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hemolytic anemia guidelines

T Mercier, T Devos, M Mukovnikova, N Boeckx
INTRODUCTION: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare disease and can present as a wide range of signs and symptoms. As such, the indication for diagnostic testing for PNH is not always straightforward. Therefore, we analyzed all first-time samples tested over a 56-month period to determine the clinical settings with a high probability of detecting a PNH clone. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 323 first-time PNH flow cytometry tests, including LDH, cytopenias, direct antiglobulin test (DAT), and clinical indication for testing as available at the time of testing...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Mohammad Abu-Hishmeh, Alamgir Sattar, Fnu Zarlasht, Mohamed Ramadan, Aisha Abdel-Rahman, Shante Hinson, Caroline Hwang
BACKGROUND Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is one of the thrombotic microangiopathic (TMA) syndromes, caused by severely reduced activity of the vWF-cleaving protease ADAMTS13. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), on the other hand, is an autoimmune disease that affects various organs in the body, including the hematopoietic system. SLE can present with TMA, and differentiating between SLE and TTP in those cases can be very challenging, particularly in patients with no prior history of SLE. Furthermore, an association between these 2 diseases has been described in the literature, with most of the TTP cases occurring after the diagnosis of SLE...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Hae Il Cheong, Sang Kyung Jo, Sung Soo Yoon, Heeyeon Cho, Jin Seok Kim, Young Ok Kim, Ja Ryong Koo, Yong Park, Young Seo Park, Jae Il Shin, Kee Hwan Yoo, Doyeun Oh
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare syndrome characterized by micro-angiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. The major pathogenesis of aHUS involves dysregulation of the complement system. Eculizumab, which blocks complement C5 activation, has recently been proven as an effective agent. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of aHUS can cause death or end-stage renal disease. Therefore, a diagnosis that differentiates aHUS from other forms of thrombotic microangiopathy is very important for appropriate management...
October 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Jeanne E Hendrickson, Meghan Delaney
Red blood cell (RBC) sensitization occurs in some women in response to exposure to paternally derived RBC antigens during pregnancy or to nonself antigens on transfused RBCs during their lifetime. Once sensitized, future pregnancies may be at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Although great strides have been made over the past few decades in terms of identifying blood group antigens and in predicting fetal anemia through the use of noninvasive monitoring, many questions remain in terms of understanding RBC alloimmunization risk factors, preventative therapies, and treatment strategies...
October 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Hisao Hayashi, Yasuaki Tatsumi, Shinsuke Yahata, Hiroki Hayashi, Kenji Momose, Ryohei Isaji, Youji Sasaki, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Shinya Wakusawa, Hidemi Goto
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Wilson disease (WD) is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism, and an international group for the study of WD (IGSW) has proposed three phenotypes for its initial presentation: acute hepatic, chronic hepatic, and neurologic phenotypes. Characterization of the acute hepatic phenotype may improve our understanding of the disease. METHODS: Clinical features of 10 WD patients with the acute hepatic phenotype and characteristics of chronic lesions remaining in survivors were assessed by the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines...
December 28, 2015: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Kara Walter, Jennifer Vaughn, Daniel Martin
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare hematological emergency characterized by the pentad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neurological symptoms, renal injury, and fever that is invariably fatal if left untreated. Prompt intervention with plasma exchange minimizes mortality and is the cornerstone of therapy. Rare reports have described "pseudo-TTP" driven by extreme hematologic abnormalities resulting from deficiency of vitamin B12...
2015: BMC Hematology
Kensuke Usuki
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare hemolytic anemia, which generally affects women of childbearing age. PNH hemolysis increases the risk of complications such as thrombosis during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Management of a pregnant woman with PNH remains a challenge due to the high incidence of thrombotic complications and the difficulty of differentiating a PNH crisis from the complications of pregnancy. PNH is associated with an increased rate of premature labor and fetal loss. Eculizumab, a C5 complement inhibitor, is a potential therapeutic option for such patients...
July 2015: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Robert D Christensen, Hassan M Yaish, Patrick G Gallagher
Newborn infants who have hereditary spherocytosis (HS) can develop anemia and hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction is less likely in these neonates if the diagnosis of HS is recognized and appropriate treatment provided. Among neonates listed in the USA Kernicterus Registry, HS was the third most common underlying hemolytic condition after glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and ABO hemolytic disease. HS is the leading cause of direct antiglobulin test (direct Coombs) negative hemolytic anemia requiring erythrocyte transfusion in the first months of life...
June 2015: Pediatrics
M-J King, L Garçon, J D Hoyer, A Iolascon, V Picard, G Stewart, P Bianchi, S-H Lee, A Zanella
INTRODUCTION: Hereditary spherocytosis (HS), hereditary elliptocytosis (HE), and hereditary stomatocytosis (HSt) are inherited red cell disorders caused by defects in various membrane proteins. The heterogeneous clinical presentation, biochemical and genetic abnormalities in HS and HE have been well documented. The need to raise the awareness of HSt, albeit its much lower prevalence than HS, is due to the undesirable outcome of splenectomy in these patients. METHODS: The scope of this guideline is to identify the characteristic clinical features, the red cell parameters (including red cell morphology) for these red cell disorders associated, respectively, with defective cytoskeleton (HS and HE) and abnormal cation permeability in the lipid bilayer (HSt) of the red cell...
June 2015: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Ioana Mozos
The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established...
