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"network failure"

N A Moreira, M Bondelind
The present work compiles a review on drinking waterborne outbreaks, with the perspective of production and distribution of microbiologically safe water, during 2000-2014. The outbreaks are categorised in raw water contamination, treatment deficiencies and distribution network failure. The main causes for contamination were: for groundwater, intrusion of animal faeces or wastewater due to heavy rain; in surface water, discharge of wastewater into the water source and increased turbidity and colour; at treatment plants, malfunctioning of the disinfection equipment; and for distribution systems, cross-connections, pipe breaks and wastewater intrusion into the network...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Sean K Meehan, Jasmine L Mirdamadi, Douglas N Martini, Steven P Broglio
Adolescence and early adulthood is a critical period for neurophysiological development potentially characterized by an increased susceptibility to the long-term effects of traumatic brain injury. The current study investigated differences in motor cortical physiology and neuroplastic potential across a cohort of young adults with adolescent concussion history and those without. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) before and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Thomas Sannicolo, David Muñoz-Rojas, Ngoc Duy Nguyen, Stéphane Moreau, Caroline Celle, Jean-Pierre Simonato, Yves Bréchet, Daniel Bellet
Advancement in the science and technology of random metallic nanowire (MNW) networks is crucial for their appropriate integration in many applications including transparent electrodes for optoelectronics and transparent film heaters. We have recently highlighted the discontinuous activation of efficient percolating pathways (EPPs) for networks having densities slightly above the percolation threshold. Such networks exhibit abrupt drops of electrical resistance when thermal or electrical annealing is performed, which gives rise to a "geometrically quantized percolation"...
November 9, 2016: Nano Letters
G Saglio
Impressive response rates and good tolerability have led imatinib 400 mg once a day to become the standard frontline therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. However, approximately one-third of the treated patients do not respond in an optimal manner to this drug, and the appropriate type and rhythm of CML monitoring, as well as the correct action to be undertaken in case of failure or suboptimal responses to imatinib therapy have been published in specific recommendations by European Leukemia Net and National Comprehensive Cancer Network...
August 2012: Leukemia Supplements
Timothy J Brodribb, Diane Bienaimé, Philippe Marmottant
The intricate patterns of veins that adorn the leaves of land plants are among the most important networks in biology. Water flows in these leaf irrigation networks under tension and is vulnerable to embolism-forming cavitations, which cut off water supply, ultimately causing leaf death. Understanding the ways in which plants structure their vein supply network to protect against embolism-induced failure has enormous ecological and evolutionary implications, but until now there has been no way of observing dynamic failure in natural leaf networks...
April 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hannah L Golden, Jennifer L Agustus, Jennifer M Nicholas, Jonathan M Schott, Sebastian J Crutch, Laura Mancini, Jason D Warren
Deficits of auditory scene analysis accompany Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the functional neuroanatomy of spatial sound processing has not been defined in AD. We addressed this using a "sparse" fMRI virtual auditory spatial paradigm in 14 patients with typical AD in relation to 16 healthy age-matched individuals. Sound stimulus sequences discretely varied perceived spatial location and pitch of the sound source in a factorial design. AD was associated with loss of differentiated cortical profiles of auditory location and pitch processing at the prescribed threshold, and significant group differences were identified for processing auditory spatial variation in posterior cingulate cortex (controls > AD) and the interaction of pitch and spatial variation in posterior insula (AD > controls)...
March 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
T Kotsis, K G Moulakakis, S N Mylonas, P Kalogeropoulos, A Dellis, S Vasdekis
Purpose The purpose of the study was to investigate the patency rate of the brachial vein transposition-arteriovenous fistula [BVT-AVF] and to review the available literature regarding the comparison of the one-stage with the two-stage procedure. Methods A multiple electronic health database search was performed, aiming to identify studies on brachial vein superficialization. Case reports and series with five or less patients were excluded from the study. End points of the study were the patency rates at 12, 24, and 36 months of follow-up...
