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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786867/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-antagonists-reduce-prostatic-enlargement-and-inflammation-in-carrageenan-induced-chronic-prostatitis
#1
Petra Popovics, Renzhi Cai, Wei Sha, Ferenc G Rick, Andrew V Schally
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a key role in the etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through multiple pathways involving the stimulation of proliferation by cytokines and growth factors as well as the induction of the focal occurrence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We have previously reported that GHRH acts as a prostatic growth factor in experimental BPH and in autoimmune prostatitis models and its blockade with GHRH antagonists offer therapeutic approaches for these conditions...
May 21, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786112/ctla%C3%A2-4-interferes-with-the-hbv%C3%A2-specific-t-cell-immune-response-review
#2
Hui Cao, Ruiwen Zhang, Wei Zhang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of hepatic inflammation. Successful HBV clearance in patients is associated with sustained viral control by effector T cells. Compared with acute hepatitis B, chronic HBV infection is associated with the depletion of T cells, resulting in weak or absent virus‑specific T cells reactivity, which is described as 'exhaustion'. This exhaustion is characterized by impaired cytokine production and sustained expression of multiple coinhibitory molecules. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte‑associated antigen‑4 (CTLA‑4) is one of many coinhibitory molecules that can attenuate T cell activation by inhibiting costimulation and transmitting inhibitory signals to T cells...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786071/dopamine-d2-receptor-restricts-astrocytic-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-via-enhancing-the-interaction-of-%C3%AE-arrestin2-and-nlrp3
#3
Jialei Zhu, Zhaoli Hu, Xiaojuan Han, Dongshuo Wang, Qingling Jiang, Jianhua Ding, Ming Xiao, Cong Wang, Ming Lu, Gang Hu
Astrocytes are involved in the neuroinflammation of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Among the numerous inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) produced by astrocytic Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP) inflammasome is crucial in the pathogenesis of PD. β-arrestin2-mediated dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2) signal transduction has been regarded as a potential anti-inflammatory target. Our previous study revealed that astrocytic Drd2 suppresses neuroinflammation in the central nervous system...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785841/effects-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-neurites-relevant-to-schizophrenia-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Xu-Feng Huang, Xueqin Song
Although antipsychotic drugs are mainly used for treating schizophrenia, they are widely used for treating various psychiatric diseases in adults, the elderly, adolescents and even children. Today, about 1.2% of the worldwide population suffers from psychosis and related disorders, which translates to about 7.5 million subjects potentially targeted by antipsychotic drugs. Neurites project from the cell body of neurons and connect neurons to each other to form neural networks. Deficits in neurite outgrowth and integrity are implicated in psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia...
May 22, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785588/sam68-promotes-invasion-migration-and-proliferation-of-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-by-enhancing-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-pathway-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
Weiwei Sun, Rongqin Qin, Rui Wang, Dazhi Ding, Zhaohui Yu, Yuxi Liu, Ruilong Hong, Zhen Cheng, Youhua Wang
Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 KDa (Sam68), also known as KH domain containing, RNA binding, signal transduction associated 1 (KHDRBS1), is the prototypic member of the signal transduction activator of RNA (STAR) family of RNA-binding proteins. Previous studies have indicated that Sam68 regulates nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) to mediate inflammation. In this study, we analyzed the effect and possible mechanisms of Sam68 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). By western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we found that the expression of Sam68 in synovial tissue of RA patients was increased compared with the control group...
May 21, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785143/pilot-study-of-the-antifibrotic-effects-of-the-multikinase-inhibitor-pacritinib-in-a-mouse-model-of-liver-fibrosis
#6
Suliman Al-Fayoumi, Taishi Hashiguchi, Yuka Shirakata, John Mascarenhas, Jack W Singer
Background: Fibrotic diseases result from an exuberant response to chronic inflammation. Myelofibrosis is the end result of inflammation in bone, caused by an inflammatory process triggered by production of abnormal myeloid cells driven by mutations affecting the JAK-STAT pathway. Inflammatory cytokine overproduction leads to increased mesenchymal cell proliferation, culminating in fibrosis. Although JAK2 inhibitors, such as the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib and the JAK2/FLT3/CSF1R/IRAK1 inhibitor pacritinib suppress abnormal clone expansion in myelofibrosis, ruxolitinib does not appear to prevent or reverse bone-marrow fibrosis in most patients...
