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Alternative health

Kayoko Kato, Akil A Kalathil, Ayesha M Patel, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M Calafat
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), man-made chemicals with variable length carbon chains containing the perfluoroalkyl moiety (Cn F2n+1 -), are used in many commercial applications. Since 1999-2000, several long-chain PFAS, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), have been detected at trace levels in the blood of most participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-representative samples of the U.S. general population-while short-chain PFAS have not...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Cecilia Bossa, Romualdo Benigni, Olga Tcheremenskaia, Chiara Laura Battistelli
Knowledge of the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity potential of chemical substances is one of the key scientific elements able to better protect human health. Genotoxicity assessment is also considered as prescreening of carcinogenicity. The assessment of both endpoints is a fundamental component of national and international legislations, for all types of substances, and has stimulated the development of alternative, nontesting methods. Over the recent decades, much attention has been given to the use and further development of structure-activity relationships-based approaches, to be used in isolation or in combination with in vitro assays for predictive purposes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Toni Alasuvanto, Andrea Gissi, Tomasz Sobanski, Panagiotis Karamertzanis, Mike Rasenberg
REACH is a regulation of the European Union adopted to improve the safe use of chemicals with regard to human health and the environment. The safe use of chemicals can be achieved only if the hazard and the exposure of the substances are well characterized. Testing on animals has been traditionally the main tool for hazard assessment. For ethical and economic reasons, alternative ways of testing that do not use laboratory animals have been developed by different parties (regulatory agencies, researchers, industry) over the recent decades, and their proper use in hazard assessment is encouraged under REACH...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Thiago Augusto Almeida, Edna Afonso Reis, Isabela Vaz Leite Pinto, Maria das Graças Braga Ceccato, Micheline Rosa Silveira, Marina Guimarães Lima, Adriano Max Moreira Reis
BACKGROUND: Potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) for the older adults are those with an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio when more effective and safe therapeutic alternatives are available and is an important public health problem. PURPOSE: To analyze the factors associated with the use of PIM by the older adults and to investigate the agreement of PIM use frequency using the 2015 American Geriatric Society Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults - 2015 AGS Beers Criteria, the Brazilian consensus on potentially inappropriate medication for older adults (BCPIM) and the European union list of potentially inappropriate medications - EU (7)-PIM List...
June 15, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Denny John, Prabir Chatterjee, Shruti Murthy, Ramesh Bhat, Baba Maiyaki Musa
BACKGROUND: In India, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients are usually treated in hospitals. Decentralised care model, however, has been suggested as a possible alternative by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the "End TB Strategy", the WHO highlights, as one of the key targets for 2035, that 'no TB-affected families should face catastrophic hardship due to the tuberculosis'. Removal of financial barriers to health-care access and mitigation of catastrophic expenditures are therefore considered vital to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goal...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Kátia Cilene Ferreira Pacheco, Marcelo Schenk de Azambuja, Andrea Wander Bonamigo
OBJECTIVE: To describe the creation of a learning object about communicable diseases and their identification, monitoring, and prevention for community health agents. METHOD: The qualitative, exploratory, case study conducted in the North District Management Zone - Baltazar of the Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, from October to January 2015 2016. The study had 58 participants and consisted of the stages field research, Bardin's content analysis, and design of the learning object...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
William S Shaw, Candace C Nelson, Mary Jane Woiszwillo, Brittany Gaines, Susan E Peters
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect on health outcomes of an early or immediate return-to-work (RTW) after acute low back pain (LBP). METHODS: A longitudinal cohort of workers (N = 557) consulting for uncomplicated LBP were assessed on demographic, pain, occupational, and psychosocial variables. Pain and function were assessed at 3-months post pain onset. We tested the longitudinal effects of an early RTW on 3-month outcomes. RESULTS: Pain and function improved more rapidly for workers with an immediate (30...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Behrouz Golichenari, Rahim Nosrati, Aref Farokhi-Fard, Khalil Abnous, Farzam Vaziri, Javad Behravan
Tuberculosis is a major global health problem caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) complex. According to WHO reports, 53 million TB patients died from 2000 to 2016. Therefore, early diagnosis of the disease is of great importance for global health care programs. The restrictions of traditional methods have encouraged the development of innovative methods for rapid, reliable, and cost-effective diagnosis of tuberculosis. In recent years, aptamer-based biosensors or aptasensors have drawn great attention to sensitive and accessible detection of tuberculosis...
