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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812547/lung-epithelial-cells-therapeutically-inducible-effectors-of-antimicrobial-defense
#1
REVIEW
M M Leiva-Juárez, J K Kolls, S E Evans
Lung epithelial cells are increasingly recognized to be active effectors of microbial defense, contributing to both innate and adaptive immune function in the lower respiratory tract. As immune sentinels, lung epithelial cells detect diverse pathogens through an ample repertoire of membrane-bound, endosomal, and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The highly plastic epithelial barrier responds to detected threats via modulation of paracellular flux, intercellular communications, mucin production, and periciliary fluid composition...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811967/il-18-receptor-marks-functional-cd8-t-cells-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Eleonora Timperi, Chiara Focaccetti, Daniela Gallerano, Mariangela Panetta, Sheila Spada, Enzo Gallo, Paolo Visca, Federico Venuta, Daniele Diso, Arsela Prelaj, Flavia Longo, Francesco Facciolo, Paola Nisticò, Vincenzo Barnaba
IL-18 is an inflammasome-related cytokine, member of the IL-1 family, produced by a wide range of cells in response to signals by several pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns. It can be highly represented in tumor patients, but its relevance in human cancer development is not clear. In this study, we provide evidence that IL-18 is principally expressed in tumor cells and, in concert with other conventional Th1 cell-driven cytokines, has a pivotal role in establishing a pro-inflammatory milieu in the tumor microenvironment of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811679/bisphenol-a-does-not-mimic-estrogen-in-the-promotion-of-the-in-vitro-response-of-murine-dendritic-cells-to-toll-like-receptor-ligands
#3
Marita Chakhtoura, Uma Sriram, Michelle Heayn, Joshua Wonsidler, Christopher Doyle, Joudy-Ann Dinnall, Stefania Gallucci, Rebecca A Roberts
Sex hormones affect immune responses and might promote autoimmunity. Endocrine disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) may mimic their immune effects. Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) are pivotal initiators of immune responses upon activation by danger signals coming from pathogens or distressed tissues through triggering of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We generated in vitro murine cDCs in the absence of estrogens and measured the effects of exogenously added estrogen or BPA on their differentiation and activation by the TLR ligands LPS and CpG...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811578/an-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-inducing-potential-of-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-in-colon-cancer
#4
Yaqiong Chen, Zhi Zhao, Yu Chen, Zhonglin Lv, Xin Ding, Renxi Wang, He Xiao, Chunmei Hou, Beifen Shen, Jiannan Feng, Renfeng Guo, Yan Li, Hui Peng, Gencheng Han, Guojiang Chen
Growing evidence shows that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has progression-promoting potentials in certain solid tumors, which is largely attributed to the immunomodulatory function of this cytokine in tumor niches. However, little is known about the effect of GM-CSF on cancer cells. Herein, we show that chronic exposure of colon cancer cells to GM-CSF, which harbor its receptor, leads to occurrence of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), in time and dose-dependent manners...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811546/serum-derived-extracellular-vesicles-evs-impact-on-vascular-remodeling-and-prevent-muscle-damage-in-acute-hind-limb-ischemia
#5
Claudia Cavallari, Andrea Ranghino, Marta Tapparo, Massimo Cedrino, Federico Figliolini, Cristina Grange, Valentina Giannachi, Paolo Garneri, Maria Chiara Deregibus, Federica Collino, Pietro Rispoli, Giovanni Camussi, Maria Felice Brizzi
Serum is an abundant and accessible source of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs). Serum-EV (sEV) pro-angiogenic capability and mechanisms are herein analyzed using an in vitro assay which predicts sEV angiogenic potential in vivo. Effective sEVs (e-sEVs) also improved vascular remodeling and prevented muscle damage in a mouse model of acute hind limb ischemia. e-sEV angiogenic proteomic and transcriptomic analyses show a positive correlation with matrix-metalloproteinase activation and extracellular matrix organization, cytokine and chemokine signaling pathways, Insulin-like Growth Factor and platelet pathways, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor signaling...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811543/4-e-p-tolylimino-methylbenzene-1-2-diol-timbd-suppresses-hiv1-gp120-mediated-production-of-il6-and-il8-but-not-ccl5
#6
Fatma Abdalla, Anantha Nookala, Subhash B Padhye, Anil Kumar, Hari K Bhat
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been associated with inflammatory effects that may potentially result in neurodegenerative changes and a number of newer chemotherapeutic agents are being tested to ameliorate these effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of a novel resveratrol analog 4-(E)-{(p-tolylimino)-methylbenzene-1,2-diol} (TIMBD) against HIV1-gp120 induced neuroinflammation in SVG astrocytes. SVG astrocytic cells were pretreated with TIMBD or resveratrol (RES) and then transfected with a plasmid encoding HIV1-gp120...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811527/atherosusceptible-shear-stress-activates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-to-promote-endothelial-inflammation
#7
Keith A Bailey, Fawaz G Haj, Scott I Simon, Anthony G Passerini
Atherosclerosis impacts arteries where disturbed blood flow renders the endothelium susceptible to inflammation. Cytokine activation of endothelial cells (EC) upregulates VCAM-1 receptors that target monocyte recruitment to atherosusceptible regions. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elicits EC dysregulation in metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that ER plays a central role in mechanosensing of atherosusceptible shear stress (SS) by signaling enhanced inflammation. Aortic EC were stimulated with low-dose TNFα (0...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811383/interleukin-36-cytokines-may-overcome-microbial-immune-evasion-strategies-that-inhibit-interleukin-1-family-signaling
#8
REVIEW
Liselotte E Jensen
Pathogens deploy immune evasion strategies to successfully establish infections within their hosts. Naturally, the host responds by acquiring mechanisms to counter these strategies. There is increasing evidence that the three interleukin-36 (IL-36) cytokines, IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ, play important roles in host immunity. With a focus on the skin as a target for microbial and viral invasion, the current knowledge of IL-36 functions is reviewed. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the IL-36s have evolved to counteract virulence factors is presented using viruses as an example...
