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midazolam children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072737/the-efficacy-of-dexmedetomidine-remifentanil-versus-dexmedetomidine-propofol-in-children-undergoing-flexible-bronchoscopy-a-retrospective-trial
#1
Hongquan Zhang, Baojun Fang, Wenjing Zhou
Flexible bronchoscopy has been more and more used for diagnosis and management diseases of respiratory system in pediatrics. Previous studies have reported that remifentanil (RF) and propofol are safe and effective for flexible bronchoscopy in adults, however, there have no trials evaluate the efficacy of DEX-RF versus dexmedetomidine-propofol in children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy.We divided 123 children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy with DEX-RF or dexmedetomidine-propofol into 2 groups: Group DR (n = 63, DEX infusion at 1...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006928/sufentanil-and-midazolam-dosing-and-pharmacogenetic-factors-in-pediatric-analgosedation-and-withdrawal-syndrome
#2
K Hronová, P Pokorná, L Posch, O Slanař
Our aim was to describe the effect of dosing and genetic factors on sufentanil- and midazolam-induced analgosedation and withdrawal syndrome (WS) in pediatric population. Analgosedation and withdrawal syndrome development were monitored using COMFORT-neo/-B scores and SOS score. Length of therapy, dosing of sufentanil and midazolam were recorded. Genotypes of selected candidate polymorphisms in CYP3A5, COMT, ABCB1, OPRM1 and PXR were analysed. In the group of 30 neonates and 18 children, longer treatment duration with midazolam of 141 h (2 - 625) vs...
December 21, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992073/a-rectally-administered-combination-of-midazolam-and-ketamine-was-easy-effective-and-feasible-for-procedural-pain-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#3
Stefan Nilsson, Ingemar Brunsson, Berit Askljung, Magnus Påhlman, Kate Himmelmann
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate how effective a combination of rectally administered midazolam and racemic ketamine was for reducing pain in paediatric cerebral palsy patients receiving intramuscular injections of botulinum neurotoxin A. The feasibility and safety of the pain relief were also explored. METHOD: Children with cerebral palsy, aged 1-18 years, were recruited from a regional paediatric rehabilitation unit between April 2012 and May 2014...
December 19, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943132/new-non-intravenous-routes-for-benzodiazepines-in-epilepsy-a-clinician-perspective
#4
Marco Mula
Benzodiazepines represent the first-line treatment for the acute management of epileptic seizures and status epilepticus. The emergency use of benzodiazepines must be timely, and because most seizures occur outside of the hospital environment, there is a significant need for delivery methods that are easy for nonclinical caregivers to use and administer quickly and safely. In addition, the ideal route of administration should be reliable in terms of absorption. Rectal diazepam is the only licensed formulation in the USA, whereas rectal diazepam and buccal midazolam are currently licensed in the EU...
December 9, 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942056/a-comparison-of-ropivacaine-ropivacaine-with-tramadol-and-ropivacaine-with-midazolam-for-post-operative-caudal-epidural-analgesia
#5
A Krishnadas, K Suvarna, V R Hema, M Taznim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Caudal epidural analgesia is the most commonly used method of post-operative analgesia in children undergoing subumbilical surgeries. Many additive drugs have been used to prolong the post-operative analgesia. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of tramadol or midazolam addition to caudal ropivacaine for post-operative analgesia in children undergoing subumbilical surgeries. METHODS: In this prospective, randomised, double-blinded comparative study, sixty children of either gender, in the age group of 1-5 years and scheduled for elective subumbilical surgeries were randomly divided into three groups of twenty each...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941503/the-facemask-blinder-a-technique-for-optimizing-anxiolysis-in-children-undergoing-facial-laceration-repair
#6
Daniel S Tsze, Hilary A Woodward
We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with a forehead laceration that required suture repair. The child was anxious and uncooperative, and the initial plan was to administer intranasal midazolam to facilitate the repair. However, a facemask blinder was first implemented as a visual barrier to block the child's view of any anxiety-provoking stimuli and appeared to improve the child's cooperation with the procedure. Intranasal midazolam was not administered, and the laceration was cleaned and repaired successfully...
December 9, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930967/epidemiology-and-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-management-of-febrile-seizures-in-the-italian-pediatric-emergency-departments-a-prospective-observational-study
#7
Giovanna Vitaliti, Emanuele Castagno, Fulvio Ricceri, Antonio Urbino, Alberto Verrotti Di Pianella, Riccardo Lubrano, Elisa Caramaschi, Maurizio Prota, Rita Maria Pulvirenti, Patrizia Ajovalasit, Giuseppe Signorile, Carla Navone, Maria Rosaria La Bianca, Alberto Villani, Giovanni Corsello, Raffaele Falsaperla
AIM: Febrile seizures (FS) involve 2-5% of the paediatric population, among which Complex FS (CFS) account for one third of accesses for FS in Emergency Departments (EDs). The aim of our study was to define the epidemiology, the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approach to FS and CFSs in the Italian EDs. METHODS: A multicenter prospective observational study was performed between April 2014 and March 2015. Patients between 1 and 60 months of age, randomly accessing to ED for ongoing FS or reported FS at home were included...