June 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Maayan Nagar, Drew Westen, Ora Nakash
BACKGROUND: Prominent psychiatric diagnostic systems such as the DSM-IV and ICD-10 have shown low reliability in clinical practice. An alternative approach to classification of psychiatric disorders is prototype matching. In the current study, we examined reliability of assessing mood, anxiety and personality disorders using a multi-method multi informant approach. More specifically, we examined diagnosis made by treating clinician and independent expert clinical interviewer, using three different diagnostic systems (DSM symptom count, DSM-IV prototype diagnosis and empirically derived prototype diagnosis)...
June 9, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Alana A S Gonçalves, Camila A de Lopes, Henrique T Gonzaga, Ana Lúcia R Gonçalves, Marcelo A Levenhagen, Luiz Carlos M de Oliveira, Julia M Costa-Cruz
Strongyloidiasis is a human parasitosis that is considered a public health problem. Early diagnosis of this infection is extremely important in immunocompromised patients (i.e. subjects with alcoholism). This study aimed to evaluate anti-Strongyloides immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA), assess levels of circulating immune complexes (IC) and determine IgG avidity in serum samples from alcoholic and nonalcoholic individuals. A total of 140 blood samples were collected from male individuals (70 alcoholic and 70 nonalcoholic subjects)...
June 19, 2018: Parasitology International
Karen Head, Kornkiat Snidvongs, Simon Glew, Glenis Scadding, Anne Gm Schilder, Carl Philpott, Claire Hopkins
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common condition affecting both adults and children. Patients experience symptoms of nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea, sneezing and nasal itching, which may affect their quality of life.Nasal irrigation with saline (salty water), also known as nasal douching, washing or lavage, is a procedure that rinses the nasal cavity with isotonic or hypertonic saline solutions. It can be performed with low positive pressure from a spray, pump or squirt bottle, with a nebuliser or with gravity-based pressure in which the person instils saline into one nostril and allows it to drain out of the other...
June 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Julia Lühnen, Ingrid Mühlhauser, Anke Steckelberg
BACKGROUND: The patient's consent to a medical procedure must be preceded by a pre-procedure discussion with the physician that is documented on a standardized form. Evidence suggests that these forms lack information that would be relevant for an informed decision. METHODS: We carried out a systematic literature search up to February 2017 for evidence on the quality and efficacy of informed consent forms. The definition of criteria for the evaluation of meta-information, content, and presentation were derived from current guidelines for evidence-based health information...
June 1, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
D Weyhe, J Conze, A Kuthe, F Köckerling, B J Lammers, R Lorenz, H Niebuhr, W Reinpold, K Zarras, R Bittner
SURGICAL TECHNIQUES: The HerniaSurge guidelines have the highest evidence with respect to a strong recommendation for mesh-based surgical techniques. This evidence is equally valid for the Lichtenstein procedure as for the minimally invasive procedures TEP/TAPP. In the case of discrete symptomatic or asymptomatic inguinal hernias, watchful waiting can be an option, taking into account health status and social circumstances. Femoral hernias, on the other hand, should be treated promptly with mesh insertion...