2018: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785126/impact-of-targeting-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-2-with-antisense-ot-101-on-the-cytokine-and-chemokine-profile-in-patients-with-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#7
Osmond J D'Cruz, Sanjive Qazi, Larn Hwang, Kevin Ng, Vuong Trieu
Background: Overexpression of the cytokine - transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) - has been implicated in the malignant progression of pancreatic cancer (PAC). OT-101 (trabedersen) is an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide designed to target the human TGF-β2 mRNA. In a Phase I/II study, OT-101 treatment with subsequent chemotherapy was characterized by outstanding overall survival (OS) in patients with PAC. Objective: This study sought to identify 1) co-regulated sets of cyto-/chemokines; 2) potential mechanisms that link TGF-β receptor type 2 receptor inhibition that may result in the induction of a cytokine storm; and 3) predictive biomarkers for OS outcome in OT-101-treated patients with PAC...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784961/sarcodon-imbricatus-polysaccharides-improve-mouse-hematopoietic-function-after-cyclophosphamide-induced-damage-via-g-csf-mediated-jak2-stat3-pathway
#8
Xue Wang, Qiubo Chu, Xue Jiang, Yue Yu, Libian Wang, Yaqi Cui, Jiahui Lu, Lirong Teng, Di Wang
Sarcodon imbricatus, a rare medicinal and edible fungus, has various pharmacological bioactivities. We investigated the effects of S. imbricatus polysaccharides (SIPS) on hematopoietic function and identified the underlying mechanisms using in vitro experiments with CHRF, K562, and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) and in vivo experiments with a mouse model of cyclophosphamide-induced hematopoietic dysfunction. We found that SIPS induced proliferation and differentiation of CHRF and K562 cells and upregulated the expression of hematopoietic-related proteins, including p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK1p90), c-Myc, and ETS transcription factor, in the two cell lines...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784900/irak-inhibitor-protects-the-intestinal-tract-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-by-inhibiting-the-toll-like-receptor-tlr-inflammatory-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#9
Yu Hou, Xin Lu, Yueju Zhang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess the effects of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor associated kinase (IRAK) inhibitors on intestinal injury induced by necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonatal rats and its regulation on the intestinal Toll-like receptor (TLR) inflammatory signaling pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS The neonatal rat models of NEC were established though hypoxia-cold stimulation. All rats were divided into 3 groups: an NEC model group (NEC group), an IRAK inhibitor group (IRAKI group), and a normal control group (NC group)...
May 22, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784660/interleukin-6-reduces-%C3%AE-cell-oxidative-stress-by-linking-autophagy-with-the-antioxidant-response
#10
Michelle R Marasco, Abass M Conteh, Christopher A Reissaus, John E Cupit V, Evan M Appleman, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Amelia K Linnemann
Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key instigator of β-cell dysfunction in diabetes. The pleiotropic cytokine IL-6 has previously been linked to β-cell autophagy but has not been studied in the context of β-cell antioxidant response. We used a combination of animal models of diabetes and analysis of cultured human islets and rodent β-cells to study how IL-6 influences antioxidant response. We show that IL-6 couples autophagy to antioxidant response to reduce β-cell and human islet ROS. β cell-specific loss of IL-6 signaling in vivo renders mice more susceptible to oxidative damage and cell death by the selective β-cell toxins streptozotocin and alloxan...