November 16, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928238/conscious-sedation-efficacy-of-0-3-and-0-5-mg-kg-oral-midazolam-for-three-to-six-year-old-uncooperative-children-undergoing-dental-treatment-a-clinical-trial
#8
Masoud Fallahinejad Ghajari, Ghassem Ansari, Leila Hasanbeygi, Shahnaz Shayeghi
OBJECTIVES: Midazolam with variable dosages has been used to induce sedation in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two dosages of oral midazolam for conscious sedation of children undergoing dental treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized crossover double blind clinical trial, 20 healthy children (ASA I) aged three to six years with definitely negative Frankl behavioral rating scale were evaluated. Half of the children received 0...
March 2016: Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925849/development-and-prospective-federal-state-wide-evaluation-of-a-device-for-height-based-dose-recommendations-in-prehospital-pediatric-emergencies-a-simple-tool-to-prevent-most-severe-drug-errors
#9
Jost Kaufmann, Bernhard Roth, Thomas Engelhardt, Alex Lechleuthner, Michael Laschat, Christoph Hadamitzky, Frank Wappler, Martin Hellmich
OBJECTIVE: Drug dosing errors pose a particular threat to children in prehospital emergency care. With the Pediatric emergency ruler (PaedER), we developed a simple height-based dose recommendation system and evaluated its effectiveness in a pre-post interventional trial as the Ethics Committee disapproved randomization due to the expected positive effect of the PaedER on outcome. METHODS: Pre-interventional data were retrospectively retrieved from the electronic records and medical protocols of the Cologne Emergency Medical Service over a two-year period prior to the introduction of the PaedER...
December 7, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890484/25-years-of-advances-in-definition-classification-and-treatment-of-status-epilepticus
#10
Eugen Trinka, Reetta Kälviäinen
PURPOSE: Status epilepticus (SE) requires not only urgent symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs but also rapid identification and treatment of its cause. This narrative review summarizes the most important advances in classification and treatment of SE. METHOD: Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and back tracking of references in pertinent studies, reviews, and books. RESULTS: SE is now defined as "a condition resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms, which lead to abnormally, prolonged seizures (after time point t1)...
November 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861435/intramuscular-fentanyl-and-ketorolac-associated-with-superior-pain-control-after-pediatric-bilateral-myringotomy-and-tube-placement-surgery-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Paul A Stricker, Wallis T Muhly, Ellen C Jantzen, Yue Li, Abbas F Jawad, Alexander S Long, Marcia Polansky, Scott D Cook-Sather
BACKGROUND: Bilateral myringotomy and pressure equalization tube insertion (BMT) is the most common surgery in children. Multiple anesthetic techniques for BMT have been proposed, but that which reliably promotes ideal recovery remains unclear. We sought to assess associations between anesthetic regimens that included single-agent (fentanyl or ketorolac) or dual-agent (fentanyl and ketorolac) analgesic therapy and the primary outcome of maximal postanesthesia care unit (PACU) pain score...
January 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833480/a-comparison-of-oral-midazolam-and-oral-dexmedetomidine-as-premedication-in-pediatric-anesthesia
#12
V Jannu, R S Mane, M G Dhorigol, C S Sanikop
CONTEXT: Oral premedication is widely used in pediatric anesthesia to provide preoperative anxiolysis and ensure smooth induction. Midazolam is currently the most commonly used premedicant, but newer drugs such as the α2-agonists have emerged as alternatives for premedication in children. AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare clinical effects of oral midazolam and oral dexmedetomidine on preanesthetic sedation and postoperative recovery profile in children...
October 2016: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832689/comparison-of-oral-midazolam-with-intravenous-midazolam-for-sedation-children-during-upper-gastrointestinal-endoscopy
#13
Ahmad Khodadad, Majid Aflatoonian, Rozita Jalilian, Nazanin Babaei, Farzaneh Motamed, Alireza Ebrahime Soltani, Behnaz Rasoolzadeh, Fatemeh Motavasselian, Nima Rezaei
Upper endoscopy is a common procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of upper digestive tract diseases. The increasing number of pediatric gastrointestinal procedures has led to increasing attention on the safety and efficacy of medications used for sedation during the procedure. This randomized blinded interventional study was designed to compare the effect of oral midazolam with intravenous (IV) midazolam as a sedative medication in 119 children undergoing endoscopy. The mean time to sedation was 2.2±0...
