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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449421/-the-role-of-micrornas-in-colorectal-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Sang Wook Kim
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths in the world. Many oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are involved in the development of CRC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding, endogenous RNAs in animals and plants. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are associated with the mediation process of tumorigenesis, including inflammation, cell cycle, stress response, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion in cancer. These miRNAs have been linked to the development of CRC and recently studied as new potential biomarkers in the diagnosis and treatment for CRC...
April 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449331/mir-130a-as-a-diagnostic-marker-to-differentiate-malignant-mesothelioma-from-lung-adenocarcinoma-in-pleural-effusion-cytology
#2
Rocco Cappellesso, Marco Galasso, Lorenzo Nicolè, Paolo Dabrilli, Stefano Volinia, Ambrogio Fassina
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare tumor with a dismal prognosis, usually presenting with recurrent effusions. However, the majority of malignant pleural effusions are due to lung adenocarcinoma (AdC). The distinction between these tumors has considerable therapeutic and medicolegal implications and can be very challenging both histologically and cytologically. Appropriate immunohistochemistry (IHC) is required to support the diagnosis. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression analysis could be a viable diagnostic tool for distinguishing between these tumors...
April 27, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449079/small-non-coding-rna-and-cancer
#3
Giulia Romano, Dario Veneziano, Mario Acunzo, Carlo M Croce
The ENCODE project has reported that at least 80% of the human genome is biologically active, yet only a small part of human DNA encodes for protein. The massive amount of RNA transcribed but not translated into protein can be classified as housekeeping RNA (such as rRNA, tRNA) and regulatory RNA (such as miRNA, piRNA, lncRNA). Small non-coding RNAs, in particular, have been the focus of many studies in the last 20 years and their fundamental role in many human diseases is currently well established. Inter alia, their role in cancer development and progression, as well as in drug resistance, is being increasingly investigated...
April 26, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449010/excess-of-a-rassf1-targeting-microrna-mir-193a-3p-perturbs-cell-division-fidelity
#4
Sofia Pruikkonen, Marko J Kallio
BACKGROUND: Several microRNA (miRNA) molecules have emerged as important post-transcriptional regulators of tumour suppressor and oncogene expression. Ras association domain family member 1 (RASSF1) is a critical tumour suppressor that controls multiple aspects of cell proliferation such as cell cycle, cell division and apoptosis. The expression of RASSF1 is lost in a variety of cancers due to the promoter hypermethylation. METHODS: miR-193a-3p was identified as a RASSF1-targeting miRNA by a dual screening approach...
April 27, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448962/progressive-changes-in-non-coding-rna-profile-in-leucocytes-with-age
#5
Maider Muñoz-Culla, Haritz Irizar, Ana Gorostidi, Ainhoa Alberro, Iñaki Osorio-Querejeta, Javier Ruiz-Martínez, Javier Olascoaga, Adolfo López de Munain, David Otaegui
It has been observed that immune cell deterioration occurs in the elderly, as well as a chronic low-grade inflammation called inflammaging. These cellular changes must be driven by numerous changes in gene expression and in fact, both protein-coding and non-coding RNA expression alterations have been observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elder people. In the present work we have studied the expression of small non-coding RNA (microRNA and small nucleolar RNA -snoRNA-) from healthy individuals from 24 to 79 years old...
April 27, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448866/function-of-microrna-143-in-different-signal-pathways-in-cancer-new-insights-into-cancer-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Leila Karimi, Behzad Mansoori, Dariush Shanebandi, Ali Mohammadi, Mahyar Aghapour, Behzad Baradaran
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which participate in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. They play important roles in cellular events such as growth and differentiation. Deregulation of miRNAs is frequently evident in human cancers where their aberrant expression is associated with uncontrolled proliferation, metastasis, impaired cell cycle and DNA damage response. The miRNAs are important in cancer as ∼50% of miRNA genes are located in cancer-associated regions such as fragile sites of genome...
April 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448765/digital-assays-part-i-partitioning-statistics-and-digital-pcr
#7
Amar S Basu
A digital assay is one in which the sample is partitioned into many small containers such that each partition contains a discrete number of biological entities (0, 1, 2, 3, …). A powerful technique in the biologist's toolkit, digital assays bring a new level of precision in quantifying nucleic acids, measuring proteins and their enzymatic activity, and probing single-cell genotypes and phenotypes. Part I of this review begins with the benefits and Poisson statistics of partitioning, including sources of error...