June 21, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Gang Liu, Yanping Li, Yang Hu, Geng Zong, Shanshan Li, Eric B Rimm, Frank B Hu, JoAnn E Manson, Kathryn M Rexrode, Hyun Joon Shin, Qi Sun
BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited regarding the impact of healthy lifestyle practices on the risk of subsequent cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of an overall healthy lifestyle, defined by eating a high-quality diet (top two-fifths of Alternative Healthy Eating Index), nonsmoking, engaging in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (≥150 min/week), and drinking alcohol in moderation (5 to 15 g/day for women and 5 to 30 g/day for men), with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD mortality among adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
June 26, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
A P Brandão, R F Cooke, K M Schubach, R S Marques
Nutritional alternatives to strengthen animal immunocompetence are critical for welfare and productivity in livestock systems, such as beef cattle operations. This experiment evaluated physiological and innate immunity effects of supplementing an immunomodulatory feed ingredient (Omnigen-AF; Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ, USA) to beef heifers administered bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In total, 8 non-pregnant, non-lactating nulliparous Angus×Hereford heifers (676±4 days of age) were ranked by BW (473±8 kg), and assigned to crossover design containing two periods of 34 days each...
June 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Christine Marquez, Alekhya Mascarenhas Johnson, Sabrina Jassemi, Jamie Park, Julia E Moore, Caroline Blaine, Gertrude Bourdon, Mark Chignell, Moriah E Ellen, Jacques Fortin, Ian D Graham, Anne Hayes, Jemila Hamid, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Michael Hillmer, Bev Holmes, Jayna Holroyd-Leduc, Linda Hubert, Brian Hutton, Monika Kastner, John N Lavis, Karen Michell, David Moher, Mathieu Ouimet, Laure Perrier, Andrea Proctor, Thomas Noseworthy, Victoria Schuckel, Sharlene Stayberg, Marcello Tonelli, Andrea C Tricco, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews are infrequently used by health care managers (HCMs) and policy-makers (PMs) in decision-making. HCMs and PMs co-developed and tested novel systematic review of effects formats to increase their use. METHODS: A three-phased approach was used to evaluate the determinants to uptake of systematic reviews of effects and the usability of an innovative and a traditional systematic review of effects format. In phase 1, survey and interviews were conducted with HCMs and PMs in four Canadian provinces to determine perceptions of a traditional systematic review format...
June 22, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Catharina G M Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Edwin R van den Heuvel, Paul F M Krabbe
BACKGROUND: A new patient-reported health measurement model has been developed to quantify descriptions of health states. Known as the multi-attribute preference response (MAPR) model, it is based on item response theory. The response task in the MAPR is for a patient to judge whether hypothetical health-state descriptions are better or worse than his/her own health status. METHODS: In its most simple form MAPR is a Rasch model where for each respondent on the same unidimensional health scale values are estimated of their own health status and values of the hypothetical comparator health states...
June 22, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Keith J Geraghty, Charlotte Blease
OBJECTIVE: Despite the growing evidence of physiological and cellular abnormalities in myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), there has been a strong impetus to tackle the illness utilizing a biopsychosocial model. However, many sufferers of this disabling condition report distress and dissatisfaction following medical encounters. This review seeks to account for this discord. METHODS: A narrative review methodology is employed to synthesize the evidence for potential iatrogenesis...
June 21, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Claudio Schuftan
Historically, political elites adopted the idea of human rights if, and only if, it could foster their interests. Today, it is thus public interest civil society organizations, and not states, that are left to contribute most to the protection of and the struggle for human rights. Despite human rights being enshrined in constitutions, nowadays they can primarily be effectively claimed by those with access to the courts and by the press, i.e., those in power. Public interest civil society organizations and social movements are the only ones left to play this crucial role...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
Zhenzhen Hu, Seikwan Oh, Tae-Woo Ha, Jin-Tae Hong, Ki-Wan Oh
Although drugs such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines are often used for the treatment of insomnia, they are associated with various side effects such as habituations, tolerance and addiction. Alternatively, natural products with minimal unwanted effects have been preferred for the treatment of acute and/or mild insomnia, with additional benefits of overall health-promotion. Basic and clinical researches on the mechanisms of action of natural products have been carried out so far in insomnia treatments. Recent studies have been focusing on diverse chemical components available in natural products, with an interest of developing drugs that can improve sleep duration and quality...
June 22, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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