September 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826208/sedation-with-a-remifentanil-infusion-to-facilitate-rapid-awakening-and-tracheal-extubation-in-an-infant-with-a-potentially-compromised-airway
#14
Jeffrey Naples, Mark W Hall, Joseph D Tobias
Sedation is generally required during endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation in infants and children. While there are many options for the provision of sedation, the most commonly used agents such as midazolam and fentanyl demonstrate a context-sensitive half-life, which may result in a prolonged effect when these agents are discontinued following a continuous infusion. We present a 20-month-old infant who required endotracheal intubation due to respiratory failure following seizures. At the referring hospital, multiple laryngoscopies were performed with the potential for airway trauma...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823876/optimal-volume-of-administration-of-intranasal-midazolam-in-children-a-randomized-clinical%C3%A2-trial
#15
Daniel S Tsze, Maria Ieni, Daniel B Fenster, John Babineau, Joshua Kriger, Bruce Levin, Peter S Dayan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The optimal intranasal volume of administration for achieving timely and effective sedation in children is unclear. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes relevant to procedural sedation associated with using escalating volumes of administration to administer intranasal midazolam. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, 3-arm, superiority clinical trial. Children aged 1 to 7 years and undergoing laceration repair requiring 0.5 mg/kg intranasal midazolam (5 mg/mL) were block-randomized to receive midazolam using 1 of 3 volumes of administration: 0...
November 4, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801707/implementation-of-a-nurse-driven-sedation-protocol-in-a-picu-decreases-daily-doses-of-midazolam
#16
Bénédicte Gaillard-Le Roux, Jean-Michel Liet, Pierre Bourgoin, Arnaud Legrand, Jean-Christophe Roze, Nicolas Joram
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a nurse-driven sedation protocol on the length of mechanical ventilation, total daily doses of sedatives, and complications of sedation. DESIGN: A single-center prospective before and after study was conducted from October 2010 to December 2013. SETTING: Twelve-bed surgical and medical PICU of the university-affiliated hospital in Nantes, France. PATIENTS: A total of 235 patients, between 28 days and 18 years old, requiring mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours were included in the study; data from 194 patients were analyzed...
October 28, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800539/comparing-two-different-doses-of-intravenous-midazolam-in-pediatric-sedation-and-analgesia
#17
Hassan Barzegari, Kambiz Masoumi, Hassan Motamed, Behzad Zohrevandi, Shima Zeynadini Meymand
INTRODUCTION: Midazolam has turned into a common drug for pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia. However, there is not much data regarding its proper dose and potential side effects in the Iranian children population. Therefore, the present study was done to compare 2 doses of IV midazolam in this regard. METHODS: The present clinical trial was performed to compare 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg doses of IV midazolam in induction of sedation for head trauma infant patients in need of brain computed tomography (CT) scan...
November 2016: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790555/efficacy-and-safety-of-clonidine-as-an-adjuvant-to-bupivacaine-for-caudal-analgesia-in-paediatric-infra-umbilical-surgeries
#18
Samita Priolkar, Shirley Ann D'Souza
INTRODUCTION: Caudal analgesia, has gained popularity in paediatric intraoperative and postoperative pain management, more so with the use of adjuvants to prolong its duration, each of them having various results. Clonidine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist is being used for its analgesic effects in various doses with 0.25% Bupivacaine. AIM: The study was conducted to compare the analgesic efficacy, haemodynamic safety and side effects of 1 μg/kg Clonidine added to 1 ml/kg of 0...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783767/moderate-sedation-helps-improve-future-behavior-in-pediatric-dental-patients-a-prospective-study
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Denise Espíndola Antunes, Karolline Alves Viana, Paulo Sucasas Costa, Luciane Rezende Costa
There is little evidence on the long-term effects of pharmacological management in children undergoing dental treatment. This study aimed to assess children's behavior in consecutive dental sessions following oral rehabilitation using different pharmacological regimens for behavioral control. Participants were preschoolers who were previously treated for caries under one of the following: no sedative, oral sedation with midazolam, oral sedation with midazolam/ketamine, or general anesthesia. The children's behavior in the follow-up sessions was assessed using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS); higher scores represented less cooperative behavior (range 5-20)...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767204/scaling-clearance-in-paediatric-pharmacokinetics-all-models-are-wrong-which-are-useful
#20
Eva Germovsek, Charlotte I S Barker, Mike Sharland, Joseph F Standing
AIM: When different models for weight and age are used in paediatric pharmacokinetic studies it is difficult to compare parameters between studies or perform model-based meta-analyses. This study aimed to compare published models with the proposed standard model (allometric weight(0.75) and sigmoidal maturation function). METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify published clearance (CL) reports for gentamicin and midazolam and all published models for scaling clearance in children...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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