March 2016: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
Valquiria P Souza, Cecília M Ikegami, Guilherme M Arantes, Sandro R Marana
Network structural analysis, known as residue interaction networks or graphs (RIN or RIG, respectively) or protein structural networks or graphs (PSN or PSG, respectively), comprises a useful tool for detecting important residues for protein function, stability, folding and allostery. In RIN, the tertiary structure is represented by a network in which residues (nodes) are connected by interactions (edges). Such structural networks have consistently presented a few central residues that are important for shortening the pathways linking any two residues in a protein structure...
March 2016: FEBS Journal
David T Jones, David S Knopman, Jeffrey L Gunter, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Prashanthi Vemuri, Bradley F Boeve, Ronald C Petersen, Michael W Weiner, Clifford R Jack
Complex biological systems are organized across various spatiotemporal scales with particular scientific disciplines dedicated to the study of each scale (e.g. genetics, molecular biology and cognitive neuroscience). When considering disease pathophysiology, one must contemplate the scale at which the disease process is being observed and how these processes impact other levels of organization. Historically Alzheimer's disease has been viewed as a disease of abnormally aggregated proteins by pathologists and molecular biologists and a disease of clinical symptoms by neurologists and psychologists...
February 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Amanda Mattsson, Tetsu Uesaka
Numerical simulations of time-dependent stochastic failure of fiber network have been performed by using a central-force, triangular lattice model. This two-dimensional (2D) network can be seen as the next level of structural hierarchy to fiber bundles, which have been investigated for many years both theoretically and numerically. Unlike fiber bundle models, the load sharing of the fiber network is determined by the network mechanics rather than a preassigned rule, and its failure is defined as the point of avalanche rather than the total fiber failure...
October 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Matthias P Gerstl, Steffen Klamt, Christian Jungreuthmayer, Jürgen Zanghellini
MOTIVATION: Robustness, the ability of biological networks to uphold their functionality in spite of perturbations, is a key characteristic of all living systems. Although several theoretical approaches have been developed to formalize robustness, it still eludes an exact quantification. Here, we present a rigorous and quantitative approach for the structural robustness of metabolic networks by measuring their ability to tolerate random reaction (or gene) knockouts. RESULTS: In analogy to reliability theory, based on an explicit consideration of all possible knockout sets, we exactly quantify the probability of failure for a given network function (e...
March 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
Boris Podobnik, Tomislav Lipic, Davor Horvatic, Antonio Majdandzic, Steven R Bishop, H Eugene Stanley
Estimating the critical points at which complex systems abruptly flip from one state to another is one of the remaining challenges in network science. Due to lack of knowledge about the underlying stochastic processes controlling critical transitions, it is widely considered difficult to determine the location of critical points for real-world networks, and it is even more difficult to predict the time at which these potentially catastrophic failures occur. We analyse a class of decaying dynamic networks experiencing persistent failures in which the magnitude of the overall failure is quantified by the probability that a potentially permanent internal failure will occur...
2015: Scientific Reports
Anna R Docherty, Chelsea K Sawyers, Matthew S Panizzon, Michael C Neale, Lisa T Eyler, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Carol E Franz, Chi-Hua Chen, Linda K McEvoy, Brad Verhulst, Ming T Tsuang, William S Kremen
We examined network properties of genetic covariance between average cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) within genetically-identified cortical parcellations that we previously derived from human cortical genetic maps using vertex-wise fuzzy clustering analysis with high spatial resolution. There were 24 hierarchical parcellations based on vertex-wise CT and 24 based on vertex-wise SA expansion/contraction; in both cases the 12 parcellations per hemisphere were largely symmetrical. We utilized three techniques-biometrical genetic modeling, cluster analysis, and graph theory-to examine genetic relationships and network properties within and between the 48 parcellation measures...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Shu Takeda
The discovery of organ-network between bone and other organs revealed that organs other than bone are intimately involved in bone remodeling. Notably, control of bone remodeling by nervous system and control of phosphate and glucose metabolism by bone are areas of intense investigation. Moreover, metabolic diseases such as diabetes and COPD are shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Thus, osteoporosis is considered to be not just a local bone disease, but a manifestation of the whole body metabolism abnormality...