May 21, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784005/cd8-t-cells-mediate-the-antitumor-activity-of-frankincense-and-myrrh-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Chun Xu, Xian Lu, Wei Liu, Anxian Chen, Gang Meng, Hailin Zhang, Binghua Li, Yonghui Zhang, Junhua Wu, Jiwu Wei
BACKGROUND: Tumor-promoting inflammation is an emerging hallmark of cancer, which participates in both cancer progression and immune escape. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical inflammation-related cancer with an extremely poor prognosis. Frankincense and myrrh are anti-inflammation agents commonly used in clinic. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether extract of frankincense and myrrh (FM) downregulates inflammatory microenvironment of HCC and thereby restores antitumor immune responses...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783993/cirsimaritin-inhibits-influenza-a-virus-replication-by-downregulating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-transduction-pathway
#12
Haiyan Yan, Huiqiang Wang, Linlin Ma, Xueping Ma, Jinqiu Yin, Shuo Wu, Hua Huang, Yuhuan Li
BACKGROUND: Artemisia scoparia Waldst and Kit is a famous traditional Chinese medicine widely distributed in Xinjiang, China. Flavonoids extracted from it exhibits inhibitory activities against several influenza virus strains. Despite this fact, the antiviral properties of CST, one of such flavonoids, against the influenza virus has not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the anti-influenza virus efficacy and antiviral mechanism of CST. METHODS: The inhibitory activity of CST against influenza viruses was assessed by using viral titers and performing Western blot, qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence assays in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and a human monocytic cell line (THP-1)...
May 21, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783985/the-doses-of-plasmid-backbone-plays-a-major-role-in-determining-the-hbv-clearance-in-hydrodynamic-injection-mouse-model
#13
Xian Wang, Jianmin Zhu, Yong Zhang, Yue Li, Tai Ma, Qun Li, Jiegou Xu, Long Xu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronically infects approximately 350 million people worldwide, causing a major risk of liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Many mouse models have been tried to establish HBV infection through injection with various HBV-containing plasmids. However, it is not well understood that different plasmids, all of which contain the similar HBV genome, even the same plasmids with different dose, results in opposite immune responses toward HBV. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the role of HBV-containing plasmid backbones and the HBcAg in determining the HBV persistence...
May 21, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783850/the-utility-of-anti-inflammatory-agents-in-cardiovascular-disease-a-novel-perspective-on-the-treatment-of-atherosclerosis
#14
Santhosh J Kottoor, Rohit R Arora
Approximately 40% of heart attack survivors remain at increased risk of recurrent cardiovascular events, despite the current treatment options showing that atherothrombosis is not exclusively a disorder of lipoprotein aggregation in the arterial wall. Clinical and experimental data suggest that inflammation plays an important role in atherothrombosis independent of the cholesterol level. Acute-phase reactants, such as C-reactive protein, increase in patients with coronary artery disease and are known to predict adverse outcomes in such patients...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783162/a-peripheral-immune-response-to-remembering-trauma-contributes-to-the-maintenance-of-fear-memory-in-mice
#15
Matthew B Young, Leonard L Howell, Lauren Hopkins, Cassandra Moshfegh, Zhe Yu, Lauren Clubb, Jessica Seidenberg, Jeanie Park, Adam P Swiercz, Paul J Marvar
Alterations in peripheral immune markers are observed in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is characterized in part by impaired extinction of fear memory for a traumatic experience. We hypothesized that fear memory extinction is regulated by immune signaling stimulated when fear memory is retrieved. The relationship between fear memory and the peripheral immune response was tested using auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning in mice. Memory for the association was quantified by the amount of conditioned freezing exhibited in response to the conditioned stimulus (CS), extinction and time-dependent changes in circulating inflammatory cytokines...