April 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448626/genetic-background-dependent-effects-of-murine-micro-rnas-on-circadian-clock-function
#8
Silke Kiessling, Ahmet Ucar, Kamal Chowdhury, Henrik Oster, Gregor Eichele
MicroRNAs (miRs) are important regulators of a wide range of biological processes. Antagomir studies suggest an implication of miR-132 in the functionality of the mammalian circadian clock. miR-212 and miR-132 are tandemly processed from the same transcript and share the same seed region. We found the clock modulator miR-132 and miR-212 to be expressed rhythmically in the central circadian clock. Consequently, mRNAs implicated in circadian functions may likely be targeted by both miRs. To further characterize the circadian role we generated mice with stable deletion of the miR-132/212 locus and compared the circadian behavior of mutant and wild-type control animals on two genetic backgrounds frequently used in chronobiological research, C57BL/6N and 129/Sv...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448534/intense-light-elicited-upregulation-of-mir-21-facilitates-glycolysis-and-cardioprotection-through-per2-dependent-mechanisms
#9
Colleen Marie Bartman, Yoshimasa Oyama, Kelley Brodsky, Ludmila Khailova, Lori Walker, Michael Koeppen, Tobias Eckle
A wide search for ischemic preconditioning (IPC) mechanisms of cardioprotection identified the light elicited circadian rhythm protein Period 2 (Per2) to be cardioprotective. Studies on cardiac metabolism found a key role for light elicited Per2 in mediating metabolic dependence on carbohydrate metabolism. To profile Per2 mediated pathways following IPC of the mouse heart, we performed a genome array and identified 352 abundantly expressed and well-characterized Per2 dependent micro RNAs. One prominent result of our in silico analysis for cardiac Per2 dependent micro RNAs revealed a selective role for miR-21 in the regulation of hypoxia and metabolic pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448529/a-genome-wide-analysis-of-the-rna-guided-silencing-pathway-in-coffee-reveals-insights-into-its-regulatory-mechanisms
#10
Christiane Noronha Fernandes-Brum, Pâmela Marinho Rezende, Thales Henrique Cherubino Ribeiro, Raphael Ricon de Oliveira, Thaís Cunha de Sousa Cardoso, Laurence Rodrigues do Amaral, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Antonio Chalfun-Junior
microRNAs (miRNAs) are derived from self-complementary hairpin structures, while small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or hairpin precursors. The core mechanism of sRNA production involves DICER-like (DCL) in processing the smallRNAs (sRNAs) and ARGONAUTE (AGO) as effectors of silencing, and siRNA biogenesis also involves action of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (RDR), Pol IV and Pol V in biogenesis. Several other proteins interact with the core proteins to guide sRNA biogenesis, action, and turnover...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448456/upregulation-of-mirna-4776-in-influenza-virus-infected-bronchial-epithelial-cells-is-associated-with-downregulation-of-nfkbib-and-increased-viral-survival
#11
Sreekumar Othumpangat, Nicole B Bryan, Donald H Beezhold, John D Noti
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One key transcription factor that is activated upon IAV infection is nuclear factor Kappa B (NF-κB). NF-κB regulation involves the inhibitor proteins NF-κB inhibitor beta (NFKBIB), (also known as IκB β), which form complexes with NF-κB to sequester it in the cytoplasm. In this study, microarray data showed differential expression of several microRNAs (miRNAs) on exposure to IAV. Target scan analysis revealed that miR-4776, miR-4514 and miR-4742 potentially target NFKBIB messenger RNA (mRNA)...
April 27, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448269/circulating-cell-free-micrornas-as-clinical-cancer-biomarkers
#12
REVIEW
Virginie Armand-Labit, Anne Pradines
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that are master regulators of genic expression and consequently of many cellular processes. But their expression is often deregulated in human tumors leading to cancer development. Recently miRNAs were discovered in body fluids (serum, plasma and others) and their levels have often been reported to be altered in patients. Circulating miRNAs became one of the most promising biomarkers in oncology for early diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response prediction. Here we describe the origins and roles of miRNAs, and summarize the most recent studies focusing on their usefulness as cancer biomarkers in lung, breast, colon, prostate, ovary cancers and melanoma...
April 27, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448060/small-rna-transfection-in-primary-human-th17-cells-by-next-generation-electroporation
#13
Misty M Montoya, K Mark Ansel
CD4(+) T cells can differentiate into several subsets of effector T helper cells depending on the surrounding cytokine milieu. Th17 cells can be generated from naïve CD4(+) T cells in vitro by activating them in the presence of the polarizing cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, and TGFβ. Th17 cells orchestrate immunity against extracellular bacteria and fungi, but their aberrant activity has also been associated with several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Th17 cells are identified by the chemokine receptor CCR6 and defined by their master transcription factor, RORγt, and characteristic effector cytokine, IL-17A...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447884/do-micrornas-play-a-role-in-the-activity-of-plant-based-vaccines
#14
Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Jorge A Salazar-González
An important trend in vaccinology is the development of oral vaccines based on genetically modified plants. Areas covered: Several studies have suggested that dietary microRNAs from plants and other organisms are bioavailable upon oral ingestion exerting biological events in the host such as the modulation of gene expression in several cell types. Since oral plant-based vaccines rely on whole cells as vaccine delivery vehicles, miRNAs could play a role in the immunogenic activity of this type of vaccine. In the present report, this hypothesis is discussed under the light of recent evidence on the immunomodulatory activity exerted by miRNAs using in vitro and in vivo evaluations...