2015: BioMed Research International
Jill Adamski
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a clinicopathological condition associated with a wide variety of medical conditions. TMA is classically characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and microvascular thrombi that cause end-organ damage. The most prominent diagnoses associated with TMA are thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Although TTP and HUS can have similar clinical and laboratory features and are often lumped together as a combined entity referred to as "TTP/HUS," the pathologic processes causing TMA and optimal therapies for these conditions are different...
December 5, 2014: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Ido J Bontekoe, John Scharenberg, Henk Schonewille, Jaap Jan Zwaginga, Anneke Brand, Pieter F van der Meer, Dirk de Korte
BACKGROUND: Severe hemolytic anemia of the fetus, caused by maternal red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies, is treated with intrauterine transfusion (IUT) of RBCs. Because IUT is associated with additional antibody formation, RBCs with the closest match between donor and mother are preferred. Because one fetus needs a median of three IUTs, finding such RBCs is complicated. Collection of repeated low-volume donations from one selected donor during the entire IUT treatment period would reduce donor exposure and possibly IUT-associated alloimmunization...
July 2015: Transfusion
Manika Pal, Bronwyn Williams
The aim of this study was to determine the current prevalence of red cell antigen alloimmunisation in Australia. Blood group (ABO and RhD) and red cell antibody screen results of pregnant women who presented at public hospitals in Queensland between the period of January 2011 and June 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. Antibody prevalence in pregnancy was compared to other published studies. A total of 482 positive antibody screens from 66,354 samples (0.73%) were identified. The prevalence of antibodies was: anti-E 27...
February 2015: Pathology
Thy P Nguyen, Suur Biliciler, Amer Wahed, Kazim Sheikh
OBJECTIVE: We describe an underrecognized side effect of high-dose IV immunoglobulin (IVIg), hemolytic anemia. BACKGROUND: There are no established guidelines on treating patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) who relapse or do not improve after a standard course of treatment (IVIg or plasma exchange). Some centers will opt for a second course of the initial treatment. There is an ongoing trial of a second course of IVIg in patients with severe GBS. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 4 patients with severe GBS who received high-dose IVIg...
December 2014: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Trina M Fyfe, M Jane Ritchey, Christorina Taruc, Daniel Crompton, Brian Galliford, Rose Perrin
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this scoping review was to review the literature on healthcare provider provision of anti-D prophylaxis to RhD negative pregnant women in appropriate clinical situations in various healthcare settings. METHODS: A scoping review framework was used to structure the process. The following databases were searched: CINAHL (EBSCO), EBM Reviews (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), Medline (OvidSP), and Web of Science (ISI). In addition, hand searching of article references was conducted...
December 10, 2014: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Enric Contreras, Javier de la Rubia, Julio Del Río-Garma, Maribel Díaz-Ricart, José María García-Gala, Miguel Lozano
Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) are disorders defined by the presence of a microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (with the characteristic hallmark of schistocytes in the peripheral blood smear), thrombocytopenia and organ malfunction of variable intensity. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome are the most important forms of TMA and, without the adequate treatment, they are associated with high morbimortality. In recent years, significant advances in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of TMA have occurred...
April 8, 2015: Medicina Clínica
Karin P Potoka, Mark T Gladwin
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder in the gene encoding the β-chain of hemoglobin. Deoxygenation causes the mutant hemoglobin S to polymerize, resulting in rigid, adherent red blood cells that are entrapped in the microcirculation and hemolyze. Cardinal features include severe painful crises and episodic acute lung injury, called acute chest syndrome. This population, with age, develops chronic organ injury, such as chronic kidney disease and pulmonary hypertension. A major risk factor for developing chronic organ injury is hemolytic anemia, which releases red blood cell contents into the circulation...
February 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Yasuhiro Tsubokura, Sunao Aso, Takayuki Koga, Junichi Kikuchi, Toshio Kobayashi, Satsuki Hoshuyama, Yutaka Oshima, Katsumi Miyata, Yuji Kusune, Takako Muroi, Tomohiko Yoshida, Ryuichi Hasegawa, Shozo Ajimi, Kotaro Furukawa
4-Methoxy-2-nitroaniline (4M2NA) is widely used as an intermediate for the synthesis of dyes, pigments and other chemical compounds. Since 4M2NA has amino-group and nitro-group on the benzene ring, it was expected that it induced obvious hemolytic anemia. We conducted a combined repeated dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline No. 422 (OECD TG 422) to enrich the toxic information and ensure the safety of 4M2NA...
October 2015: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Sang Hyuk Park, Chan-Jeoung Park, Bo-Ra Lee, Young-Uk Cho, Seongsoo Jang, Nayoung Kim, Kyung-Nam Koh, Ho-Joon Im, Jong-Jin Seo, Eun Sil Park, Ji Won Lee, Keon Hee Yoo, Hye Lim Jung
OBJECTIVES: Current guidelines recommend the eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test and cryohemolysis test for screening for hereditary spherocytosis (HS), and the flow cytometric osmotic fragility (FC OF) test was recently developed to replace the classic OF test. We evaluatedthe performance of the EMA binding test, FC OF test, cryohemolysis test, and the hemoglobin (Hb)/mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) ratio in the diagnosis of HS and assessed whether these tests reflect the clinical severity of HS...
October 2014: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
P W Soothill, K Finning, T Latham, T Wreford-Bush, J Ford, G Daniels
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a policy of offering cffDNA testing to all RhD-negative women at about 16 weeks' gestation to avoid anti-D administration when the fetus is RhD-negative could be implemented successfully in the NHS without additional funding. DESIGN: Prospectively planned observational service implementation pilot and notes audit. SETTING: Three maternity services in the South West of England. POPULATION: All RhD-negative women in a 6-month period...
November 2015: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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