August 15, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811340/type-iii-interferon-mediated-signaling-is-critical-for-controlling-live-attenuated-yellow-fever-virus-infection-in-vivo
#9
Florian Douam, Yentli E Soto Albrecht, Gabriela Hrebikova, Evita Sadimin, Christian Davidson, Sergei V Kotenko, Alexander Ploss
Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus, infecting ~200,000 people worldwide annually and causing about 30,000 deaths. The live attenuated vaccine strain, YFV-17D, has significantly contributed in controlling the global burden of yellow fever worldwide. However, the viral and host contributions to YFV-17D attenuation remain elusive. Type I interferon (IFN-α/β) signaling and type II interferon (IFN-γ) signaling have been shown to be mutually supportive in controlling YFV-17D infection despite distinct mechanisms of action in viral infection...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811235/sodium-butyrate-ameliorates-s100-fca-induced-autoimmune-hepatitis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-tight-junction-and-toll-like-receptor-signaling-pathway
#10
Jin-Lu Wu, Jia-Yun Zou, En-De Hu, Da-Zhi Chen, Lu Chen, Feng-Bin Lu, Lan-Man Xu, Ming-Hua Zheng, Hui Li, Yu Huang, Xiao-Ya Jin, Yue-Wen Gong, Zhuo Lin, Xiao-Dong Wang, Ming-Fang Zhao, Yong-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent investigation revealed that dysbiosis in the gut flora and disruption of permeability of intestinal barrier are possible causes for the development of autoimmune hepatitis. Supplementation of sodium butyrate has been suggested to protect liver injury from disrupted permeability of small intestine. In current study, we employed S100/Freund's complete adjuvant induced autoimmune hepatitis to investigate therapeutic efficacy of sodium butyrate and its mechanism in the liver and upper small intestine...
August 12, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811129/microrna-29a-regulates-lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-murine-macrophages-through-the-akt1-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#11
Bufu Tang, Xingchen Li, Yanling Ren, Jing Wang, Di Xu, Yiru Hang, Tingting Zhou, Feng Li, Ling Wang
Akt activation in macrophages enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses through upregulation of the NF-κB signal pathway. Akt phosphorylation via microRNA (miR) caused the downregulation of Akt1. Here, we evaluated the role of miR-29a in LPS-triggered inflammatory responses. LPS stimulation of primary macrophages and RAW264.7 cells gradually increased the levels of miR-29a and was dependent on the LPS concentration. Overexpression of miR-29a in macrophages enhanced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and IL-6, but not TNF-α...
August 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810598/differentially-methylated-regions-in-patients-with-rheumatic-heart-disease-and-secondary-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#12
Dawei Zheng, Xiaoying Chen, Ni Li, Lebo Sun, Qingyun Zhou, Huoshun Shi, Guodong Xu, Jing Liu, Limin Xu, Shiwei Duan, Guofeng Shao
The aim of the present study was to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in patients with rheumatic heart disease and secondary pulmonary arterial hypertension (RHD-PAH). A genome-wide DNA methylation assay was performed between 6 patients with RHD-PAH and 6 healthy controls using an Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip kit. The Limma software package was subsequently used to identify significant DMRs. A total of 40 hypome-thylated and 64 hypermethylated CpG sites were identified between the RHD-PAH group and the control group...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810537/cilostazol-protects-mice-against-myocardium-ischemic-reperfusion-injury-by-activating-a-ppar%C3%AE-jak2-stat3-pathway
#13
Jiangjin Li, Xiaoli Xiang, Xiaoxuan Gong, Yafei Shi, Jing Yang, Zuo Xu
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR) injury causes severe arrhythmias and a high lethality. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of cilostazol on MIR injury and the underlying mechaism. We measured the effects of cilostazol on heart function parameters in a mouse model of MIR. Proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis proteins in the myocardium were examined to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis ability of cilostazol. The participation of PPARγ/JAK2/STAT3 pathway was investigated...