April 27, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447765/plasma-microrna-451-as-a-novel-hemolytic-marker-for-%C3%AE-0-thalassemia-hbe-disease
#15
Kamonlak Leecharoenkiat, Yuka Tanaka, Yasuko Harada, Porntip Chaichompoo, Orawan Sarakul, Yasunobu Abe, Duncan Richard Smith, Suthat Fucharoen, Saovaros Svasti, Tsukuru Umemura
In Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand, β0-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (HbE) disease is a common hereditary hematological disease. It is associated with pathophysiological processes, such as the intramedullary destruction of immature erythroid cells and peripheral hemolysis of mature red blood cells. MicroRNA (miR) sequences, which are short non-coding RNA that regulate gene expression in a suppressive manner, serve a crucial role in human erythropoiesis. In the present study, the plasma levels of the erythroid-expressed miRNAs, miR‑451 and miR‑155, were analyzed in 23 patients with β0-thalassemia/HbE and 16 control subjects...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447761/mir-21-inhibitor-suppresses-cell-proliferation-and-colony-formation-through-regulating-the-pten-akt-pathway-and-improves-paclitaxel-sensitivity-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#16
Guohui Du, Dongmei Cao, Lingzheng Meng
The present study aimed to investigate the role and the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on the proliferation, apoptosis and colony formation of cervical cancer cells, and to examine the role of miR-21 in mediating the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to paclitaxel (PTX). Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine the level of miR‑21 in various cervical cancer and normal cervical cells. The results revealed that the expression levels of miR-21 in cervical cancer cells were markedly higher when compared with normal cervical cells...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447759/mir-181a-modulates-proliferation-migration-and-autophagy-in-ags-gastric-cancer-cells-and-downregulates-mtmr3
#17
Yong Lin, Jing Zhao, Hong Wang, Jie Cao, Yuqiang Nie
MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as crucial regulators of tumorigenesis by regulating post-transcriptional gene expression. miR-181a was previously demonstrated to be overexpressed in human gastric cancer tissues and cell lines, whereas MTMR3 was underexpressed. The MTMR3 gene was identified as a direct target of miR-181a. However, its functional role in gastric cancer remains to be established. In the present study, miR‑181a was demonstrated to inhibit MTMR3 expression in AGS cells. Ectopic expression of miR‑181a mimics or introduction of MTMR3 small interfering RNA resulted in an increase in cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, invasion, as well as suppression of apoptosis...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447547/urinary-bladder-extracellular-matrix-hydrogels-and-matrix-bound-vesicles-differentially-regulate-central-nervous-system-neuron-viability-and-axon-growth-and-branching
#18
Anne Faust, Apoorva Kandakatla, Yolandi van der Merwe, Tanchen Ren, Luai Huleihel, George Hussey, Juan Diego Naranjo, Scott Johnson, Stephen Badylak, Michael Steketee
Central nervous system neurons often degenerate after trauma due to the inflammatory innate immune response to injury, which can lead to neuronal cell death, scarring, and permanently lost neurologic function. Extracellular matrix bioscaffolds, derived by decellularizing healthy tissues, have been widely used in both preclinical and clinical studies to promote positive tissue remodeling, including neurogenesis, in numerous tissues, with extracellular matrix from homologous tissues often inducing more positive responses...
April 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447195/salivary-mir-16-mir-191-and-mir-223-intuitive-indicators-of-dominant-ovarian-follicles-in-buffaloes
#19
Prashant Singh, Naresh Golla, Pankaj Singh, Vijay Simha Baddela, Subhash Chand, Rubina Kumari Baithalu, Dheer Singh, Suneel Kumar Onteru
Estrus or sexual receptivity determination is utmost important for efficient breeding programs for female buffaloes. Prominent estrus behavioral symptoms are the result of several molecular and neuroendocrine events involving the ovary and the brain. Expression of estrus behavior is poor in buffaloes during the summer season. Hence, the discovery of biomarkers specific to the estrus stage or its related ovarian events, like the presence of dominant ovarian follicle, is helpful for developing an easy estrus determination method...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447104/bmp-type-ii-receptor-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Mar Orriols, Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto, Peter Ten Dijke
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic disease characterized by a progressive elevation in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. This occurs due to abnormal remodeling of small peripheral lung vasculature resulting in progressive occlusion of the artery lumen that eventually causes right heart failure and death. The most common cause of PAH is inactivating mutations in the gene encoding a bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPRII). Current therapeutic options for PAH are limited and focused mainly on reversal of pulmonary vasoconstriction and proliferation of vascular cells...
April 26, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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