of detection increases. Research suggests coyotes (Canis latrans) have a higher prevalence of bTB in Michigan than deer and sampling coyotes may be a more efficient surveillance tool to detect presence or spread of the disease. Coyotes possess suitable ecological characteristics to serve as a sentinel species, assuming transmission between coyotes is not significant...
July 5, 2011: Veterinary Microbiology
Erik Stauber, Nickol Finch, Patricia A Talcott, John M Gay
To determine risk factors and seasonal trends of lead poisoning in bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden (Aquila chrysaetos) eagles, blood lead levels were evaluated in eagles admitted from the inland Pacific Northwest region of the United States to the Raptor Rehabilitation Program, College of Veterinary Medicine at Washington State University from 1991 to 2008. Admissions were from Washington (32 bald eagles, 27 golden eagles), northern Idaho (21 bald eagles, 25 golden eagles), northeastern Oregon (5 bald eagles, 6 golden eagles), Montana (2 bald eagles), Alaska (1 bald eagle), and unrecorded (6 bald eagles, 5 golden eagles)...
December 2010: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Ettore Randi
Empirical studies demonstrate that natural hybridization in animals is more common than thought so far (Mallet 2005), particularly among species that originated recently through cycles of population contraction-expansion arising from climate changes over the last glacial period, the Pleistocene. In addition, the post-glacial global growth of human populations has fostered anthropogenic hybridization events, mediated by habitat changes, the persecution of large predators and the introduction of alien species (Allendorf et al...
October 2010: Molecular Ecology
L Y Rutledge, C J Garroway, K M Loveless, B R Patterson
Distinguishing genetically differentiated populations within hybrid zones and determining the mechanisms by which introgression occurs are crucial for setting effective conservation policy. Extensive hybridization among grey wolves (Canis lupus), eastern wolves (C. lycaon) and coyotes (C. latrans) in eastern North America has blurred species distinctions, creating a Canis hybrid swarm. Using complementary genetic markers, we tested the hypotheses that eastern wolves have acted as a conduit of sex-biased gene flow between grey wolves and coyotes, and that eastern wolves in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) have differentiated following a history of introgression...
December 2010: Heredity
Dennis Slate, Timothy P Algeo, Kathleen M Nelson, Richard B Chipman, Dennis Donovan, Jesse D Blanton, Michael Niezgoda, Charles E Rupprecht
Steps to facilitate inter-jurisdictional collaboration nationally and continentally have been critical for implementing and conducting coordinated wildlife rabies management programs that rely heavily on oral rabies vaccination (ORV). Formation of a national rabies management team has been pivotal for coordinated ORV programs in the United States of America. The signing of the North American Rabies Management Plan extended a collaborative framework for coordination of surveillance, control, and research in border areas among Canada, Mexico, and the US...
2009: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Roland Kays, Abigail Curtis, Jeremy J Kirchman
The dramatic expansion of the geographical range of coyotes over the last 90 years is partly explained by changes to the landscape and local extinctions of wolves, but hybridization may also have facilitated their movement. We present mtDNA sequence data from 686 eastern coyotes and measurements of 196 skulls related to their two-front colonization pattern. We find evidence for hybridization with Great Lakes wolves only along the northern front, which is correlated with larger skull size, increased sexual dimorphism and a five times faster colonization rate than the southern front...
February 23, 2010: Biology Letters
Kurt C VerCauteren, Todd C Atwood, Thomas J DeLiberto, Holly J Smith, Justin S Stevenson, Bruce V Thomsen, Thomas Gidlewski, Janet Payeur
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the northeastern portion of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Bovine TB in deer and cattle has created immense financial consequences for the livestock industry and hunting public. Surveillance identified coyotes (Canis latrans) as potential bio-accumulators of Mycobacterium bovis, a finding that generated interest in their potential to serve as sentinels for monitoring disease risk. We sampled 175 coyotes in the bovine TB-endemic area...
December 2008: Emerging Infectious Diseases
James M Trout, Mónica Santín, Ronald Fayer
Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. PCR-amplified fragments of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence analysis for species/genotype determination. Seven coyotes (32%) were positive for G. duodenalis: three assemblage C, three assemblage D, and one assemblage B. Six coyotes (27%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp...
June 2006: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Meighan Daly, Kelly L Diegel, Scott D Fitzgerald, Angie Schooley, Dale E Berry, John B Kaneene
The state of Michigan has recognized the presence of Mycobacterium bovis in its free-ranging white-tailed deer population since 1994. This endemic infection is primarily located in a 12-county area in the northeastern lower peninsula of Michigan. A statewide surveillance and eradication program of the disease has been in effect since 1994. Worldwide, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms have a known predilection toward development of antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of M...
July 2006: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Matthew E Gompper, Rachel M Goodman, Roland W Kays, Justina C Ray, Christine V Fiorello, Susan E Wade
Coyotes (Canis latrans) have colonized northeastern North America only within the past 10-80 yr. We examined feces of coyotes in 2000-01 at three sites in New York (USA) to survey parasites in the region. Two cestodes, nine nematodes, five protozoa, one trematode, and two arthropods were identified from 145 coyote fecal samples. Parasite component community diversity was higher (n = 16 species) in southern New York than in middle and northern sites (nine species each) and infracommunity species richness was greater in southern New York than at the other sites...
July 2003: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
J R Adams, B T Kelly, L P Waits
The US Fish and Wildlife Service's (USFWS) Red Wolf Recovery Program recognizes hybridization with coyotes as the primary threat to red wolf recovery. Efforts to curb or stop hybridization are hampered in two ways. First, hybrid individuals are difficult to identify based solely on morphology. Second, managers need to effectively search 6000 km(2) for the presence of coyotes and hybrids. We develop a noninvasive method to screen large geographical areas for coyotes and hybrids with maternal coyote ancestry by combining mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of faeces (scat) and geographic information system (GIS) technology...
August 2003: Molecular Ecology
John B Kaneene, Michael VanderKlok, Colleen S Bruning-Fann, Mitchell V Palmer, Diana L Whipple, Stephen M Schmitt, RoseAnn Miller
OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of tuberculosis caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cervids on privately owned ranches in northeastern lower Michigan. DESIGN: Epidemiologic survey. ANIMALS: Cervids on 96 privately owned ranches. PROCEDURES: A combination of slaughter and skin tuberculin testing was used to collect data. Infection with M. bovis was confirmed by use of standard necropsy and bacteriologic culture techniques...
March 1, 2002: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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