May 17, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782975/roles-of-germline-jak2-activation-mutation-jak2-v625f-in-the-pathology-of-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#16
Qing-Yun Wu, Meng-Meng Ma, Lin Fu, Yuan-Yuan Zhu, Yang Liu, Jiang Cao, Ping Zhou, Zhen-Yu Li, Ling-Yu Zeng, Feng Li, Xiao-Yun Wang, Kai-Lin Xu
Janus tyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2) mediates downstream signaling of cytokine receptors in all hematological lineages, constitutively active somatic JAK2 mutations play key roles in the pathology of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Recently, germline JAK2 mutations are also associated with triple-negative MPNs. A novel germline mutation JAK2 V625F is reported to be involved in a subset of MPNs patients. However, the pathogenesis of this mutation caused MPN is still unclear. In this study, the homology models of JAK2 V625F showed that the newly formed interaction between F625 and Y613 disrupted the JAK2 JH1-JH2 domain interactions was responsible for its activation, when F625 and Y613 interaction was disrupted, its activity significantly decreased...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782967/deficient-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-il-2-activated-nk-cells-correlates-with-impaired-pgc1-%C3%AE-upregulation-in-elderly-humans
#17
Dante Miranda, Claudia Jara, Sophia Mejias, Viviana Ahumada, Marcelo Cortez-San Martin, Jorge Ibañez, Sandra Hirsch, Margarita Montoya
Immunosenescence has been described as age-associated changes in the immune function which are thought to be responsible for the increased morbidity with age. Human Natural Killer (NK) cells are a specialized heterogeneous subpopulation of lymphocytes involved in immune defense against tumor and microbial diseases. Interestingly, aging-related NK cell dysfunction is associated with features of aging such as tumor incidence, reduced vaccination efficacy, and short survival due to infection. It is known that NK cell effector functions are critically dependent on cytokines and metabolic activity...
May 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782940/defining-osteoblast-and-adipocyte-lineages-in-the-bone-marrow
#18
J L Pierce, D L Begun, J J Westendorf, M E McGee-Lawrence
Bone is a complex endocrine organ that facilitates structural support, protection to vital organs, sites for hematopoiesis, and calcium homeostasis. The bone marrow microenvironment is a heterogeneous niche consisting of multipotent musculoskeletal and hematopoietic progenitors and their derivative terminal cell types. Amongst these progenitors, bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) may differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, and chondrogenic lineages to support musculoskeletal development as well as tissue homeostasis, regeneration and repair during adulthood...
May 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782549/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-2-facilitates-pulmonary-fibrosis-through-potentiating-il-13-pathway-in-macrophages
#19
Juanjuan Zhao, Yasuo Okamoto, Yuya Asano, Kazuhiro Ishimaru, Sho Aki, Kazuaki Yoshioka, Noriko Takuwa, Takashi Wada, Yutaka Inagaki, Chiaki Takahashi, Takumi Nishiuchi, Yoh Takuwa
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating disease with poor prognosis. The pathogenic role of the lysophospholipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate and its receptor S1PR2 in lung fibrosis is unknown. We show here that genetic deletion of S1pr2 strikingly attenuated lung fibrosis induced by repeated injections of bleomycin in mice. We observed by using S1pr2LacZ/+ mice that S1PR2 was expressed in alveolar macrophages, vascular endothelial cells and alveolar epithelial cells in the lung and that S1PR2-expressing cells accumulated in the fibrotic legions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782011/a-preclinical-mouse-model-of-osteosarcoma-to-define-the-extracellular-vesicle-mediated-communication-between-tumor-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
Tonny Lagerweij, Maria Pérez-Lanzón, S Rubina Baglio
Within the tumor microenvironment, resident or recruited mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to malignant progression in multiple cancer types. Under the influence of specific environmental signals, these adult stem cells can release paracrine mediators leading to accelerated tumor growth and metastasis. Defining the crosstalk between tumor and MSCs is of primary importance to understand the mechanisms underlying cancer progression and identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Cancer cells produce high amounts of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which can profoundly affect the behavior of target cells in the tumor microenvironment or at distant sites...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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