September 2015: Clinical Calcium
Xiaoliang Chen, Bin Zhao, Shoujiang Ma, Cen Chen, Daoyun Hu, Wenshuang Zhou, Zuqing Zhu
In this paper, we study how to improve the control plane resiliency of software-defined elastic optical networks (SD-EONs) and design a master-slave OpenFlow (OF) controller arrangement. Specifically, we introduce two OF controllers (OF-Cs), i.e., the master and slave OF-Cs, and make them work in a collaborative way to protect the SD-EON against controller failures. We develop a controller communication protocol (CCP) to facilitate the cooperation of the two OF-Cs. With the CCP, the master OF-C (M-OF-C) can synchronize network status to the slave OF-C (S-OF-C) in real time, while S-OF-C can quickly detect the failure of M-OF-C and take over the network control and management (NC&M) tasks timely to avoid service disruption...
March 23, 2015: Optics Express
Iman Habibi, Effat S Emamian, Ali Abdi
Analysis of the failure of cell signaling networks is an important topic in systems biology and has applications in target discovery and drug development. In this paper, some advanced methods for fault diagnosis in signaling networks are developed and then applied to a caspase network and an SHP2 network. The goal is to understand how, and to what extent, the dysfunction of molecules in a network contributes to the failure of the entire network. Network dysfunction (failure) is defined as failure to produce the expected outputs in response to the input signals...
2014: PloS One
Neda Jahanshad, Talia M Nir, Arthur W Toga, Clifford R Jack, Matt A Bernstein, Michael W Weiner, Paul M Thompson
Brain connectivity is progressively disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we used a seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model to enhance the power to identify structural connections related to cognitive scores. We simultaneously solved regression equations with different predictors and used correlated errors among the equations to boost power for associations with brain networks. Connectivity maps were computed to represent the brain's fiber networks from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans of 200 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative...
January 2015: Neurobiology of Aging
Moustapha Cissé, Frédéric Checler
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is devastating and leads to permanent losses of memory and other cognitive functions. Although recent genetic evidences strongly argue for a causative role of Aβ in AD onset and progression (Jonsson et al., 2012), its role in AD etiology remains a matter of debate. However, even if not the sole culprit or pathological trigger, genetic and anatomical evidences in conjunction with numerous pharmacological studies, suggest that Aβ peptides, at least contribute to the disease. How Aβ contributes to memory loss remains largely unknown...
January 2015: Neurobiology of Disease
Woochul Kang, Lui Sha, Richard B Berlin, Julian M Goldman
There are growing demands to leverage network connectivity and interoperability of medical devices in order to improve patient safety and the effectiveness of medical services. However, if not properly designed, the integration of medical devices through networking could significantly increase the complexity of the system and make the system more vulnerable to potential errors, jeopardizing patient safety. The system must be designed and verified to guarantee the safety of patients and the effectiveness of medical services in the face of potential problems such as network failures...
May 2015: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Seishi Fujii, Katsuyuki Moriwaki, Mikako Sanuki, Minoru Tajima, Shigeaki Kurita, Kazuhisa Shiroyama, Ken Hashimoto
We report a case of an accidental loss of anesthesia records through network failure of an anesthesia information management system (AIMS). The backup data were not kept in the anesthesia workstations or the server during the failure. Accordingly, anesthesia records of five patients were lost for one hour. Our AIMS has a network redundancy where the server keeps anesthesia monitoring data via two pathways: one via the monitoring server to the AIMS server and the other via anesthesia workstation to the server...
May 2014: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
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