August 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810531/mir-146a-overexpression-effectively-improves-experimental-allergic-conjunctivitis-through-regulating-cd4-cd25-t-cells
#14
Yang Yang, Xiaolong Yin, Jinglin Yi, Xiaowei Peng
OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanism of miR-146a in the regulation of allergic conjunctivitis (AC) through CD4(+)CD25(-)T cells. METHODS: BALB/c mice were sensitized with ragweed pollen (RW) and alum, and then challenged with RW. Eosinophil infiltration was determined using Giemsa assay. ELISA assay was performed to examine the level of antigen-specific IgE in the serum and cytokine levels in splenocytes. The expression of miR-146a was measured by qRT-PCR. Flow cytometric analysis was used to analyze the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(-)T cells and Tregs...
August 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810263/association-between-c1q-tnf-related-protein-1-levels-in-human-plasma-and-epicardial-adipose-tissues-and-congestive-heart-failure
#15
Ying Yang, Si Liu, Rong-Yi Zhang, Hui Luo, Ling Chen, Wen-Feng He, Rong Lei, Mu-Rong Liu, Hou-Xiang Hu, Mao Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: C1q and tumour necrosis factor-related protein 1 (CTRP1) possesses anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated whether the CTRP1 levels in the plasma and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) were associated with congestive heart failure (CHF) and to disclose possible molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Plasma and tissue samples were obtained from subjects with or without CHF. Plasma levels of CTRP1 were measured by ELISA. The mRNA levels of CTRP1 and inflammatory cytokines were detected by RT-PCR...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808786/inhibition-of-tlr4-alleviates-the-inflammation-and-apoptosis-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-high-glucose
#16
Lili Hu, Hongxia Yang, Ming Ai, Shuanghong Jiang
PURPOSE: To investigate the expression profiles of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), the effect of TLR4 on inflammation, and apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) cultured in high glucose and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: A high-glucose model was established in RGCs isolated from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (2-3 days old) and identified with Brn3a. Primary cultured RGCs were divided into control (0 mM), HG1 (10 mM glucose), HG2 (20 mM glucose), HG3 (30 mM glucose), HG (20 mM glucose) + TAK-242 (1...
August 14, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808342/effect-of-nitric-oxide-on-human-corneal-epithelial-cell-viability-and-corneal-wound-healing
#17
Joo-Hee Park, Ja-Yeon Kim, Dong Ju Kim, Martha Kim, Minwook Chang, Roy S Chuck, Choul Yong Park
Although the wound healing effects of nitric oxide (NO) are known, the mechanism by which NO modulates corneal wound healing remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous NO donor (NaNO2) on corneal wound healing. We found that NaNO2 (0.1 μM to 100 μM) increased human corneal epithelial cell (HCEC) viability and migration. It also modulated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in a time- dependent manner in those HCECs. Further, p38 MAPK phosphorylation increased at 6 h and normalized at 24 h, while the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) was increased both at 6 h and 24 h...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808187/g-aminobutyric-acid-promotes-methionine-choline-deficient-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#18
Yoon Seok Roh, Ara Cho, Zixiong Zhou, Hyuneui Jeong, Jeong-Eun Park, Youn-Soo Cha, Suk-Heung Oh, Chae-Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver diseases and a major cause of liver fibrosis worldwide. G-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Recently, it has been reported that GABAergic signaling pathways are found in various non-neuronal tissues including the immune system and play a functional role. In the present study, we investigated whether administration of GABA has effects on NASH through its immunomodulatory effects...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808162/listeria-monocytogenes-and-shigella-flexneri-activate-the-nlrp1b-inflammasome
#19
Jana Neiman-Zenevich, Sarah Stuart, Mena Abdel-Nour, Stephen E Girardin, Jeremy Mogridge
Activation of the innate immune receptor NLRP1B leads to the formation of an inflammasome, which induces autoproteolytic processing of pro-caspase-1, and ultimately to the release of inflammatory cytokines and to the execution of pyroptosis. One of the signals to which NLRP1B responds is metabolic stress that occurs in cells deprived of glucose or treated with metabolic inhibitors. NLRP1B might, therefore, sense microbial infection as intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri cause metabolic stress as a result of nutrient scavenging and host cell damage...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807764/staphylococcal-enterotoxin-c2-mutant-drives-t-lymphocyte-activation-through-pi3k-mtor-and-nf-%C3%A4-b-signaling-pathways
#20
Xuanhe Fu, Mingkai Xu, Songyuan Yao, Huiwen Zhang, Chenggang Zhang, Jinghai Zhang
Staphylococcal enterotoxin C2 (SEC2), a superantigen, causes rapid clonal expansion of lymphocytes and secretion of T cell growth factors, leading to a severe inflammatory response within tissues. Although previous studies have shown that ST-4, a SEC2 mutant with enhanced recognition of Vβ regions of T-cell receptors (TCRVβ), can activate an increased number of T cells and produce more cytokines than SEC2. However, the signaling mechanisms of SEC2/ST-4-mediated immune activation have not been addressed. In this study, we showed that the phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI-3K) inhibitor LY294002, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) inhibitor Bay11-7085 could suppress SEC2/ST-4-induced proliferation, CD69/CD25 expression, cell-cycle progression, and IL-2 production in BALB/c mouse splenocytes...
August 11, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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